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The MONARCH OF SCOTLAND was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland
Scotland
. According to tradition, the first KING OF SCOTS (Middle Scots : King of Scottis, Modern Scots : King o Scots Scottish Gaelic : Rìghrean Albannaich) was Kenneth MacAlpin (Cináed mac Ailpín), who founded the state in 843. The distinction between the Kingdom of Scotland
Scotland
and the Kingdom of the Picts is rather the product of later medieval myth and confusion from a change in nomenclature i.e. Rex Pictorum (King of the Picts) becomes Rí Alban (King of Alba) under Donald II when annals switched from Latin
Latin
to vernacular around the end of the 9th century, by which time the word Alba in Gaelic had come to refer to the Kingdom of the Picts rather than Great Britain
Great Britain
(its older meaning).

The Kingdom of the Picts just became known as Kingdom of Alba in Gaelic, which later became known in Scots and English as Scotland; the terms are retained in both languages to this day. By the late 11th century at the very latest, Scottish kings were using the term rex Scottorum, or King of Scots, to refer to themselves in Latin. The title of King of Scots fell out of use in 1707, when the Kingdom of Scotland
Scotland
was merged with the Kingdom of England to form a single Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
. Thus Queen Anne became the last monarch of the ancient kingdoms of Scotland
Scotland
and England
England
and the first of Great Britain, although the kingdoms had shared a monarch since 1603 (see Union of the Crowns ). Her uncle Charles II was the last Scottish monarch actually to be crowned in Scotland, at Scone in 1651.

PART OF A SERIES ON THE

HISTORY OF SCOTLAND

Eras

* Prehistoric (timeline ) * During the Roman Empire

* Middle Ages

* Early * High * Late

* Early Modern * Modern * History (timeline)

Rule

* House of Alpin (843–878; 889–1040) * House of Moray (1040–1058) * House of Dunkeld (1058–1286) * House of Balliol (1292–1296) * House of Bruce (1306–1371) * House of Stuart (1371–1652) (1660–1707) * Commonwealth (1652–1660) * Acts of Union 1707

Topics

* Scandinavian Scotland
Scotland
* Wars of independence * Renaissance * Reformation * Restoration * Glorious Revolution * Colonization of the Americas * Enlightenment * Romanticism * Clans * The Scots language * Economics * Education * Military * Maritime * Historiography * Demography * Natural history

Culture

* Architecture * Art * The Kilt * Literature

Politics

* Devolution * Local government * Scottish National Party * Scottish Socialist Party

Sport

* Football * Rugby union * National football team

Religion

* Christianity * Scottish Reformation
Scottish Reformation
* Scottish Episcopal Church * Jews and Judaism

By Region

* Edinburgh
Edinburgh
timeline * Glasgow timeline

Scotland
Scotland
portal

* v * t * e

CONTENTS

* 1 Heraldry

* 2 List of monarchs of Scotland
Scotland

* 2.1 House of Alpin (848–1034) * 2.2 House of Dunkeld (1034–1286) * 2.3 House of Sverre (1286–1290) * 2.4 First Interregnum (1290–1292) * 2.5 House of Balliol (1292–1296) * 2.6 Second Interregnum (1296–1306) * 2.7 House of Bruce (1306–1371)

* 2.8 House of Stewart/Stuart

* 2.8.1 Stewart (1371–1567) * 2.8.2 Stuart (1567–1651)

* 2.9 House of Stuart (restored) (1660–1707)

* 3 Jacobite claimants * 4 Other claimants * 5 Timeline of Scottish Monarchs * 6 Acts of Union * 7 Coronation Oath * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links

HERALDRY

Main article: Coat of arms of Scotland
Scotland

*

William I - James VI *

James VI - James VII *

William II and Mary II *

Anne

LIST OF MONARCHS OF SCOTLAND

HOUSE OF ALPIN (848–1034)

See also: List of Kings of the Picts

The reign of Kenneth MacAlpin begins what is often called the House of Alpin , an entirely modern concept. The descendants of Kenneth MacAlpin were divided into two branches; the crown would alternate between the two, the death of a king from one branch often hastened by war or assassination by a pretender from the other. Malcolm II was the last king of the House of Alpin; in his reign, he successfully crushed all opposition to him and, having no sons, was able to pass the crown to his daughter's son, Duncan I, who inaugurated the House of Dunkeld.

