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This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England. Alfred styled himself King of the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
and while he was not the first king to lay claim to rule all of the English, his rule represents the first unbroken line of Kings to rule the whole of England, the House of Wessex.[1] The last monarch of a distinct kingdom of England was Queen Anne, who became Queen of Great Britain when England merged with Scotland to form a union in 1707. For monarchs after Queen Anne, see List of British monarchs.

Family tree of monarchs of England and Great Britain since the Norman Conquest

Arguments are made for a few different kings deemed to control enough of the ancient kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
to be deemed the first King of England. For example, Offa, king of Mercia, and Egbert, king of Wessex, are sometimes described as kings of England by popular writers, but not by all historians.[citation needed] In the late eighth century Offa achieved a dominance over southern England that did not survive his death in 796. In 829 Egbert conquered Mercia, but he soon lost control of it. By the late ninth century Wessex
Wessex
was the dominant Anglo-Saxon kingdom. Its king, Alfred the Great, was overlord of western Mercia
Mercia
and used the title King of the Angles and Saxons, but he never ruled eastern and northern England, which was then the Danelaw. His son Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder
conquered the eastern Danelaw, but Edward's son Æthelstan
Æthelstan
became the first king to rule the whole of England when he conquered Northumbria in 927, and he is regarded by some modern historians as the first king of England.[2][3] The Principality of Wales
Principality of Wales
was incorporated into the Kingdom of England under the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284, and in 1301 King Edward I invested his eldest son, the future King Edward II, as Prince of Wales. Since that time, except for King Edward III, the eldest sons of all English monarchs have borne this title. After the death of Queen Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
without issue, in 1603, King James VI of Scotland
King James VI of Scotland
also became James I of England, joining the crowns of England and Scotland in personal union. By royal proclamation, James styled himself "King of Great Britain", but no such kingdom was created until 1707, when England and Scotland united to form the new Kingdom of Great Britain during the reign of Queen Anne.

Contents

1 House of Wessex 2 House of Denmark 3 House of Wessex
House of Wessex
(restored, first time) 4 House of Denmark (restored) 5 House of Wessex
House of Wessex
(restored, second time) 6 House of Normandy 7 House of Blois 8 House of Anjou 9 House of Plantagenet

9.1 House of Lancaster 9.2 House of York 9.3 House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
(restored) 9.4 House of York
House of York
(restored)

10 House of Tudor 11 House of Stuart

11.1 Interregnum 11.2 House of Stuart
House of Stuart
(restored)

12 Acts of Union 13 Timeline of English monarchs 14 Titles 15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 External links

House of Wessex[edit] For earlier monarchs of Wessex, see List of monarchs of Wessex. Main article: House of Wessex

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

Alfred the Great 23 April 871 – 26 October 899 (28 years, 187 days)

849

Son of Æthelwulf
Æthelwulf
of Wessex and Osburh Ealhswith Gainsborough 868 5 children 26 October 899 Aged about 50 Son of Æthelwulf
Æthelwulf
of Wessex

Treaty of Wedmore [4] [5] [6]

Edward the Elder 26 October 899 – 17 July 924 (24 years, 266 days)

c. 874

Son of Alfred and Ealhswith (1) Ecgwynn c. 893 2 children

(2) Ælfflæd c. 900 8 children

(3) Eadgifu c. 919 4 children 17 July 924 Aged about 50 Son of Alfred [7]

Disputed There is some evidence that Ælfweard of Wessex
Wessex
may have been king for up to four weeks in 924 (timing itself is unclear, as he died 16 days, not 28 days, after his father), between his father Edward the Elder and his brother Æthelstan, although he was not crowned.[8] However, this is not accepted by all historians. Also, it is unclear whether—if Ælfweard was declared king—it was over the whole kingdom or of Wessex
Wessex
only: one interpretation of the ambiguous evidence is that when Edward died, Ælfweard was declared king in Wessex
Wessex
and Æthelstan
Æthelstan
in Mercia.[9]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim

Ælfweard c. 17 July 924 – 2 August 924[10] (16 days) Does not appear c. 901[11]

Son of Edward the Elder and Ælfflæd[11] Does not appear Unmarried? No children 2 August 924[9] Aged about 23[i] Son of Edward the Elder

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

Æthelstan 924 King of the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
(924–927) – King of the English (927–939)27 October 939 (14–15 years)

894

Son of Edward the Elder and Ecgwynn Does not appear Unmarried 27 October 939 Aged about 45 Son of Edward the Elder [13] [14]

Edmund I 27 October 939 – 26 May 946 (6 years, 212 days)

c. 921

Son of Edward the Elder and Eadgifu of Kent (1) Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury 2 sons

(2) Æthelflæd of Damerham 944 No children 26 May 946 Pucklechurch Killed in a brawl aged about 25 Son of Edward the Elder [15] [16] [17]

Eadred 26 May 946 – 23 November 955 (9 years, 182 days)

c. 923

Son of Edward the Elder and Eadgifu of Kent Does not appear Unmarried 23 November 955 Frome Aged about 32 Son of Edward the Elder [18] [19] [20]

Eadwig 23 November 955 – 1 October 959 (3 years, 313 days)

c. 940

Son of Edmund I and Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury Ælfgifu No verified children 1 October 959 Aged about 19 Son of Edmund I [21] [22] [23]

Edgar the Peaceful 1 October 959 – 8 July 975 (15 years, 281 days)

c. 943 Wessex

Son of Edmund I and Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury (1) Æthelflæd c. 960 1 son

(2) Ælfthryth c. 964 2 sons 8 July 975 Winchester Aged 31 Son of Edmund I [24] [25] [26]

Edward the Martyr 8 July 975 – 18 March 978 (2 years, 254 days)

c. 962

Son of Edgar the Peaceful and Æthelflæd Does not appear Unmarried 18 March 978 Corfe Castle Murdered aged about 16 Son of Edgar the Peaceful [27] [28]

(1st reign)[ii] Æthelred Æthelred the Unready 18 March 978 – 1013 (34–35 years)

c. 968

Son of Edgar the Peaceful and Ælfthryth (1) Ælfgifu of York 991 9 children

(2) Emma of Normandy 1002 3 children 23 April 1016 London Aged about 48 Son of Edgar the Peaceful [30] [29] [31]

