King of Hungary
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The King of Hungary ( hu, magyar király) was the ruling
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "
he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Modern English, ''he'' is a Grammatical number, singular, Grammatical gender, masculine, Grammatical person, third-person personal pronoun, pronoun. Morphology In Standard English, Standard M ...
being an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international perso ...
of the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the Coronation of th ...

Kingdom of Hungary
from 1000 (or 1001) to 1918. The style of title "Apostolic King of Hungary" (''Apostoli Magyar Király'') was endorsed by
Pope Clement XIII Pope Clement XIII ( la, Clemens XIII; 7 March 1693 – 2 February 1769), born Carlo della Torre di Rezzonico, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christia ...

Pope Clement XIII
in 1758 and used afterwards by all Monarchs of Hungary. The term "King of Hungary" is typically capitalized only as a title applied to a specific person; however, within this article, the terms "Kings of Hungary" or "Junior Kings" (etc.) are also shown in capital letters, as in the manner of philosophical writing which capitalizes concepts such as
Truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact or reality.Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionarytruth 2005 In everyday language, truth is typically ascribed to things that aim to represent reality or otherwise correspond to it, such as belie ...

Truth
,
Kindness Kindness is a type of behavior marked by acts of generosity, consideration, or concern for others, without expecting praise or reward. Kindness was one of the main topics in the Bible. In Book II of "Rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art ...
and Beauty.


Establishment of the title

Before 1000 AD, Hungary was not recognized as a kingdom and the ruler of Hungary was styled
Grand Prince of the Hungarians Grand Prince ( hu, Nagyfejedelem) was the title used by contemporary sources to name the leader of the federation of the Hungarian tribes in the tenth century. Kōnstantinos Porhyrogennētos mentioned Árpád in his book De Administrando Imperio a ...
. The first King of Hungary,
Stephen I.
Stephen I.
was crowned on 25 December 1000 (or 1 January 1001) with the crown
Pope Sylvester II Pope Sylvester II ( – 12 May 1003), originally known as Gerbert of Aurillac, was a French-born scholar and teacher who served as the bishop of Rome and ruled the Papal States from 999 to his death. He endorsed and promoted study of Arab and Grec ...

Pope Sylvester II
had sent him and with the consent of
Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor Otto III (June/July 980 – 23 January 1002) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator Romanorum, german: Kaiser der Römer) during the middle ages, and also known a ...

Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor
. Following King
Stephen I
Stephen I
's coronation, all the monarchs of
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a country in Central Europe. It borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, and Austria to the west. ...

Hungary
used the title "King". However, not all rulers of Hungary were kings—for example,
Stephen Bocskai Stephen Bocskai or Bocskay ( hu, Bocskai István; 1 January 155729 December 1606) was Prince of Transylvania and Hungary from 1605 to 1606. He was born to a Hungarian noble family. His father's estates were located in the eastern regions of th ...
and
Francis II Rákóczi Francis II Rákóczi ( hu, II. Rákóczi Ferenc, ; 27 March 1676 – 8 April 1735) was a Hungarian people, Hungarian nobleman and leader of the Hungarian uprising against the Habsburgs in 1703-11 as the prince ( hu, fejedelem) of the Estates Conf ...
were proclaimed rulers as "High Princes of Hungary", and there were also three Governors of Hungary who were sometimes styled "regents", János Hunyadi,
Lajos Kossuth Lajos Kossuth de Udvard et Kossuthfalva (, Slovak: Ľudovít Košút, archaically English: Louis Kossuth; 19 September 1802 – 20 March 1894) was a Hungarian nobleman, lawyer, journalist, politician, statesman and Governor-President of the Kin ...

Lajos Kossuth
Kossuth's status was ambiguous because the question about the form of government (republic or monarchy) was not yet decided and
Miklós Horthy Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya ( hu, Vitéz nagybányai Horthy Miklós; ; English: Nicholas Horthy; german: Nikolaus Horthy Ritter von Nagybánya; 18 June 18689 February 1957) was a Hungarian admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in s ...
.


