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The monarchs of Portugal
Portugal
ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portuguese Republic with the 5 October 1910 revolution. Through the nearly 800 years which Portugal
Portugal
was a monarchy, the kings held various other titles and pretensions. Two kings of Portugal, Ferdinand I and Afonso V, also claimed the crown of Castile. When the house of Habsburg came into power, the kings of Spain, and Naples, also became kings of Portugal. The house of Braganza brought numerous titles to the Portuguese Crown, including King of Brazil and then de jure Emperor of Brazil. After the demise of the Portuguese monarchy, in 1910, Portugal
Portugal
almost restored its monarchy in a revolution known as the Monarchy of the North, though the attempted restoration only lasted a month before destruction. With Manuel II's death, the Miguelist
Miguelist
branch of the house of Braganza became the pretenders to the throne of Portugal. They have all been acclaimed king of Portugal
Portugal
by their monarchist groups. The monarchs of Portugal
Portugal
all came from a single ancestor, Afonso I of Portugal, but direct lines have sometimes ended. This has led to a variety of royal houses coming to rule Portugal, though all having Portuguese royal lineage. These houses are:

The House of Burgundy (1139–1383) The House of Aviz
House of Aviz
(1385–1581) The House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
(1581–1640) The House of Braganza
House of Braganza
(1640–1910)

Contents

1 House of Burgundy (1139–1383) 2 House of Aviz
House of Aviz
(1385–1580) 3 House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
(1581–1640) 4 House of Braganza
House of Braganza
(1640–1910) 5 Line of succession 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

House of Burgundy (1139–1383)[edit]

Monarchs of the Iberian Peninsula

al-Andalus (taifas)

Aragon

Family tree

Asturias

Family tree

Castile

Family tree

Catalonia

Galicia

Granada

León

Family tree

Majorca

Navarre

Family tree

Portugal

Family tree

Spain Medieval · Modern

Family tree

Suebi

Valencia

Viguera

Visigoths

Family tree

The Portuguese House of Burgundy, known as the Afonsine Dynasty, was the founding house of the Kingdom of Portugal. Prior to the independence of Portugal, the house ruled the feudal County of Portugal, of the Kingdom of Galicia. When Alphonso I Henriques declared the independence of Portugal, he turned the family from a comital house to a royal house which would rule Portugal
Portugal
for over two centuries. When Ferdinand I died, a succession crisis occurred and Ferdinand's daughter Beatrice of Portugal
Portugal
was proclaimed queen and her husband John I of Castile
John I of Castile
proclaimed king by the right of his wife. Her legitimacy as a monarch is disputed.[1][2]

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Alphonso I

The Conqueror Afonso I Henriques

1106/09/11 – 6 December 1185 (aged 73–79) 25 July 1139 6 December 1185 previously Count of Portugal, founder of the Kingdom of Portugal Son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal
Portugal
and Teresa of León, Countess of Portugal Burgundy