PORTRAIT Traditional modern English regnal name (with modern Gaelic equivalent) MEDIEVAL GAELIC NAME DYNASTIC STATUS REIGN TITLE EPITHET

KENNETH MACALPIN I (Coinneach mac Ailpein) Cináed mac Ailpín Ciniod m. Ailpin son of Alpin king of Dal Riata 843/848 – 13 February 858 Rex Pictorum ("King of the Picts") An Ferbasach "The Conqueror"

DONALD I (Dòmhnall mac Ailpein) Domnall mac Ailpín son of Alpin king of Dal Riata, and brother of Kenneth I 858 – 13 April 862 Rex Pictorum ("King of the Picts")

CONSTANTINE I (Còiseam mac Choinnich) Causantín mac Cináeda Son of Kenneth I 862–877 Rex Pictorum ("King of the Picts") An Finn-Shoichleach, "The Wine-Bountiful"

ÁED (Aodh mac Choinnich) Áed mac Cináeda Son of Kenneth I 877–878 Rex Pictorum ("King of the Picts")

GIRIC (Griogair mac Dhunghail) Giric
Giric
mac Dúngail Son of Donald I 878–889

Mac Rath, "Son of Fortune"

EOCHAID Eochaid mac Run † grandson of Kenneth I *878–889?

DONALD II (Dòmhnall mac Chòiseim) Domnall mac Causantín Son of Constantine I 889–900 Rí Alban ("King of Scotland") Rì nan Albannaich ("King of Scots") Dásachtach, the "Madman" or "Psycho"

CONSTANTINE II (Còiseam mac Aoidh) Causantín mac Áeda Son of Áed 900–943 Rí Alban An Midhaise, "the Middle Aged".

MALCOLM I (Maol Chaluim mac Dhòmhnaill) Máel Coluim mac Domnaill Son of Donald II 943–954 Rí Alban An Bodhbhdercc, "the Dangerous Red"

INDULF Ildulb mac Causantín Son of Constantine II 954–962 Rí Alban An Ionsaighthigh, "the Aggressor"

DUB (Dubh or Duff) (Dubh mac Mhaoil Chaluim) Dub mac Maíl Choluim Son of Malcolm I 962–967 Rí Alban Dén, "the Vehement"

CUILéN (Cailean) Cuilén mac Ilduilb Son of Indulf 967–971 Rí Alban An Fionn, "the White"

AMLAíB (Amhlaigh) Amlaíb mac Ilduilb Son of Indulf 973–977 Rí Alban

KENNETH II (Coinneach mac Mhaoil Chaluim) Cináed mac Maíl Choluim Son of Malcolm I 971–995 Rí Alban An Fionnghalach, "The Fratricide"

CONSTANTINE III (Còiseam mac Chailein) Causantín mac Cuiléin Son of Cuilén 995–997 Rí Alban

KENNETH III (Coinneach mac Dhuibh) Cináed mac Duib Son of Dub 997 – 25 March 1005 Rí Alban An Donn, "the Chief"/ "the Brown".

MALCOLM II (Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich) Máel Coluim mac Cináeda Son of Kenneth II 1005–1034 Rí Alban / Rex Scotiae Forranach, "the Destroyer";

* Evidence for Eochaid's reign is unclear: he may never have actually been King. If he was, he was co-King with Giric. Amlaíb is known only by a reference to his death in 977, which reports him as King of Alba; since Kenneth II is known to have still been King in 972–973, Amlaíb must have taken power between 973 and 977.

† Eochiad was a son of Run, King of Strathclyde, but his mother was a daughter of Kenneth I.

HOUSE OF DUNKELD (1034–1286)

Duncan succeeded to the throne as the maternal grandson of Malcolm II. He was also the heir-general of Malcolm I, as his paternal grandfather, Duncan of Atholl was the third son of Malcolm I. The House of Dunkeld was therefore closely related to the House of Alpin. Duncan was killed in battle by Macbeth, who had a long and relatively successful reign. In a series of battles between 1057 and 1058, Duncan's son Malcolm III defeated and killed Macbeth and Macbeth's stepson and heir Lulach, and claimed the throne. The dynastic feuds did not end there: on Malcolm's death in battle, his brother Donald Ban claimed the throne, expelling Malcolm's sons from Scotland; a civil war in the family ensued, with Donald Ban and Malcolm's son Edmund opposed by Malcolm's English-backed sons, led first by Duncan II and then by Edgar. Edgar triumphed, sending his uncle and brother to monasteries. After the reign of David I, the Scottish throne was passed according to rules of primogeniture , moving from father to son, or where not possible, brother to brother.