House of Denmark[edit] Main article: House of Knýtlinga England came under the control of Sweyn Forkbeard, a Danish king, after an invasion in 1013, during which Æthelred abandoned the throne and went into exile in Normandy.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

Sweyn Sweyn Forkbeard 25 December 1013 – 3 February 1014 (41 days)

c. 960 Denmark

Son of Harald Bluetooth and Gyrid Olafsdottir (1) Gunhild of Wenden c. 990 7 children

(2) Sigrid the Haughty c. 1000 1 daughter 3 February 1014 Gainsborough Aged about 54 Right of conquest [32] [33] [34]

House of Wessex
House of Wessex
(restored, first time)[edit] Following the death of Sweyn Forkbeard, Æthelred the Unready
Æthelred the Unready
returned from exile and was again proclaimed king on 3 February 1014. His son succeeded him after being chosen king by the citizens of London
London
and a part of the Witan,[35] despite ongoing Danish efforts in wresting the crown from the West Saxons.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

(2nd reign) Æthelred Æthelred the Unready 3 February 1014 – 23 April 1016 (2 years, 81 days)

c. 968

Son of Edgar the Peaceful and Ælfthryth (1) Ælfgifu of York 991 9 children

(2) Emma of Normandy 1002 3 children 23 April 1016 London Aged about 48 Son of Edgar the Peaceful [30] [29] [31]

Edmund Ironside 23 April 1016 – 30 November 1016 (222 days)

c. 990

Son of Æthelred and Ælfgifu of York Edith of East Anglia 2 children 30 November 1016 Glastonbury Aged 26 Son of Æthelred [35] [36] [37]

House of Denmark (restored)[edit] Following the decisive Battle of Assandun
Battle of Assandun
on 18 October 1016, King Edmund signed a treaty with Cnut in which all of England except for Wessex
Wessex
would be controlled by Cnut.[38] Upon Edmund's death on 30 November, Cnut ruled the whole kingdom as its sole king.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

Canute Cnut the Great 18 October 1016 – 12 November 1035 (19 years, 26 days)

c. 995

Son of Sweyn Forkbeard and Gunhilda of Poland (1) Ælfgifu of Northampton 2 sons

(2) Emma of Normandy 1017 2 children 12 November 1035 Shaftesbury Aged about 40 Son of Sweyn

Treaty of Deerhurst [39] [40]

Harold Harefoot 12 November 1035 – 17 March 1040[iii] (4 years, 127 days)

c. 1016

Son of Canute and Ælfgifu of Northampton Ælfgifu? 1 son? 17 March 1040 Oxford Aged about 24 Son of Canute [42] [41] [43]

Harthacnut 17 March 1040 – 8 June 1042 (2 years, 84 days)

1018

Son of Canute and Emma of Normandy Does not appear Unmarried 8 June 1042 Lambeth Aged about 24 Son of Canute [44] [45] [46]

House of Wessex
House of Wessex
(restored, second time)[edit] After Harthacnut, there was a brief Saxon Restoration between 1042 and 1066.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

Edward the Confessor 8 June 1042 – 5 January 1066 (23 years, 212 days)

c. 1003 Islip

Son of Æthelred and Emma of Normandy Edith of Wessex 23 January 1045 No children 5 January 1066 Westminster
Westminster
Palace Aged about 63 Son of Æthelred [47]

Harold Godwinson 6 January 1066 – 14 October 1066 (282 days)

c. 1022

Son of Godwin of Wessex and Gytha Thorkelsdóttir (1) Edith Swannesha 5 children

(2) Ealdgyth c. 1064 2 sons 14 October 1066 Hastings Died in battle aged 44 Supposedly named heir by Edward the Confessor

Elected by the Witan [48]

(Title disputed) Edgar Ætheling 15 October 1066 – 17 December 1066[iv] (64 days)

c. 1051

Son of Edward the Exile and Agatha Does not appear Unmarried c. 1126 Aged about 75 Grandson of Edmund Ironside [49] [50]

House of Normandy[edit] Main article: House of Normandy In 1066, several rival claimants to the English throne emerged. Among them were Harold Godwinson, elected king by the Witenagemot
Witenagemot
after the death of Edward the Confessor, as well as Harald Hardrada, King of Norway
Norway
who claimed to be the rightful heir of Harthacnut, and Duke William II of Normandy, descendant of Rollo, founder of the royal House of Normandy, vassal to the King of France, and first cousin once-removed of Edward the Confessor. Harald and William both invaded separately in 1066. Godwinson successfully repelled the invasion by Hardrada, but ultimately lost the throne of England in the Norman conquest of England. After the Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror made permanent the recent removal of the capital from Winchester
Winchester
to London. Following the death of Harold Godwinson
Harold Godwinson
on 14 October, the Anglo-Saxon Witenagemot
Witenagemot
elected as king Edgar the Ætheling, the son of Edward the Exile
Edward the Exile
and grandson of Edmund Ironside, but the young monarch was unable to resist the invaders and was never crowned. William was crowned King William I of England
William I of England
on Christmas Day 1066, in Westminster
Westminster
Abbey, and is today known as William the Conqueror, William the Bastard or William I.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

William I William the Bastard / the Conqueror 25 December 1066 – 9 September 1087 (20 years, 259 days)

c. 1028 Falaise Castle

Son of Robert the Magnificent and Herleva Matilda of Flanders Normandy 1053 9 children 9 September 1087 Rouen Aged about 59[v] Supposedly named heir in 1052 by Edward the Confessor

Right of conquest [51]

William II William Rufus 9 September 1087[a] – 2 August 1100 (12 years, 328 days)

c. 1056 Normandy

Son of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders Does not appear Unmarried 2 August 1100 New Forest Shot with an arrow aged 44 Son of William I

Granted the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
over elder brother Robert Curthose [52]

Henry I Henry Beauclerc 2 August 1100[b] – 1 December 1135 (35 years, 122 days)

September 1068 Selby

Son of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders (1) Matilda of Scotland Westminster
Westminster
Abbey 11 November 1100 2 children