Sancho I

The Populator Sancho I

11 November 1154 – 26 March 1211 (aged 56) 6 December 1185 26 March 1211 Son of Alphonso I Burgundy

Alphonso II

The Fat Afonso II

23 April 1185 – 25 March 1223 (aged 37) 27 March 1211 25 March 1223 Son of Sancho I Burgundy

Sancho II

The Pious Sancho II

8 September 1209 – 4 January 1248 (aged 38) 26 March 1223 4 December 1247 Son of Alphonso II Burgundy

Alphonso III

The Count of Boulogne Afonso III

5 May 1210 – 16 February 1279 (aged 68) 4 January 1248 16 February 1279 Son of Alphonso II Brother of Sancho II Burgundy

Denis I

The Farmer; The Poet Portuguese: Dinis I

9 October 1261 – 7 January 1325 (aged 63) 6 February 1279 7 January 1325 Son of Alphonso III Burgundy

Alphonso IV

The Brave Afonso IV

8 February 1291 – 28 May 1357 (aged 66) 7 January 1325 28 May 1357 Son of Denis I Burgundy

Peter I

The Justice Maker; The Cruel Portuguese: Pedro I

8 April 1320 – 18 January 1367 (aged 46) 28 May 1357 18 January 1367 Son of Alphonso IV Burgundy

Ferdinand I

The Handsome Portuguese: Fernando I

31 October 1345 – 22 October 1383 (aged 37) 18 January 1367 22 October 1383 Son of Peter I Burgundy

House of Aviz
House of Aviz
(1385–1580)[edit] The House of Aviz, known as the Joanine Dynasty, succeeded the House of Burgundy as the reigning house of the Kingdom of Portugal. The house was founded by John I of Portugal, who was the Grand Master of the Order of Aviz. When King John II of Portugal
Portugal
died without an heir, the throne of Portugal
Portugal
passed to his cousin, Manuel, Duke of Beja. When King Sebastian of Portugal
Portugal
died, the throne passed to his uncle, Henry of Portugal
Portugal
(he might be called Henry II because Henry, Count of Portugal, father of Alphonso I of Portugal, was the first of that name to rule Portugal). When Henry died, a succession crisis occurred and António, Prior of Crato, was proclaimed António of Portugal.

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

John I

The Good Portuguese: João I

11 April 1358 – 14 August 1433 (aged 75) 6 April 1385 14 August 1433 Illegitimate son of Peter I Aviz

Edward

The Eloquent Portuguese: Duarte I

31 October 1391 – 9 September 1438 (aged 46) 14 August 1433 9 September 1438 Son of John I Aviz

Alphonso V

The African Afonso V

15 January 1432 – 28 August 1481 (aged 49) 13 September 1438 15 November 1477 11 November 1477 28 August 1481 Son of Edward I Aviz

John II

The Perfect Prince Portuguese: João II

3 March 1455 – 25 October 1495 (aged 40) 11 November 1477 28 August 1481 15 November 1477 25 October 1495 Son of Alphonso V Aviz

Emmanuel I

The Fortunate Manuel I

31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521 (aged 52) 25 October 1495 13 December 1521 Cousin of John II; grandson of Edward I Aviz

John III

The Pious Portuguese: João III

7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557 (aged 55) 13 December 1521 11 June 1557 Son of Emmanuel I Aviz

Sebastian

The Desired Prince Portuguese: Sebastião

20 January 1554 – 4 August 1578 (aged 24) 11 June 1557 4 August 1578 Grandson of John III Aviz

Henry (II)

The Chaste Portuguese: Henrique (II)

31 January 1512 – 31 January 1580 (aged 68) 4 August 1578 31 January 1580 Son of Emmanuel I Great-uncle of Sebastian Aviz

Anthony

The Resisitent Portuguese: António

1531 – 28 August 1595 (aged 64) 24 July 1580 1583 Grandson of Emmanuel I Aviz

House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
(1581–1640)[edit] The House of Habsburg, known as the Philippine Dynasty, is the house that ruled Portugal
Portugal
from 1581 to 1640. The dynasty began with the acclamation of Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
as Philip I of Portugal
Portugal
in 1580, officially recognized in 1581 by the Portuguese Cortes
Portuguese Cortes
of Tomar. Philip I swore to rule Portugal
Portugal
as a kingdom separate from his Spanish domains, under the personal union known as the Iberian Union.

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Philip I

The Prudent Portuguese: Filipe I

21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598 (aged 71) 17 April 1581 13 September 1598 Grandson of Emmanuel I Habsburg

Philip II

The Pious Portuguese: Filipe II

14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621 (aged 42) 13 September 1598 31 March 1621 Son of Philip I Habsburg

Philip III

The Great; The Oppressor Portuguese: Filipe III

8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665 (aged 60) 31 March 1621 1 December 1640 Son of Philip II Habsburg

House of Braganza
House of Braganza
(1640–1910)[edit] The House of Braganza, also known as the Brigantine Dynasty, came to power in 1640, when John II, Duke of Braganza, claimed to be the rightful heir of the defunct House of Aviz, as he was the great great grandson of King Manuel I. John was proclaimed King John IV, and he deposed the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
in the Portuguese Restoration War. The descendants of Queen Maria II and her consort, King Ferdinand II (a German prince of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha), came to rule in 1853. Portuguese law and custom treated them as members of the House of Braganza, though they were still Saxe-Coburg and Gotha dynasts. This has led some to classify these last four monarchs of Portugal
Portugal
as members of a new royal family, called the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, though this view is not widely held.