Modern English but by 1286 his sons were dead and his daughter, Margaret, had borne only a single daughter, also named Margaret, to her husband Eric II of Norway before herself dying. Alexander had himself remarried, but in early 1286 he died in an accident while riding home. His wife, Yolande of Dreux, was pregnant; but by November 1286 all hope of her bearing a living child had passed. Accordingly, in the Treaty of Salisbury , the Guardians of Scotland
Scotland
recognised Alexander's three-year-old granddaughter, Margaret of Norway, as Queen of Scots. Margaret remained in her father's Kingdom of Norway
Norway
until Autumn 1290, when she was dispatched to Scotland. However, she died on the journey in Orkney, having never set foot on Scottish soil, and without being crowned at Scone. She is thus sometimes not considered Queen.

NAME PORTRAIT BIRTH MARRIAGE(S) DEATH DYNASTIC STATUS

MARGARET the Maid of Norway 1286–1290 c. April 1283 Tønsberg , Norway
Norway
daughter of Eric II of Norway and Margaret of Scotland
Scotland
unmarried September/October 1290 St Margaret\'s Hope , Orkney
Orkney
aged 7 granddaughter of Alexander III

FIRST INTERREGNUM (1290–1292)

Main article: Guardian of Scotland
Scotland

HOUSE OF BALLIOL (1292–1296)

The death of Margaret of Norway
Norway
began a two-year interregnum in Scotland
Scotland
caused by a succession crisis. With her death, the descent of William I became extinct; nor was there an obvious heir by primogeniture. Thirteen candidates presented themselves; the most prominent were John de Balliol , great-grandson of William I's younger brother David of Huntingdon, and Robert de Brus , Lord of Annandale , David of Huntingdon's grandson. The Scottish Magnates invited Edward I of England
England
to arbitrate the claims; he did so, but forced the Scots to swear allegiance to him as overlord. Eventually, it was decided that John de Balliol should become King; he proved weak and incapable, and in 1296 was forced to abdicate by Edward I, who then attempted to annex Scotland
Scotland
into the Kingdom of England.

NAME PORTRAIT BIRTH MARRIAGE(S) DEATH DYNASTIC STATUS

JOHN BALLIOL Toom Tabard ("Empty Cloak") (Iain Balliol) 1292–1296 c. 1249 Isabella de Warenne 9 February 1281 at least one child

c. 25 November 1314 Picardy , France great-grandson of David of Huntingdon (brother of William I)

SECOND INTERREGNUM (1296–1306)

Main article: Guardian of Scotland
Scotland

HOUSE OF BRUCE (1306–1371)

For ten years, Scotland
Scotland
had no King of its own. The Scots, however, refused to tolerate English rule; first William Wallace and then, after his execution, Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce
(the grandson of the 1292 competitor, Robert de Brus) fought against the English. Bruce and his supporters killed a rival for the throne, John III Comyn , Lord of Badenoch on 10 February 1306 at Greyfriars Church in Dumfries . Shortly after in 1306, Robert was crowned King of Scots at Scone. His energy, and the corresponding replacement of the vigorous Edward I with his weaker son Edward II, allowed Scotland
Scotland
to free itself from English rule; at the Battle of Bannockburn
Battle of Bannockburn
in 1314, the Scots routed the English, and by 1328 the English had agreed by treaty to accept Scottish independence. Robert's son, David, acceded to the throne as a child. The English renewed their war with Scotland, and David was forced to flee the Kingdom by Edward Balliol
Edward Balliol
, son of King John, who managed to get himself crowned King of Scots (1332–1336) and to give away Scotland's southern counties to England
England
before being driven out again. David spent much of his life in exile, first in freedom with his ally, France, and then in prison in England; he was only able to return to Scotland
Scotland
in 1357. Upon his death, childless, in 1371, the House of Bruce came to an end.