(2) Adeliza of Louvain Windsor Castle 29 January 1121 No children 1 December 1135 Saint-Denis-en-Lyons Aged 67[vi] Son of William I

Seizure of the Crown [53]

House of Blois[edit] Main article: House of Blois Henry I left no legitimate male heirs, his son William Adelin
William Adelin
having died in the White Ship
White Ship
disaster. This ended the direct Norman line of kings in England. Henry named his eldest daughter, the dowager Empress Matilda as his heir. Before naming Matilda as heir, however, he had been in negotiations to name his nephew Stephen of Blois
Stephen of Blois
as his heir. When Henry died, Stephen invaded England, and in a coup d'etat had himself crowned instead of Matilda. The period which followed is known as The Anarchy, as parties supporting each side fought in open warfare on both Britain and on the continent for the better part of two decades.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

Stephen Stephen of Blois 22 December 1135[c] – 25 October 1154 (18 years, 308 days)

c. 1096 Blois

Son of Stephen II of Blois and Adela of Normandy Matilda of Boulogne Westminster 1125 6 children 25 October 1154 Dover
Dover
Castle Aged about 58 Grandson of William I

Appointment / usurpation [54] [55]

Disputed claimants Empress Matilda
Empress Matilda
was declared heir presumptive by her father, Henry I, after the death of her brother on the White Ship, and acknowledged as such by the barons. However, upon Henry I's death, the throne was seized by Matilda's cousin, Stephen of Blois. During the ensuing Anarchy, Matilda controlled England for a few months in 1141—the first woman so to do—but was never crowned and is rarely listed as a monarch of England.[vii]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

(Title disputed) Matilda Empress Matilda 7 April 1141 – 1 November 1141 (209 days)

7 February 1102 Sutton Courtenay

Daughter of Henry I and Edith of Scotland (1) Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire Mainz 6 January 1114 No children

(2) Geoffrey Plantagenet Le Mans
Le Mans
Cathedral 22 May 1128 3 sons 10 September 1167 Rouen Aged 65 Daughter of Henry I

Seizure of the Crown [56] [55]

Count Eustace IV of Boulogne (c. 1130 – 17 August 1153) was appointed co-king of England by his father, King Stephen, on 6 April 1152, in order to guarantee his succession to the throne (as was the custom in France, but not in England). However, the Pope
Pope
and the Church would not agree to this, and Eustace was not crowned. Eustace died the next year aged 23, during his father's lifetime, and so never became king in his own right.[57] House of Anjou[edit] Main article: Angevin kings of England Stephen came to an agreement with Matilda in November 1153 with the signing of the Treaty of Wallingford, where Stephen recognised Prince Henry, son of Matilda and her second husband Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, as the heir-apparent to the throne in lieu of his own son, who had died that August. The royal house descended from Matilda and Geoffrey is widely known by two names, the House of Anjou (after Geoffrey's title as Count of Anjou) or the House of Plantagenet, after his sobriquet. Some historians prefer to group the subsequent kings into two groups, before and after the loss of the bulk of their French possessions, although they are not different royal houses. The Angevins ruled over the Angevin Empire
Angevin Empire
during the 12th and 13th centuries, an area stretching from the Pyrenees to Ireland. They did not regard England as their primary home until most of their continental domains were lost by John. Though the Angevin dynasty was short-lived, their male line descendants included the House of Plantagenet, the House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
and the House of York. The Angevins formulated England's royal coat of arms, which usually showed other kingdoms held or claimed by them or their successors, although without representation of Ireland for quite some time. Dieu et mon droit has generally been used as the motto of English monarchs since being adopted by Edward III,[58] but it was first used as a battle cry by Richard I in 1198 at the Battle of Gisors, when he defeated the forces of Philip II of France, after which, he made it his motto.[58][59]

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

Henry II Henry Curtmantle 25 October 1154[d] – 6 July 1189 (34 years, 255 days)

N/A 5 March 1133 Le Mans

Son of Geoffrey V of Anjou and Matilda Eleanor of Aquitaine Bordeaux
Bordeaux
Cathedral 18 May 1152 8 children 6 July 1189 Chinon Aged 56[viii] Grandson of Henry I

Treaty of Wallingford [60]

Richard I Richard the Lionheart 6 July 1189[e] – 6 April 1199 (9 years, 275 days)

8 September 1157 Beaumont Palace

Son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine Berengaria of Navarre Limassol 12 May 1191 No children 6 April 1199 Châlus Shot by an arrow aged 41[ix] Son of Henry II

Primogeniture [61]

John John Lackland 6 April 1199[f] – 19 October 1216 (17 years, 197 days)

24 December 1166 Beaumont Palace

Son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine (1) Isabel of Gloucester Marlborough Castle 29 August 1189 No children

(2) Isabella of Angoulême Bordeaux
Bordeaux
Cathedral 24 August 1200 5 children 19 October 1216 Newark-on-Trent Aged 49[x] Son of Henry II

Proximity of blood [62]

Henry II named his son, another Henry (1155–1183), as co-ruler with him. But this was a Norman custom of designating an heir, and Prince Henry did not outlive his father and rule in his own right, so he is not counted as a monarch on lists of kings.

Disputed claimant Louis VIII of France
Louis VIII of France
briefly ruled about half of England from 1216 to 1217 at the conclusion of the First Barons' War
First Barons' War
against King John. On marching into London
London
he was openly received by the rebel barons and citizens of London
London
and proclaimed (though not crowned) king at St Paul's cathedral. Many nobles, including Alexander II of Scotland
Alexander II of Scotland
for his English possessions, gathered to give homage to him. However, in signing the Treaty of Lambeth
Lambeth
in 1217, Louis conceded that he had never been the legitimate king of England.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim

(Title disputed) Louis Louis VIII the Lion 1216 – 22 September 1217 (1 year)

5 September 1187 Paris

Son of Philip II of France and Isabella of Hainault Blanche of Castile Port-Mort 23 May 1200 13 children 8 November 1226 Montpensier Aged 39 Right of conquest