Legal requirements for a coronation to be legitimate

From the 13th century on, a process was established to confirm the legitimacy of the King. No person could become the legitimate King of Hungary without fulfilling the following criteria: * Coronation by the
Archbishop of Esztergom In many Christian Denominations, an archbishop (, via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as ...
* Coronation with the
Holy Crown of Hungary The Holy Crown of Hungary ( hu, Szent Korona; sh, Kruna svetoga Stjepana; la, Sacra Corona; sk, Svätoštefanská koruna ), also known as the Crown of Stephen I of Hungary, Saint Stephen, was the coronation crown used by the Kingdom of Hunga ...
* Coronation at
Székesfehérvár Basilica The Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary was a basilica In Ancient Roman architecture, a basilica is a large public building with multiple functions, typically built alongside the town's Forum (Roman), forum. The basilica wa ...
This meant a certain level of protection to the integrity of the Kingdom. For example, stealing the Holy Crown of Hungary was no longer enough to become legitimate King. The first requirement (coronation by the Archbishop of Esztergom) was confirmed by Béla III of Hungary, Béla III, who had been crowned by Berthold (patriarch of Aquileia), Archbishop Berthold of Kalocsa, based on the special authorisation of Pope Alexander III. After his coronation he declared that this coronation would not affect the customary claim of the Archbishop of Esztergom to crown the king. In 1211, Pope Innocent III refused to confirm the agreement of John, Archbishop of Esztergom, Archbishop John of Esztergom and Archbishop Berthold of Kalocsa on the transfer of the claim, and he declared that only the Archbishop of Esztergom is entitled to crown the King of Hungary. King Charles I of Hungary was crowned in May 1301 with a provisional crown in Esztergom by the Archbishop of that city; this led to his second coronation in June 1309. At that time the Holy Crown wasn't used, and he was crowned in Buda by the Archbishop of Esztergom. However, his final third coronation was in 1310, in Székesfehérvár, with the Holy Crown and by the Archbishop of Esztergom. Then the King's coronation was considered absolutely legitimate. On the other hand, in 1439, the dowager queen Elizabeth of Luxemburg ordered one of her handmaidens to steal the Holy Crown from the palace of Visegrád, and then promoted the coronation of her newborn son Ladislaus the Posthumous, Ladislaus V, which was carried out legitimately in Székesfehérvár by the Archbishop of Esztergom. A similar situation occurred with Matthias Corvinus, when he negotiated for return of the Holy Crown, which was in the possession of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor. After it was returned, Matthias was legitimately crowned.


Inheriting the throne

As in all the traditional monarchies, the heir descended through the male line from a previous King of Hungary. In accordance with Hungarian tradition, this right usually passed to younger brothers, before passing to the son of the previous King, which caused family disputes on many occasions. The founder of the first Hungarian royal house was Árpád, who led his people into the Carpathian Basin in 895. His descendants, who ruled for more than 400 years, included Stephen I of Hungary, Saint Stephen I, Ladislaus I of Hungary, Saint Ladislaus I, Andrew II of Hungary, Andrew II, and Béla IV of Hungary, Béla IV. In 1301 the last member of the House of Árpád died, and Charles I of Hungary, Charles I was crowned, claiming the throne in the name of his paternal grandmother Mary of Hungary, Queen of Naples, Mary, the daughter of Stephen V of Hungary, Stephen V. With the death of Mary, Queen of Hungary, Mary, the granddaughter of Charles I, in 1395, the direct line was interrupted again, and Mary's husband Sigismund of Hungary, Sigismund continued reigning, after being elected by the nobility of the Kingdom in the name of the Holy Crown. Later, Matthias Corvinus was elected by the nobles of the Kingdom, being the first Hungarian monarch who descended from an aristocratic family, and not from a royal family that inherited the title. The same happened decades later with John Zápolya, who was elected in 1526 after the death of Louis II of Hungary, Louis II in the battle of Mohács. After this, the House of Habsburg inherited the throne, and ruled Hungary from Austria for almost 400 years until 1918.