NAME PORTRAIT BIRTH MARRIAGE(S) DEATH DYNASTIC STATUS

ROBERT I the Bruce (Raibeart a Briuis) 1306–1329 11 July 1274 Turnberry Castle
Turnberry Castle
, Ayrshire
Ayrshire
son of Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale and Marjorie , Countess of Carrick Isabella of Mar 1295 one daughter

Elizabeth de Burgh Writtle , Essex
Essex
, England
England
1302 four children 7 June 1329 Manor of Cardross , Dunbartonshire
Dunbartonshire
aged 54 great-great-grandson of David of Huntingdon (brother of William I) (election)

DAVID II (Dàibhidh Bruis) 1329–1371 5 March 1324 Dunfermline Palace , Fife
Fife
son of Robert I and Elizabeth de Burgh Joan of England
England
Berwick-upon-Tweed 17 July 1328 no children

Margaret Drummond Inchmurdach, Fife 20 February 1364 no children 22 February 1371 Edinburgh Castle
Edinburgh Castle
aged 46 son of Robert I (primogeniture )

-------------------------

DISPUTED CLAIMANT

EDWARD BALLIOL was the son of King John Balliol , who had himself ruled for four years following his election in the Great Cause
Great Cause
. Following his abdication, John Balliol lived out his life in obscurity in Picardy , France. During the minority of David II, Edward Balliol seized the opportunity to assert his claim to the throne, and backed by the English, he defeated the forces of David's regency and was himself crowned king at Scone in 1332. He was quickly defeated by loyalist forces, and sent back to England. With English support, he would mount two more attempts to seize the throne again, in 1333 and 1335, each time his actual control of the throne was brief before being sent back to England, for the last time in 1336. When David returned from exile in 1341 to rule in his own right, Edward lost most of his support. When David II was captured in battle in 1346, Edward made one last attempt to seize the throne for himself, but had little support and the campaign fizzled before it gained much traction. In 1356 he renounced all claims to the throne.

NAME PORTRAIT BIRTH MARRIAGE(S) DEATH CLAIM

EDWARD BALLIOL 1332–1336 In opposition to David II 1283 Son of John Balliol and Isabella de Warenne None 1367 Doncaster
Doncaster
, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, England
England
Son of a former king, candidate of the English to replace the exiled David II

HOUSE OF STEWART/STUART

See also: House of Stuart

Stewart (1371–1567)

Robert the Stewart was a grandson of Robert I by the latter's daughter, Marjorie. Having been born in 1316, he was older than his uncle, David II; consequently, he was at his accession a middle aged man, already 55, and unable to reign vigorously, a problem also faced by his son Robert III, who also ascended in middle age at 53 in 1390, and suffered lasting damage in a horse-riding accident. These two were followed by a series of regencies, caused by the youth of the succeeding five boy kings. Consequently, the Stewart era saw periods of royal inertia, during which the nobles usurped power from the crown, followed by periods of personal rule by the monarch, during which he or she would attempt to address the issues created by their own minority and the long-term effects of previous reigns. Governing Scotland
Scotland
became increasingly difficult, as the powerful nobility became increasingly intractable; James I's attempts to curb the disorder of the realm ended in his assassination; James III was killed in a civil war between himself and the nobility, led by his own son; when James IV, who had governed sternly and suppressed the aristocrats, died in the Battle of Flodden, his wife Margaret Tudor, who had been nominated regent for their young son James V, was unseated by noble feuding, and James V's own wife, Mary of Guise, succeeded in ruling Scotland
Scotland
during the regency for her young daughter Mary I only by dividing and conquering the noble factions, and by distributing French bribes with a liberal hand. Finally, Mary I, the daughter of James V, found herself unable to govern Scotland
Scotland
faced with the surliness of the aristocracy and the intransigence of the population, who favoured Calvinism and disapproved of her Catholicism; she was forced to abdicate, and fled to England, where she was imprisoned in various castles and manor houses for eighteen years and finally executed for treason against the English queen Elizabeth I. Upon her abdication, her son, fathered by a junior member of the Stewart family, became King.

NAME PORTRAIT BIRTH MARRIAGE(S) DEATH DYNASTIC STATUS

ROBERT II the Steward (Raibeart II Stiùbhairt) 1371–1390 2 March 1316 Paisley, Renfrewshire son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland
Scotland
and Marjorie Bruce Elizabeth Mure 1336 (uncertain canonicity ) 1349 (with Papal dispensation ) ten children

Euphemia de Ross 2 May 1355 four children 19 April 1390 Dundonald Castle , Ayrshire
Ayrshire
aged 74 grandson of Robert I (primogeniture)

ROBERT III (born John Stewart) the Lame King (Raibeart III Stiùbhairt, An Righ Bhacaigh) 1390–1406 c. 1337 son of Robert II and Elizabeth Mure Anabella Drummond 1367 seven children 4 April 1406 Rothesay Castle aged about 69 son of Robert II (primogeniture)