House of Plantagenet[edit] Main article: House of Plantagenet The House of Plantagenet
House of Plantagenet
takes its name from Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, husband of the Empress Matilda
Empress Matilda
and father of Henry II. The name Plantagenet itself was unknown as a family name per se until Richard of York adopted it as his family name in the 15th century. It has since been retroactively applied to English monarchs from Henry II onward. It is common among modern historians to refer to Henry II and his sons as the "Angevins" due to their vast continental Empire, and most of the Angevin kings before John spent more time in their continental possessions than in England. It is from the time of Henry III, after the loss of most of the family's continental possessions, that the Plantagenet kings became more English in nature. The Houses of Lancaster and York are cadet branches of the House of Plantagenet.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

Henry III Henry of Winchester 19 October 1216[g] – 16 November 1272 (56 years, 29 days)

1 October 1207 Winchester
Winchester
Castle

Son of John and Isabella of Angoulême Eleanor of Provence Canterbury
Canterbury
Cathedral 14 January 1236 5 children 16 November 1272 Westminster
Westminster
Palace Aged 65 Son of John

Primogeniture [63]

Edward I Edward Longshanks 16 November 1272[h] – 7 July 1307 (34 years, 234 days)

17 June 1239 Palace of Westminster

Son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence (1) Eleanor of Castile Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas 18 October 1254 16 children

(2) Margaret of France Canterbury 10 September 1299 3 children 7 July 1307 Burgh by Sands Aged 68 Son of Henry III

Primogeniture [64]

Edward II Edward of Caernarfon 7 July 1307[i] – 24 January 1327 (19 years, 202 days)

25 April 1284 Caernarfon Castle

Son of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile Isabella of France Boulogne Cathedral 24 January 1308 4 children 21 September 1327 Berkeley Castle Murdered aged 43[xi] Son of Edward I

Primogeniture [66]

Edward III 25 January 1327[j] – 21 June 1377 (50 years, 148 days)

13 November 1312 Windsor Castle

Son of Edward II and Isabella of France Philippa of Hainault York Minster 25 January 1328 14 children 21 June 1377 Sheen Palace Aged 64 Son of Edward II

Primogeniture [67]

Richard II 21 June 1377[k] – 29 September 1399 (22 years, 101 days)

6 January 1367 Bordeaux

Son of Edward the Black Prince and Joan of Kent (1) Anne of Bohemia 14 January 1382 No children

(2) Isabella of Valois Calais 4 November 1396 No children 14 February 1400 Pontefract Castle Aged 33 Grandson of Edward III

Primogeniture [68]

House of Lancaster[edit] Main article: House of Lancaster This house descended from Edward III's third surviving son, John of Gaunt. Henry IV seized power from Richard II (and also displaced the next in line to the throne, Edmund Mortimer (then aged 7), a descendant of Edward III's second son, Lionel of Antwerp).

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

Henry IV Henry of Bolingbroke 30 September 1399[l] – 20 March 1413 (13 years, 172 days)

3 April 1367 Bolingbroke Castle

Son of John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster (1) Mary de Bohun Arundel Castle 27 July 1380 7 children

(2) Joanna of Navarre Winchester
Winchester
Cathedral 7 February 1403 No children 20 March 1413 Westminster
Westminster
Abbey Aged 45 Grandson / heir male of Edward III

Usurpation / agnatic primogeniture [69] [70]

Henry V 20 March 1413[m] – 31 August 1422 (9 years, 165 days)

16 September 1386 Monmouth Castle

Son of Henry IV and Mary de Bohun Catherine of Valois Troyes Cathedral 2 June 1420 1 son 31 August 1422 Château de Vincennes Aged 36 Son of Henry IV

Agnatic primogeniture [71] [72]

(1st reign) Henry VI 31 August 1422[n] – 4 March 1461 (38 years, 186 days)

6 December 1421 Windsor Castle

Son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois Margaret of Anjou Titchfield Abbey 22 April 1445 1 son 21 May 1471 Tower of London Allegedly murdered aged 49 Son of Henry V

Agnatic primogeniture [73]

House of York[edit] Main article: House of York The House of York
House of York
inherited its name from the fourth surviving son of Edward III, Edmund, 1st Duke of York, but claimed the right to the throne through Edward III's second surviving son, Lionel of Antwerp. The Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
(1455–1485) saw the throne pass back and forth between the rival houses of Lancaster and York.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

(1st reign) Edward IV 4 March 1461[o] – 3 October 1470 (9 years, 214 days)

28 April 1442 Rouen

Son of Richard of York and Cecily Neville Elizabeth Woodville Grafton Regis 1 May 1464 10 children 9 April 1483 Westminster
Westminster
Palace Aged 40 Great-great-grandson / heir general of Edward III

Seizure of the Crown

Cognatic primogeniture [74]

House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
(restored)[edit]

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

(2nd reign) Henry VI 3 October 1470 – 11 April 1471 (191 days)

6 December 1421 Windsor Castle

Son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois Margaret of Anjou Titchfield Abbey 22 April 1445 1 son 21 May 1471 Tower of London Allegedly murdered aged 49 Son of Henry V

Seizure of the Crown [73]

House of York
House of York
(restored)[edit]

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

(2nd reign) Edward IV 11 April 1471 – 9 April 1483 (11 years, 364 days)

28 April 1442 Rouen

Son of Richard of York and Cecily Neville Elizabeth Woodville Grafton Regis 1 May 1464 10 children 9 April 1483 Westminster
Westminster
Palace Aged 40 Great-great-grandson / heir general of Edward III

Seizure of the Crown

Cognatic primogeniture [74]

Edward V 9 April 1483 – 25 June 1483[xii] (78 days)

2 November 1470 Westminster

Son of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville Does not appear Unmarried Disappeared mid-1483 London Allegedly murdered aged 12 Son of Edward IV

Cognatic primogeniture [75] [76]

Richard III 26 June 1483[p] – 22 August 1485 (2 years, 58 days)

2 October 1452 Fotheringhay Castle

Son of Richard of York and Cecily Neville Anne Neville Westminster
Westminster
Abbey 12 July 1472 1 son 22 August 1485 Bosworth Field Killed in battle aged 32[xiii] Great-great-grandson of Edward III

Titulus Regius [77] [78]