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

John IV

The Restorer Portuguese: João IV

18 March 1603 – 6 November 1656 (aged 53) 1 December 1640 6 November 1656 Great-great-grandson of Emmanuel I Braganza

Alphonso VI

The Victorious Afonso IV

21 August 1643 – 12 September 1683 (aged 40) 6 November 1656 12 September 1683 Son of John IV Braganza

Peter II

The Pacific Portuguese: Pedro II

26 April 1648 – 9 December 1706 (aged 58) 6 November 1683 9 December 1706 Son of John IV Brother of Afonso VI Braganza

John V

The Magnificent Portuguese: João V

22 October 1689 – 31 July 1750 (aged 60) 9 December 1706 31 July 1750 Son of Peter II Braganza

Joseph I

The Reformer Portuguese: José I

6 June 1714 – 24 February 1777 (age 62) 31 July 1750 24 February 1777 Son of John V Braganza

Mary I

The Pious; The Mad Portuguese: Maria I

(1734-12-17)17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816(1816-03-20) (aged 81) 24 February 1777 20 March 1816 Daughter of Joseph I Braganza

Peter III

The Builder Portuguese: Pedro III

(1717-07-05)5 July 1717 – 25 May 1786(1786-05-25) (aged 68) 24 February 1777 25 May 1786 Husband of Mary I Son of John V jure uxoris king Braganza

John VI

The Clement Portuguese: João VI

13 May 1767 – 10 March 1826 (aged 58) 20 March 1816 10 March 1826 Son of Mary I and Peter III Braganza

Peter IV

The Soldier King Portuguese: Pedro IV

12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834 (aged 35) 10 March 1826 2 May 1826 Son of John VI Braganza

Mary II

The Educator; The Good Mother Portuguese: Maria II

4 April 1819 – 15 November 1853 (aged 34) 2 May 1826 26 May 1834 23 June 1828 15 November 1853 Daughter of Peter IV Braganza

Michael I

The Usurper Portuguese: Miguel I

26 October 1802 – 14 November 1866 (aged 64) 26 February 1828 6 May 1834 Son of John VI Braganza

Ferdinand II

The Artist King Portuguese: Fernando II

29 October 1816 – 15 December 1885 (aged 69) 16 September 1837 15 November 1853 Husband of Mary II jure uxoris king Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Koháry

Peter V

The Hopeful Portuguese: Pedro V

16 September 1837 – 11 November 1861 (aged 24) 15 November 1853 11 November 1861 Son of Mary II and Ferdinand II Braganza[3]

Louis I

The Popular Portuguese: Luís I

31 October 1838 – 19 October 1889 (aged 50) 11 November 1861 19 October 1889 Son of Mary II and Ferdinand II Braganza[3]

Charles I

The Diplomat Portuguese: Carlos

28 September 1863 – 1 February 1908 (aged 44) 19 October 1889 1 February 1908 Son of Louis I Braganza[3]

Emmanuel II

The Sorrow King Portuguese: Manuel II

15 November 1889 – 2 July 1932 (aged 42) 1 February 1908 5 October 1910 Son of Charles I Last King of Portugal. Braganza[3][4]

Line of succession[edit] Further information: Line of succession to the former Portuguese throne See also[edit]

Portugal
Portugal
portal Monarchy portal

List of Portuguese monarchs
List of Portuguese monarchs
by age at accession to the throne List of Portuguese monarchs
List of Portuguese monarchs
by longevity List of Portuguese royal consorts List of titles and honours of the Portuguese Crown Style of the Portuguese sovereign

Kings of Portugal
Portugal
family tree Descendants of John VI of Portugal Descendants of Manuel I of Portugal Descendants of Miguel I of Portugal

References[edit]

^ David Williamson, «Debrett's Kings and Queens of Europe»,1988,Webb & Bower, Exeter, ISBN 0-86350-194-X; César Olivera Serrano, «Beatriz de Portugal» ^ García de Cortázar, Fernando (1999), Breve historia de España, Alianza Editorial, page 712; Armindo de Sousa, in História de Portugal
Portugal
coordinated by José Mattoso, Editorial Estampa, vol. II, ISBN 972-33-0919-X, pages 494/95 ^ a b c d Also referred as the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. "While remaining patrilineal dynasts of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
according to pp. 88, 116 of the 1944 Almanach de Gotha, Title 1, Chapter 1, Article 5 of the 1838 Portuguese constitution declared, with respect to Ferdinand II of Portugal's issue by his first wife, that 'the Most Serene House of Braganza
House of Braganza
is the reigning house of Portugal
Portugal
and continues through the Person of the Lady Queen Maria II'. Thus their mutual descendants constitute the Coburg line of the House of Braganza" ^ Some historians consider that Manuel II was preceded by his elder brother Luís Filipe, not by his father Carlos. In fact, while king Carlos died instantly under the bullets of the anarchists on 1 February 1908, his son Luís Filipe, the crown prince, survived for a few hours, enough to allow governmental officials to name him king. This act is, however, usually considered as historically irrelevant, given that the crown prince never recovered from his coma. His younger brother Manuel (who was also injured, though not seriously) is therefore considered to have been the direct successor of the murdered king Carlos I.