JAMES I (Seumas I Stiùbhairt) 1406–1437 late July 1394 Dunfermline Palace, Fife son of Robert III and Anabella Drummond Joan Beaufort Southwark Cathedral
Southwark Cathedral
2 February 1424 eight children 21 February 1437 Blackfriars , Perth aged about 42 son of Robert III (primogeniture)

JAMES II Fiery Face (Seumas II Stiùbhairt) 1437–1460 16 October 1430 Holyrood Abbey
Holyrood Abbey
, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
son of James I and Joan Beaufort Mary of Guelders Holyrood Abbey 3 July 1449 seven children 3 August 1460 Roxburgh Castle aged 29 son of James I (primogeniture)

JAMES III (Seumas III Stiùbhairt) 1460–1488 10 July 1451 Stirling Castle
Stirling Castle
or St Andrews Castle son of James II and Mary of Guelders Margaret of Denmark Holyrood Abbey 13 July 1469 three children 11 June 1488 Sauchie Burn aged 36 son of James II (primogeniture)

JAMES IV (Seumas IV Stiùbhairt) 1488–1513 17 March 1473 Stirling Castle son of James III and Margaret of Denmark Margaret Tudor Holyrood Abbey 8 August 1503 six children 9 September 1513 Flodden Field , Northumberland
Northumberland
, England aged 40 son of James III (primogeniture)

JAMES V (Seumas V Stiùbhairt) 1513–1542 15 April 1512 Linlithgow Palace
Linlithgow Palace
, West Lothian son of James IV and Margaret Tudor Madeleine of Valois Notre Dame Cathedral , Paris
Paris
, France 1 January 1537 no children

Mary of Guise Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, France 18 May 1538 three children 14 December 1542 Falkland Palace , Fife aged 30 son of James IV (primogeniture)

MARY I (Màiri Stiùbhairt) 1542–1567 8 December 1542 Linlithgow Palace daughter of James V and Mary of Guise François II, King of France 24 April 1558 no children

Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley Holyrood Palace , Edinburgh 9 July 1565 one child

James Hepburn , 4th Earl of Bothwell Holyrood Palace 15 May 1567 no children 8 February 1587 Fotheringhay Castle , Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
, England aged 44 (executed) daughter of James V (cognatic primogeniture )

Stuart (1567–1651)

The Stewarts of Lennox were a junior branch of the Stewart family; they were not, however, direct male line descendants of Robert II, the first Stewart who became King of Scots, but rather that of his ancestor Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland
Scotland
. In the past, through the means of the Auld Alliance with France, they had adapted their surname to the French form, Stuart. Consequently, when the son of the Earl of Lennox , Henry, Lord Darnley, married the Queen of Scots, Mary I, their son, as the first King of the Lennox branch of the Stewart family, ruled as a Stuart.

James VI also became King of England
England
and Ireland as James I in 1603, when his cousin Elizabeth I died; thereafter, although the two crowns of England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
remained separate, the monarchy was based chiefly in England.

Charles I, James's son, found himself faced with Civil War; the resultant conflict lasted eight years, and ended in his execution. The English Parliament then decreed their monarchy to be at an end; the Scots Parliament, after some deliberation, broke their links with England, and declared that Charles II, son and heir of Charles I, would become King. He ruled until 1651 when the armies of Oliver Cromwell occupied Scotland
Scotland
and drove him into exile.

NAME PORTRAIT BIRTH MARRIAGE(S) DEATH DYNASTIC STATUS

JAMES VI (Seumas VI Stiùbhairt) 1567–1625 19 June 1566 Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Castle son of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and Mary I Anne of Denmark
Anne of Denmark
Old Bishop\'s Palace , Oslo
Oslo
, Norway
Norway
23 November 1589 seven children 27 March 1625 Theobalds House
Theobalds House
, Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
, England aged 58 son of Mary I (primogeniture)

CHARLES I (Teàrlach I Stiùbhairt) 1625–1649 19 November 1600 Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline son of James VI and Anne of Denmark
Anne of Denmark
Henrietta Maria of France St Augustine\'s Church , Canterbury
Canterbury
, England 13 June 1625 nine children 30 January 1649 Palace of Whitehall
Palace of Whitehall
, Westminster , England aged 48 (executed) son of James VI (primogeniture)

CHARLES II (Teàrlach II Stiùbhairt) 1649–1651 29 May 1630 St James\'s Palace , Westminster , England son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France Catherine of Braganza Portsmouth
Portsmouth
, England 14 May 1662 no children 6 February 1685 Palace of Whitehall, Westminster, England aged 54 son of Charles I (primogeniture)