House of Tudor[edit] Main articles: House of Tudor
House of Tudor
and Tudor period The Tudors descended matrilineally from John Beaufort, one of the illegitimate children of John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
(third surviving son of Edward III), by Gaunt's long-term mistress Katherine Swynford. Those descended from English monarchs only through an illegitimate child would normally have no claim on the throne, but the situation was complicated when Gaunt and Swynford eventually married in 1396 (25 years after John Beaufort's birth). In view of the marriage, the church retroactively declared the Beauforts legitimate via a papal bull the same year (also enshrined in an Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
in 1397). A subsequent proclamation by John of Gaunt's legitimate son, King Henry IV, also recognised the Beauforts' legitimacy, but declared them ineligible ever to inherit the throne. Nevertheless, the Beauforts remained closely allied with Gaunt's other descendants, the Royal House of Lancaster. John Beaufort's granddaughter Lady Margaret Beaufort
Lady Margaret Beaufort
was married to Edmund Tudor. Tudor was the son of Welsh courtier Owain Tudur (anglicised to Owen Tudor) and Catherine of Valois, the widowed queen consort of the Lancastrian King Henry V. Edmund Tudor and his siblings were either illegitimate, or the product of a secret marriage, and owed their fortunes to the goodwill of their legitimate half-brother King Henry VI. When the House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
fell from power, the Tudors followed. By the late 15th century, the Tudors were the last hope for the Lancaster supporters. Edmund Tudor's son became king as Henry VII after defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field
Bosworth Field
in 1485, ending the Wars of the Roses. King Henry married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, thereby uniting the Lancastrian and York lineages. With Henry VIII's break from the Roman Catholic Church, the monarch became the Supreme Head of the Church of England
Supreme Head of the Church of England
and of the Church of Ireland. Elizabeth I's title became the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

Henry VII 22 August 1485[q] – 21 April 1509 (23 years, 243 days)

28 January 1457 Pembroke Castle

Son of Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort Elizabeth of York Westminster
Westminster
Abbey 18 January 1486 8 children 21 April 1509 Richmond Palace Aged 52 Great-great-great-grandson of Edward III

Right of conquest [79]

Henry VIII 21 April 1509[r] – 28 January 1547 (37 years, 283 days)

28 June 1491 Greenwich
Greenwich
Palace

Son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York (1) Catherine of Aragon Greenwich 11 June 1509 1 daughter

(2) Anne Boleyn Westminster
Westminster
Palace 25 January 1533[xiv] 1 daughter

(3) Jane Seymour Whitehall
Whitehall
Palace 30 May 1536 1 son

3 further marriages No more children 28 January 1547 Whitehall
Whitehall
Palace Aged 55 Son of Henry VII

Primogeniture [80]

Edward VI 28 January 1547[s] – 6 July 1553 (6 years, 160 days)

12 October 1537 Hampton Court Palace

Son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour Does not appear Unmarried 6 July 1553 Greenwich
Greenwich
Palace Aged 15 Son of Henry VIII

Primogeniture [81]

Disputed claimant Edward VI named Lady Jane Grey
Lady Jane Grey
as his heir in his will, overruling the order of succession laid down by Parliament in the Third Succession Act. Four days after his death on 6 July 1553, Jane was proclaimed queen—the first of three Tudor women to be proclaimed queen regnant. Nine days after the proclamation, on 19 July, the Privy Council switched allegiance and proclaimed Edward VI's Catholic half-sister Mary queen. Jane was executed for treason in 1554, aged 16.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

(Title disputed) Jane 10 July 1553 – 19 July 1553 (Overthrown after 9 days)

October 1537 Bradgate Park

Daughter of the 1st Duke of Suffolk and Frances Brandon Guildford Dudley The Strand 21 May 1553 No children 12 February 1554 Tower of London Executed aged 16 Great-granddaughter of Henry VII

Devise for the Succession [82] [83]

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

Mary I 19 July 1553[t] – 17 November 1558 (5 years, 122 days)

18 February 1516 Greenwich
Greenwich
Palace

Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon Philip II of Spain Winchester
Winchester
Cathedral 25 July 1554 No children 17 November 1558 St James's Palace Aged 42 Daughter of Henry VIII

Third Succession Act [84]

(Jure uxoris) Philip 25 July 1554[xv] – 17 November 1558 (4 years, 116 days)

21 May 1527 Valladolid

Son of Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire and Isabella of Portugal Mary I of England Winchester
Winchester
Cathedral 25 July 1554 No children

3 other marriages 7 children 13 September 1598 El Escorial Aged 71 Husband of Mary I

Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain N/A

Under the terms of the marriage treaty between Philip I of Naples ( Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
from 15 January 1556) and Queen Mary I, Philip was to enjoy Mary's titles and honours for as long as their marriage should last. All official documents, including Acts of Parliament, were to be dated with both their names, and Parliament was to be called under the joint authority of the couple. An Act of Parliament gave him the title of king and stated that he "shall aid her Highness … in the happy administration of her Grace's realms and dominions"[85] (although elsewhere the Act stated that Mary was to be "sole queen"). Nonetheless, Philip was to co-reign with his wife.[86] As the new King of England could not read English, it was ordered that a note of all matters of state should be made in Latin or Spanish.[86][87][88] Coins were minted showing the heads of both Mary and Philip, and the coat of arms of England (pictured right) was impaled with Philip's to denote their joint reign.[89][90] Acts which made it high treason to deny Philip's royal authority were passed in England (see Treason Act 1554) and Ireland.[91] In 1555, Pope
Pope
Paul IV issued a papal bull recognising Philip and Mary as rightful King and Queen of Ireland. Main article: Elizabethan era

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

Elizabeth I 17 November 1558[u] – 24 March 1603 (44 years, 128 days)

7 September 1533 Greenwich
Greenwich
Palace

Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Does not appear Unmarried 24 March 1603 Richmond Palace Aged 69 Daughter of Henry VIII

Third Succession Act [92]

House of Stuart[edit] Main articles: House of Stuart, Stuart period, Jacobean era, and Caroline era Following the death of Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
in 1603 without issue, her first cousin twice removed, King James VI of Scotland, succeeded to the English throne as James I in the Union of the Crowns. James was descended from the Tudors through his great-grandmother, Margaret Tudor, the eldest daughter of Henry VII. In 1604, he adopted the title King of Great Britain. However, the two parliaments remained separate until the Acts of Union 1707.[93]