Other titles used by the King of Hungary

Over the centuries, the Kings of Hungary acquired or claimed the crowns of several neighboring countries, and they began to use the royal titles connected to those countries. By the time of the last kings, their precise style was: ''"By the Grace of God, Apostolic King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria, Grand Prince of Transylvania, Count of the Székelys"''. The title ''"Apostolic King"'' was confirmed by
Pope Clement XIII Pope Clement XIII ( la, Clemens XIII; 7 March 1693 – 2 February 1769), born Carlo della Torre di Rezzonico, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christia ...

Pope Clement XIII
in 1758 and used thereafter by all the Kings of Hungary. The title of ''"Slavonia, King of Slavonia"'' referred to the territories between the Drava and the Sava Rivers. That title was first used by Ladislaus I of Hungary, Ladislaus I. It was also Ladislaus I who adopted the title ''"King of Croatia"'' in 1091. Coloman of Hungary, Coloman added the phrase ''"Dalmatia, King of Dalmatia"'' to the royal style in 1105. The title ''"King of Rama"'', referring to the claim to Bosnia (region), Bosnia, was first used by Béla II of Hungary, Béla II in 1136. It was Emeric of Hungary, Emeric who adopted the title ''"Serbia, King of Serbia"''. The phrase ''"King of Galicia"'' was used to indicate the supremacy over Halych, while the title ''"King of Lodomeria"'' referred to Volhynia; both titles were adopted by Andrew II of Hungary, Andrew II in 1205. In 1233, Béla IV of Hungary, Béla IV began to use the title ''"King of Cumania"'' which expressed the rule over the territories settled by the Cumans (i.e., Wallachia and Moldavia) at that time. The phrase ''"Bulgaria, King of Bulgaria"'' was added to the royal style by Stephen V of Hungary, Stephen V. Transylvania was originally a part of the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the Coronation of th ...

Kingdom of Hungary
ruled by a voivode, but after 1526 became a semi-independent Principality of Transylvania (1571–1711), principality vassal to the Ottoman Empire, and later to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1696, after dethroning Prince Michael II Apafi, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I took the title ''"Prince of Transylvania"''. In 1765, Maria Theresa elevated Transylvania to the status of Grand Principality. The ''"Count of the Székelys"'' was originally a dignitary of the Kingdom of Hungary, but the title was later used by the Princes of Transylvania. The title was revived during the reign of Maria Theresa who adopted it at the request of the Székelys.


Length of reign


See also

* Apostolic King *
Grand Prince of the Hungarians Grand Prince ( hu, Nagyfejedelem) was the title used by contemporary sources to name the leader of the federation of the Hungarian tribes in the tenth century. Kōnstantinos Porhyrogennētos mentioned Árpád in his book De Administrando Imperio a ...
* Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen * List of rulers of Hungary * Regent of Hungary


Notes


References

* ''Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon (9–14. század)'', főszerkesztő: Kristó, Gyula, szerkesztők: Engel, Pál és Makk, Ferenc (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1994). * ''Magyarország Történeti Kronológiája I-III. – A kezdetektől 1526-ig; 1526–1848, 1848–1944'', főszerkesztő: Benda, Kálmán (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1981, 1982, 1993). * ''Magyar Történelmi Fogalomtár I-II. – A-K; L-ZS'', főszerkesztő: Bán, Péter (Gondolat, Budapest, 1989). {{refend


External links


Titles of the Kings of Hungary. Bibliography
Kingdom of Hungary Hungarian royalty Lists of monarchs, Hungary 1000 establishments in Europe 10th-century establishments in Hungary 1918 disestablishments in Austria-Hungary