HOUSE OF STUART (RESTORED) (1660–1707)

With the Restoration, the Stuarts became Kings of Scotland
Scotland
once more. But Scotland's rights were not respected: the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
was, during the reign of Charles II, dissolved, and his brother James was appointed Governor of Scotland. James himself became James VII in 1685; his Catholicism was not tolerated, and he was driven out of England
England
after three years. In his place came his daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange, the ruler of the Dutch Republic; they were accepted as monarchs of Scotland
Scotland
after a period of deliberation by the Scottish Parliament, and ruled together as William II and Mary II.

An attempt to establish a Scottish colonial empire through the Darien Scheme , in rivalry to that of England, failed, leaving the Scottish nobles who financed the venture for their own profit bankrupt. This coincided with the accession of Queen Anne , daughter of James VII. Anne had multiple children but none of these survived her, leaving as her heir her half-brother, James, then living in exile in France. The English favoured the Protestant Sophia of Hanover (a granddaughter of James VI) as heir; many Scots preferred Prince James, who as a Stuart was a Scot by ancestry, and threatened to break the Union of Crowns between England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
by choosing him for themselves. To preserve the union, the English elaborated a plan whereby the two Kingdoms of Scotland
Scotland
and England
England
would merge into a single Kingdom, the Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
, ruled by a common monarch, and with a single Parliament. Both national parliaments agreed to this (the Scots albeit reluctantly, motivated primarily by the national finances), and some subterfuge as a total majority of signatories was needed to ratify the Scottish parliament's assent, bribes and payments. Thereafter, although monarchs continued to rule over the nation of Scotland, they did so first as monarchs of Great Britain
Great Britain
, and from 1801 of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
.

NAME PORTRAIT BIRTH MARRIAGE(S) DEATH DYNASTIC STATUS

CHARLES II (Teàrlach II Stiùbhairt) 1660–1685 29 May 1630 St James\'s Palace , Westminster , England son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France Catherine of Braganza Portsmouth
Portsmouth
, England 14 May 1662 no children 6 February 1685 Palace of Whitehall
Palace of Whitehall
, Westminster, England aged 54 son of Charles I (primogeniture)

JAMES VII (Seumas VII Stiùbhairt) 1685–1688 14 October 1633 St James's Palace, Westminster, England son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France Anne Hyde
Anne Hyde
The Strand , London, England 3 September 1660 eight children

Mary of Modena
Mary of Modena
Dover
Dover
, England 21 November 1673 seven children 16 September 1701 Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye , France aged 67 son of Charles I (primogeniture)

MARY II (Màiri II Stiùbhairt) 1689–1694 30 April 1662 St James's Palace, England daughter of James VII (II of England) and Anne Hyde
Anne Hyde
St James's Palace 4 November 1677 three children (none survived infancy) 28 December 1694 Kensington Palace , England aged 32 grandchildren of Charles I (offered the crown by the Parliament )

WILLIAM II (Uilleam Orains, "William of Orange") 1689–1702 4 November 1650 The Hague
The Hague
, Dutch Republic son of William II , Prince of Orange and Mary, Princess Royal 8 March 1702 Kensington Palace aged 51

ANNE (Anna Stiùbhairt) 1702–1707 Queen of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland 1707 –1714 6 February 1665 St James's Palace daughter of James VII and Anne Hyde
Anne Hyde
George of Denmark St James's Palace 28 July 1683 17 children 1 August 1714 Kensington Palace aged 49 daughter of James VII (primogeniture; Bill of Rights 1689 )

For the British monarchs see List of British monarchs .

JACOBITE CLAIMANTS

Main article: Jacobite succession

James VII continued to claim the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. When he died in 1701, his son James inherited his father's claims, and called himself James VIII of Scotland
Scotland
and III of England and Ireland. He would continue to do so all his life, even after the Kingdoms of England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
were ended by their merging as the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1715, a year after the death of his sister, Queen Anne, and the accession of their cousin George of Hanover, James landed in Scotland
Scotland
and attempted to claim the throne; he failed, and was forced to flee back to the Continent. A second attempt by his son, Charles on behalf of his father, in 1745, also failed. Both James's children died without legitimate issue, bringing the Stuart family to an end.