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

James I 24 March 1603[v] – 27 March 1625 (22 years, 4 days)

19 June 1566 Edinburgh Castle

Son of Lord Darnley and Mary I of Scotland Anne of Denmark Oslo 23 November 1589 7 children 27 March 1625 Theobalds House Aged 58 Great-great-grandson / heir general of Henry VII [94]

Charles I 27 March 1625[w] – 30 January 1649 (23 years, 310 days)

19 November 1600 Dunfermline Palace

Son of James I and Anne of Denmark Henrietta Maria of France St Augustine's Abbey 13 June 1625 9 children 30 January 1649 Whitehall
Whitehall
Palace Executed aged 48 Son of James I

Cognatic primogeniture [95]

Interregnum[edit] Main articles: Commonwealth of England
Commonwealth of England
and Interregnum (1649–1660) No monarch reigned between the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. Between 1649 and 1653, there was no single English head of state, as England was ruled directly by the Rump Parliament
Rump Parliament
with the English Council of State acting as executive power during a period known as the Commonwealth of England. After a coup d'etat in 1653, Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
forcibly took control of England from Parliament. He dissolved the Rump Parliament
Rump Parliament
at the head of a military force and England entered a period known as The Protectorate, under the direct control of a single individual known as the Lord Protector. While not officially monarchs, the holder of the office of Lord passed from Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
to his son Richard. Richard lacked both the ability to rule and confidence of the Army, and he was forcibly removed by the English Committee of Safety under the leadership of Charles Fleetwood
Charles Fleetwood
in May 1659. England again lacked any single head of state during several months of conflict between Fleetwood's party and that of George Monck. Monck took control of the country in December 1659, and after almost a year of anarchy, the monarchy was formally restored when Charles II returned from France to accept the throne of England following the Declaration of Breda and an invitation to reclaim the throne from the Convention Parliament of 1660.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death

Lords Protector

Oliver Cromwell 16 December 1653 – 3 September 1658[96] (4 years, 262 days)

25 April 1599 Huntingdon[96]

Son of Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Steward[97] Elizabeth Bourchier St Giles[98] 22 August 1620 9 children[96] 3 September 1658 Whitehall Aged 59[96]

Richard Cromwell 3 September 1658 – 7 May 1659[99] (247 days)

4 October 1626 Huntingdon

Son of Oliver Cromwell and Elizabeth Bourchier[99] Dorothy Maijor May 1649 9 children[99] 12 July 1712 Cheshunt Aged 85[100]

House of Stuart
House of Stuart
(restored)[edit] Main article: Restoration (England) After the Monarchy was restored, England came under the rule of Charles II, whose reign was relatively peaceful domestically, given the tumultuous time of the Interregnum years. Tensions still existed between Catholics and Protestants, however, and with the ascension of Charles's brother, the openly Catholic James II, England was again sent into a period of political turmoil. James II was ousted by Parliament less than three years after ascending to the throne, replaced by his daughter Mary II and her husband (also his nephew) William III during the Glorious Revolution. While James and his descendants would continue to claim the throne, all Catholics (such as James and his son Charles) were barred from the throne by the Act of Settlement 1701, enacted by Anne, another of James's Protestant daughters. After the Acts of Union 1707, England as a sovereign state ceased to exist, replaced by the new Kingdom of Great Britain.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.

(Recognised by Royalists in 1649) Charles II 29 May 1660[x] – 6 February 1685 (24 years, 254 days)

29 May 1630 St James's Palace

Son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France Catherine of Braganza Portsmouth 21 May 1662 No children 6 February 1685 Whitehall
Whitehall
Palace Aged 54 Son of Charles I

Cognatic primogeniture

English Restoration [101] [102]

James II 6 February 1685[y] – 23 December 1688 (Overthrown after 3 years, 321 days)

14 October 1633 St James's Palace

Son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France (1) Anne Hyde The Strand 3 September 1660 8 children

(2) Mary of Modena Dover 21 November 1673 7 children 16 September 1701 Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye Aged 67 Son of Charles I

Cognatic primogeniture [103]

William III William of Orange 13 February 1689[z] – 8 March 1702 (13 years, 24 days)

4 November 1650 The Hague

Son of William II of Orange and Princess Mary The Lady Mary St James's Palace 4 November 1677 No children 8 March 1702 Kensington Palace Aged 51 Grandson of Charles I

Offered the Crown by Parliament [104] [105]

Mary II 13 February 1689[z] – 28 December 1694 (5 years, 319 days)

30 April 1662 St James's Palace

Daughter of James II and Anne Hyde William of Orange St James's Palace 4 November 1677 No children 28 December 1694 Kensington Palace Aged 32 Daughter of James II

Offered the Crown by Parliament [105]

Anne 8 March 1702[aa] – 1 May 1707[106] (5 years, 55 days)

6 February 1665 St James's Palace

Daughter of James II and Anne Hyde George of Denmark St James's Palace 28 July 1683 No surviving children 1 August 1714 Kensington Palace Aged 49 Daughter of James II

Cognatic primogeniture

Bill of Rights 1689 [107]

After the Acts of Union 1707
Acts of Union 1707
See List of British monarchs.