Bibliography[edit]

Sousa, D. António Caetano de (1946) [1735–49]. História Genealógica da Casa Real Portuguesa (in Portuguese). Coimbra: Atlântida-Livraria Eds. OCLC 20210378.  Jiří Louda & Michael Maclagan (1981), "Portugal", in Lines of Succession. Heraldry of the Royal families of Europe, London, Orbis Publishing, pp. 228–237. ISBN 0-85613-672-7. (revised and updated edition by Prentice Hall College Div - November 1991. ISBN 0-02-897255-4.) Luís Amaral & Marcos Soromenho Santos (2002), Costados do Duque de Bragança, Lisboa, Guarda-Mor Edições. Afonso Eduardo Martins Zuquete (dir.)(1989), Nobreza de Portugal
Portugal
e Brasil, vol. I, Lisboa, Editorial Enciclopédia. Imhof, Jacob Wilhelm (1708). Stemma Regum lusitanicum sive Historia genealogica Familiae Regiae Portugallicae. orsinidemarzo.com. Amsterdam.  (reprint)

External links[edit]

History of titles of the kings of Portugal
Portugal
with bibliography

v t e

Topics related to the Portuguese monarchy

Major events

Battle of São Mamede Battle of Ourique Treaty of Zamora Manifestis Probatum 1383–85 Crisis Battle of Aljubarrota Battle of Alfarrobeira Battle of Alcácer Quibir Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 War of the Portuguese Succession Iberian Union Forty Conspirators Portuguese Restoration War Transfer of the Portuguese Court Liberal Revolution of 1820 April Revolt Portuguese Civil War Municipal Library Elevator Coup Lisbon Regicide 5 October 1910 revolution Royalist attack on Chaves Monarchy of the North

Royal houses

Portuguese House of Burgundy House of Aviz House of Habsburg House of Braganza House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
(disputed)

Royal residences

Ajuda Palace São Jorge Alcáçova Belém Palace Buçaco Palace Évora Palace Mafra Palace Necessidades Palace Pena Palace Queluz Palace Quinta da Boa Vista Rio de Janeiro Palace Ramalhão Palace Ribeira Palace São Cristóvão Palace Santa Cruz Estate Sintra Palace Vila Viçosa Palace

Miscellaneous

Kingdom of Portugal Kingdom of the Algarve Kingdom of Brazil United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves Portuguese Monarchs Line of succession to the former Portuguese throne Miguelism Sebastianism Portuguese Empire Portuguese Cortes Portuguese nobility List of titles and honours of the Portuguese Crown Council of Portugal Pantheon of the House of Braganza Most Faithful Majesty Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza
Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza
(current pretender) Genealogical tree of the monarchs of Portugal Portuguese Crown Jewels Style of the Portuguese sovereign His Most Faithful Majesty's Council

v t e

Monarchs of Portugal

House of Burgundy (1139–1383)

Afonso I Sancho I Afonso II Sancho II Afonso III Dinis I Afonso IV Pedro I Fernando I Beatriz I

House of Aviz
House of Aviz
(1385–1580)

João I Duarte I Afonso V João II Manuel I João III Sebastião I Henrique I António I

House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
(1581–1640)

Filipe I Filipe II Filipe III

House of Braganza
House of Braganza
(1640–1910)

João IV Afonso VI Pedro II João V José I Maria I with Pedro III João VI Pedro IV Maria II Miguel I Maria II with Fernando II Pedro V Luís I Carlos I Manuel II

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.

v t e

Portuguese royalty

Designated royal titles

King and Queen of Portugal Prince and Princess Royal of Portugal Prince and Princess of Brazil Prince and Princess of Portugal Prince and Princess of Beira Duke and Duchess of Braganza Duke and Duchess of Barcelos Duke and Duchess of Porto Duke and Duchess of Beja Infante and Infanta of Portugal

Undesignated royal titles

Duke and Duchess of Coimbra Duke and Duchess of Viseu Duke and Duchess of Guimarães Duke and Duchess of Guarda

Royal households

House of the Infantado

List of heirs to the Portuguese throne - Portuguese nobility

v t e

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