* James VIII (Seumas VIII), also known as The Old Pretender, son of James VII, was claimant from 1701 until his death in 1766. * Charles III (Teàrlach III), also known as The Young Pretender and often called Bonnie Prince Charlie, son of James VIII, was claimant from his father's death until his own death in 1788 without legitimate issue. * Henry I (Eanraig I), brother of Charles III and youngest son of James VIII. Died unmarried in 1807.

After 1807, the Jacobite claims passed first to the House of Savoy (1807–1840), then to the Modenese branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (1840–1919), and finally to the House of Wittelsbach (since 1919). The current heir is Franz , Duke of Bavaria . Neither he nor any of his predecessors since 1807 have pursued their claim.

OTHER CLAIMANTS

* Idi Amin
Idi Amin
Dada consistently claimed, starting in 1976, to be the "uncrowned King of Scotland."

TIMELINE OF SCOTTISH MONARCHS

ACTS OF UNION

See also: List of British monarchs

The Acts of Union were twin Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England
England
and the Parliament of Scotland
Scotland
, putting into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union
, agreed on 22 July 1706, following prolonged negotiation between Queen Anne's Commissioners representing both parliaments. The Acts joined the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
to form a united Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
.

Scotland
Scotland
and England
England
had shared a common monarch since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when James VI, King of Scots , inherited the English throne from his first cousin twice removed, Queen Elizabeth I of England
England
. Although described as a Union of Crowns, prior to the Acts of Union of 1707, the crowns of the two separate kingdoms had rested on the same head. Three unsuccessful attempts (in 1606, 1667, and 1689) were made to unite the two kingdoms by Acts of Parliament, but it was not until the early 18th century that the idea had the will of both political establishments to succeed, thereby bringing the two separate states together under a single parliament as well as a single monarch.

CORONATION OATH

The Coronation Oath was sworn by every King of Scots from James VI to Charles II and approved by the Estates of Parliament in 1567:

I, N.N., promise faithfully, in the presence of the eternal, my God, that I, enduring the whole Course of my Life, shall serve the same Eternal, my God, to the utmost of my Power, accordingly as he required in his most Holy Word, revealed and contained in the New and Old Testament ; and according to the same Word shall maintain the true Religion of Jesus Christ, the preaching of his Holy Word, and due and right administration of his Sacraments , now received and practised within this Realm; and shall abolish and oppose all false Religion contrary to the same; and shall rule the People committed to my Charge, according to the Will and Command of God, revealed in his foresaid Word, and according to the lovable Laws and Constitutions received in this Realm, in no way repugnant to the said Word of the Eternal, my God; and shall procure to my utmost to the Kirk
Kirk
of God and whole Christian people true and perfect Peace in all times coming; the Rights and Rents, with all just privileges of the Crown of Scotland, I shall preserve and keep inviolate, neither shall I transfer nor alienate the same; I shall forbid and repress in all Estates and all Degrees theft, Oppression and all kind of Wrong; in all Judgements, I shall command and procure that Justice and Equity be kept to all creatures without exception, as he be merciful to me and you that is the Lord and Father of all Mercies; and out of all my lands and empire I shall be careful to root out all Heresy
Heresy
and Enemies to the true Worship of God, that shall be convicted by the true Kirk
Kirk
of God of the foresaid Crimes; and these Things above-written I faithfully affirm by my solemn Oath.

The Coronation Oath sworn by William II , Mary II and Anne was approved by the Parliament of Scotland
Scotland
on 18 April 1689. The oath was as follows:

WE William and Mary, King and Queen of Scotland, faithfully promise and swear, by this our solemn Oath, in presence of the Eternal God, that during the whole Course of our Life we will serve the same Eternal God, to the uttermost of our Power, according as he has required in his most Holy Word, revealed and contained in the New and Old Testament; and according to the same Word shall maintain the true Religion of Christ Jesus, the preaching of his Holy Word, and the due and right Ministration of the Sacraments, now received and preached within the Realm of Scotland; and shall abolish and gainstand all false Religion contrary to the same, and shall rule the People committed to our Charge, according to the Will and Command of God, revealed in his aforesaid Word, and according to the laudable Laws and Constitutions received in this Realm, no ways repugnant to the said Word of the Eternal God; and shall procure, to the utmost of our power, to the Kirk
Kirk
of God, and whole Christian People, true and perfect Peace in all time coming. That we shall preserve and keep inviolated the Rights and Rents, with all just Privileges of the Crown of Scotland, neither shall we transfer nor alienate the same; that we shall forbid and repress in all Estates and Degrees, Reif, Oppression and all kind of Wrong. And we shall command and procure, that Justice and Equity in all Judgments be kept to all Persons without exception, us the Lord and Father of all Mercies shall be merciful to us. And we shall be careful to root out all Heretics and Enemies to the true Worship of God, that shall be convicted by the true Kirk
Kirk
of God, of the aforesaid Crimes, out of our Lands and Empire of Scotland. And we faithfully affirm the Things above-written by our solemn Oath.