Acts of Union[edit] The Acts of Union 1707
Acts of Union 1707
were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England
Parliament of England
and the Parliament of Scotland to put into effect the Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union
agreed on 22 July 1706. The Acts joined the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
and the Kingdom of Scotland (previously separate sovereign states, with separate legislatures but with the same monarch) into the Kingdom of Great Britain.[108] England, Scotland, and Ireland had shared a monarch for more than a hundred years, since the Union of the Crowns
Union of the Crowns
in 1603, when King James VI of Scotland inherited the English and Irish thrones from his first cousin twice removed, Queen Elizabeth I. Although described as a Union of Crowns, until 1707 there were in fact two separate Crowns resting on the same head. There had been attempts in 1606, 1667, and 1689, to unite England and Scotland by Acts of Parliament, but it was not until the early eighteenth century that the idea had the support of both political establishments behind it, albeit for rather different reasons. Timeline of English monarchs[edit]

Titles[edit] Main article: Style of the British sovereign The standard title for all monarchs from Æthelstan
Æthelstan
until the time of King John was Rex Anglorum ("King of the English"). In addition, many of the pre-Norman kings assumed extra titles, as follows:

Æthelstan: Rex totius Britanniae ("King of the Whole of Britain") Edmund the Magnificent: Rex Britanniæ ("King of Britain") and Rex Anglorum cæterarumque gentium gobernator et rector ("King of the English and of other peoples governor and director") Eadred: Regis qui regimina regnorum Angulsaxna, Norþhymbra, Paganorum, Brettonumque ("Reigning over the governments of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxons, Northumbrians, Pagans, and British") Eadwig
Eadwig
the Fair: Rex nutu Dei Angulsæxna et Northanhumbrorum imperator paganorum gubernator Breotonumque propugnator ("King by the will of God, Emperor of the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
and Northumbrians, governor of the pagans, commander of the British") Edgar the Peaceful: Totius Albionis finitimorumque regum basileus ("Autocrat of all Albion and its neighbouring realms") Canute: Rex Anglorum totiusque Brittannice orbis gubernator et rector ("King of the English and of all the British sphere governor and director") and Brytannie totius Anglorum monarchus ("Monarch of all the English of Britain")

In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with occasional use of Rex Anglie ("King of England"). The Empress Matilda
Empress Matilda
styled herself Domina Anglorum ("Lady of the English"). From the time of King John onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Rex or Regina Anglie. In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title (now usually rendered in English rather than Latin) King of Great Britain. The English and Scottish parliaments, however, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707 under Queen Anne (who was Queen of Great Britain rather than king).[xvi] See also[edit]

Alternative successions of the English crown Bretwalda Demise of the Crown English monarchs' family tree Heptarchy List of English consorts List of British monarchs List of Irish monarchs List of monarchs of the British Isles by cause of death List of monarchs of Wessex, AD 519 to 927 Lists of monarchs in the British Isles List of rulers of the United Kingdom and predecessor states List of rulers of Wales List of Scottish monarchs Line of succession to the British throne, a list of people Mnemonic verse of monarchs in England Succession to the British throne, a historical overview and current rules

Notes[edit]

^ Ælfweard is buried at Winchester.[12] ^ Æthelred was forced to go into exile in mid-1013, following Danish attacks, but was invited back following Sweyn Forkbeard's death.[29] ^ Harold was only recognised as Regent until 1037, when was recognised as king.[41]. ^ After reigning for approximately 9 weeks, Edgar Atheling submitted to William the Conqueror, who had gained control of the area to the south and immediate west of London.[49] ^ William I is buried at the Abbey of Saint-Étienne (French: Abbaye aux Hommes) in France. ^ Henry I is buried at Reading Abbey. ^ Matilda is not listed as a monarch of England in many genealogies within texts, including Carpenter, David (2003). A Struggle for Mastery. p. 533. ; Warren, W.L. (1973). Henry II. p. 176. ; and Gillingham, John (1984). The Angevin Empire. p. x. . ^ Henry II is buried at Fontevraud Abbey. ^ Richard II was buried at Rouen
Rouen
Cathedral. His body currently lies at Fontevraud Abbey. ^ John is buried at Worcester Cathedral. ^ The date of Edward II's death is disputed by historian Ian Mortimer, who argues that he may not have been murdered, but held imprisoned in Europe for several more years.[65] ^ Edward V was deposed by Richard III, who usurped the throne on the grounds that Edward was illegitimate. He was never crowned.[75] ^ The body of Richard III was exhumed and reburied in Leicester Cathedral in 2015. ^ Edward Hall
Edward Hall
and Raphael Holinshed
Raphael Holinshed
both record an earlier secret wedding between Henry and Anne, which was conducted in Dover
Dover
on 15 November 1532. ^ Philip was not meant to be a mere consort; rather, the status of Mary I's husband was envisioned as that of a co-monarch during her reign. (See Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain.) However the extent of his authority and his status are ambiguous. The Act says that Philip shall have the title of king and "shall aid her Highness ... in the happy administration of her Grace's realms and dominions", but elsewhere says that Mary shall be the sole Queen. ^ After the personal union of the crowns, James was the first to style himself King of Great Britain, but the title was rejected by the English Parliament
English Parliament
and had no basis in law. The Parliament of Scotland also opposed it.[109] (See also Union Flag.)

Coronations

^ William II was crowned on 26 September 1087. ^ Henry I was crowned on 5 August 1100. ^ Stephen was crowned on 26 December 1135. ^ Henry II was crowned on 19 December 1154 with Queen Eleanor. ^ Richard I was crowned on 3 September 1189. ^ John was crowned on 27 May 1199. ^ Henry III was crowned on 28 October 1216. ^ Edward I was crowned on 19 August 1274 with Queen Eleanor. ^ Edward II was crowned on 25 February 1308 with Queen Isabella. ^ Edward III
Edward III
was crowned on 1 February 1327. ^ Richard II was crowned on 16 July 1377. ^ Henry IV was crowned on 13 October 1399. ^ Henry V was crowned on 9 April 1413. ^ Henry VI was crowned on 6 November 1429. ^ Edward IV was crowned on 28 June 1461. ^ Richard III was crowned on 6 July 1483 with Queen Anne. ^ Henry VII was crowned on 30 October 1485. ^ Henry VIII was crowned on 24 June 1509 with Queen Catherine. ^ Edward VI was crowned on 20 February 1547. ^ Mary I was crowned on 1 October 1553. ^ Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
was crowned on 15 January 1559. ^ James I was crowned on 25 July 1603 with Queen Anne. ^ Charles I was crowned on 2 February 1626. ^ Charles II was crowned on 23 April 1661. ^ James II was crowned on 23 April 1685 with Queen Mary. ^ a b Mary II and William III were crowned on 11 April 1689. ^ Anne was crowned on 23 April 1702.