SEE ALSO

* Scottish monarchs\' family tree * Duke of Rothesay – The title of the heir apparent to the Scottish throne. * Holyrood Palace – The principal residence of the King of Scots. * His Grace – The style of address used by the King of Scots. * List of kings of Dál Riata * List of Kings of the Picts * List of Kings of Strathclyde * Earl of Orkney
Orkney
* Earl of Northumbria * List of Scottish consorts * Monarchy of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* List of British monarchs * Lord High Commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland
Scotland
* Lists of monarchs in the British Isles * List of monarchs of the British Isles by cause of death * List of legendary kings of Scotland
Scotland
* List of rulers of the Kingdom of the Isles * Burial places of British royalty

NOTES

* ^ Broun, Scottish Independence. pp. 71–97. * ^ Properly speaking, Coinneach should actually be Cionaodh, since Coinneach is historically a separate name. However, in the modern language, both names have converged. * ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 83. * ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 85. * ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 87. * ^ Hudson, Celtic Kings, p. 58. * ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 91; Hudson, Celtic Kings, p. 65. * ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 93. * ^ His name is a Gaelicisation of the Norse name Hildufr (or perhaps English Eadulf); it occurs in various contemporary Gaelic forms, such as Iondolbh, found in the Duan Albanach ; Ildulb is used by some historians because it correctly represents the name Hildulfr in Gaelic orthography; Eadwulf would perhaps be Idulb, hence that form is also used sometimes. The name never came into wider use in the Scottish world, or the Gaelic world more generally, and has no modern form. The name "Indulf" is a spelling produced by later medieval French influence; Hudson, Celtic Kings, p, 89. * ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 94. * ^ Duan Albanach , 23 here; as Dub means "Black", "Dub the Black" is tautologous. * ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 95. * ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 96. * ^ Former probable because later English (speaking) sources called him "Grim"; Old Irish donn has similar meaning to Old Irish greimm, which means "power" or "authority"; see Skene, Chronicles, p. 98; Hudson, Celtic Kings, p. 105. * ^ Skene, Chronicles, pp. 99–100. * ^ http://www.royalblood.co.uk/D161/I161809.html * ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 101. * ^ A B Skene, Chronicles, p. 102. * ^ Anderson, Early Sources, vol. i, p. 603. * ^ A B This name was probably only originally applied to Mael Coluim IV, Mael Coluim III's grandson, and then later confused; see Duncan, Kingship of the Scots, pp. 51–52, 74–75; Oram, David I, p. 17, note 1. Cenn Mór certainly means "great chief" rather than "big head", as sometimes thought. * ^ Anderson, Early Sources, vol. ii, p. 141. * ^ This nickname however is not attested for another three centuries, in the work of Andrew of Wyntoun . * ^ Later nickname. Latin
Latin
Sanctus also means simply "Holy". David was never canonised. * ^ Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1214.6; Annals of Loch Cé, s.a. 1213.10. * ^ Cawley, Charles (August 2012), English Earls 1067-1122, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy , * ^ Robert The Bruce. Publisher: Heinemann. ISBN 0-431-05883-0 . * ^ Appiah, Anthony; Henry Louis Gates (1999). Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. * ^ Welcome Archived 15 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine . parliament.uk, accessed 7 October 2008 * ^ Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
Project.

REFERENCES

* Anderson, Alan Orr , Early Sources of Scottish History: AD 500–1286, 2 Vols, (Edinburgh, 1922) * Broun, Dauvit (2007), Scottish Independence and the Idea of Britain. From the Picts to Alexander III., Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press, ISBN 978-0-7486-2360-0 * Hudson, Benjamin T., Kings of Celtic Scotland, (Westport, 1994) * Skene, W. F. (ed.), Chronicles of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots and other Early Memorials of Scottish History, (Edinburgh, 1867)

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Scottish Monarchs * British Royal Family History - Kings and Queens of Scotland

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Pictish and Scottish monarchs

Monarchs of the Picts (traditional)

* Drest I * Talorc I * Nechtan I