References[edit]

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Alfred the Great
to the Present. Running Press.  ^ Fryde, E. B., ed. (1996). Handbook of British Chronology (3rd ed.). Royal Historical Society. p. 25. ISBN 0-521-56350-X.  ^ Keynes, Simon (2001). "Rulers of the English, c.450–1066". In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Blackwell Publishing. p. 514. ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1.  ^ Pratt, David (2007). "The political thought of King Alfred the Great". Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought: Fourth Series. Cambridge University Press. 67: 106. ISBN 978-0-521-80350-2.  ^ "Kings and Queens of England". britroyals.com.  ^ "Alfred 'The Great' (r. 871–899)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "Edward 'The Elder' (r. 899–924)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ Yorke, Barbara (1988). Bishop Æthelwold: His Career and Influence. Woodbridge. p. 71.  ^ a b Keynes, Simon (2001). "Rulers of the English, c 450–1066". In Lapidge, Michael. The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. p. 514.  ^ Miller, Sean (2001). "Æthelstan". In Lapidge, Michael. The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. p. 16.  ^ a b Keynes, Simon (2001). "Edward the Elder". In Higham, N. J.; Hill, D. H. Edward, King of the Anglo-Saxons. Routledge. pp. 50–51.  ^ Thacker, Alan (2001). "Dynastic Monasteries and Family Cults". In Higham, N. J.; Hill, D. H. Edward the Elder. Routledge. p. 253.  ^ "Aethelstan". archontology.org. Retrieved 15 March 2007.  ^ "Athelstan (r.924–939)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "Eadmund (Edmund)". archontology.org. Retrieved 17 March 2007.  ^ "Edmund the Elder". englishmonarchs.co.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2007.  ^ " Edmund I
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Eadwig
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Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford
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Harold Harefoot
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Edward III
'The Confessor' (r. 1042–1066)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "Harold II (r. Jan – Oct 1066)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ a b "Eadgar (the Ætheling)". archontology.org. Retrieved 26 October 2007.  ^ "Edgar Atheling (r. Oct – Dec 1066)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "William I 'The Conqueror' (r. 1066–1087)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "William II (Known as William Rufus) (r. 1087–1100)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "Henry I 'Beauclerc' (r. 1100-1135)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "Stephen (of Blois)". archontology.org. Retrieved 25 October 2007.  ^ a b "Stephen and Matilda (r. 1135–1154)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "Matilda (the Empress)". archontology.org. Retrieved 27 October 2007.  ^ Ashley, Mike (1999). The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. London: Robinson Publishing Ltd. p. 516. ISBN 1-84119-096-9.  ^ a b Pine, Leslie Gilbert (1983). A Dictionary of mottoes. Routledge. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-7100-9339-4.  ^ Norris, Herbert (1999). Medieval Costume and Fashion (illustrated, reprint ed.). Courier Dover
Dover
Publications. p. 312. ISBN 0-486-40486-2.  ^ "Henry II 'Curtmantle' (r. 1154–1189)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "Richard I Coeur de Lion ('The Lionheart') (r.1189–1199)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "John Lackland (r. 1199–1216)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "Henry III (r. 1216–1272)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "Edward I 'Longshanks' (r. 1272–1307)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ Mortimer, Ian. The Perfect King: The Life of Edward III, Father of the English Nation. ISBN 0-09-952709-X.  ^ "Edward II (r. 1307–1327)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ " Edward III
Edward III
(r. 1327–1377)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "Richard II (r. 1377–1399)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ Mortimer, Ian (2007). "Henry IV's date of birth and the royal Maundy". Historical Research. University of London. 80 (210): 567–576. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.2006.00403.x. ISSN 0950-3471.  ^ "Henry IV (r.1399–1413)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ Allmand, Christopher (September 2010). "Henry V (1386–1422)". Oxford
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(1554)". Document Discovery Project.  ^ a b Montrose, Louis Adrian (2006). The subject of Elizabeth: authority, gender, and representation. University of Chicago Press.  ^ Pollard, A. F. (2007). The History of England – From the Accession of Edward VI to the Death of Elizabeth (1547–1603). Read Books.  ^ Groot, Wim de (2005). The Seventh Window: The King's Window Donated by Philip II and Mary Tudor to Sint Janskerk in Gouda (1557). Uitgeverij Verloren.  ^ Marks, Richard; Payne, Ann; British Museum; British Library, eds. (1978). British heraldry from its origins to c. 1800. British Museum Publications Ltd.  ^ The Numismatist. American Numismatic Association. 1971.  ^ Edwards, Robert Dudley (1977). Ireland in the age of the Tudors: the destruction of Hiberno-Norman civilisation. Taylor & Francis.  ^ " Elizabeth I
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Monarchs of England.

"Archontology – English Kings/Queens from 871 to 1707". archontology.org.  "Britannia: Monarchs of Britain". britannia.com.  "British Royal Family History – Kings and Queens". britroyals.com.  "English Monarchs – A complete history of the Kings and Queens of England". englishmonarchs.co.uk. 

v t e

English, Scottish and British monarchs

Monarchs of England before 1603 Monarchs of Scotland before 1603

Alfred the Great Edward the Elder Ælfweard Æthelstan Edmund I Eadred Eadwig Edgar the Peaceful Edward the Martyr Æthelred the Unready Sweyn Edmund II Cnut Harold I Harthacnut Edward the Confessor Harold II Edgar Ætheling William I William II Henry I Stephen Matilda Henry II Henry the Young King Richard I John Henry III Edward I Edward II Edward III Richard II Henry IV Henry V Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Mary I and Philip Elizabeth I

Kenneth I MacAlpin Donald I Constantine I Áed Giric Eochaid Donald II Constantine II Malcolm I Indulf Dub Cuilén Amlaíb Kenneth II Constantine III Kenneth III Malcolm II Duncan I Macbeth Lulach Malcolm III Donald III Duncan II Donald III Edgar Alexander I David I Malcolm IV William I Alexander II Alexander III Margaret of Norway First Interregnum John Balliol Second Interregnum Robert I David II Edward Balliol Robert II Robert III James I James II James III James IV James V Mary I James VI

Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns
Union of the Crowns
in 1603

James I & VI Charles I Commonwealth Charles II James II & VII William III & II and Mary II Anne

British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707

Anne George I George II George III George IV William IV Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II

Debatable or disputed rule

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