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This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
, King of Wessex
Wessex
, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England. While Alfred was not the first king to lay claim to rule all of the English, his rule represents the first unbroken line of Kings to rule the whole of England, the House of Wessex
Wessex
. The last monarch of a distinct kingdom of England was Queen Anne , who became Queen of Great Britain when England merged with Scotland to form a union in 1707. For monarchs after Queen Anne, see List of British monarchs
List of British monarchs
. Family tree of monarchs of England and Great Britain since the Norman Conquest

Arguments are made for a few different kings deemed to control enough of the ancient kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxons to be deemed the first King of England. For example, Offa , king of Mercia
Mercia
, and Egbert , king of Wessex
Wessex
, are sometimes described as kings of England by popular writers, but not by all historians. In the late eighth century Offa achieved a dominance over southern England that did not survive his death in 796. In 829 Egbert conquered Mercia, but he soon lost control of it. By the late ninth century Wessex
Wessex
was the dominant Anglo-Saxon kingdom. Its king, Alfred the Great, was overlord of western Mercia
Mercia
and used the title _King of the Angles and Saxons_, but he never ruled eastern and northern England, which was then the Danelaw . His son Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder
conquered the eastern Danelaw, but Edward's son Æthelstan
Æthelstan
became the first king to rule the whole of England when he conquered Northumbria in 927, and he is regarded by some modern historians as the first king of England.

The Principality of Wales was incorporated into the Kingdom of England under the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284, and in 1301 King Edward I invested his eldest son, the future King Edward II , as Prince of Wales . Since that time, except for King Edward III , the eldest sons of all English monarchs have borne this title. After the death of Queen Elizabeth I
Queen Elizabeth I
without issue, in 1603, the crowns of England and Scotland were joined in personal union under King James VI of Scotland , who became James I
James I
of England. By royal proclamation, James styled himself "King of Great Britain", but no such kingdom was created until 1707, when England underwent legislative union with Scotland to form the new Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
, during the reign of Queen Anne.

CONTENTS

* 1 House of Wessex
Wessex
* 2 House of Denmark * 3 House of Wessex
Wessex
(restored, first time) * 4 House of Denmark (restored) * 5 House of Wessex
Wessex
(restored, second time) * 6 House of Normandy * 7 House of Blois * 8 House of Anjou

* 9 House of Plantagenet

* 9.1 House of Lancaster * 9.2 House of York * 9.3 House of Lancaster (restored) * 9.4 House of York (restored)

* 10 House of Tudor

* 11 House of Stuart

* 11.1 Interregnum * 11.2 House of Stuart (restored)

* 12 Acts of Union * 13 Timeline of English monarchs * 14 Titles * 15 See also * 16 Notes * 17 External links

HOUSE OF WESSEX

For earlier monarchs of Wessex, see List of monarchs of Wessex
Wessex
.

NAME PORTRAIT BIRTH MARRIAGES DEATH CLAIM

ALFRED THE GREAT 871 – 26 October 899 849

Son of Æthelwulf (king of Wessex) and Osburh Ealhswith 868 five children 26 October 899 Aged about 50 Son of Æthelwulf (king of Wessex) / Treaty of Wedmore

EDWARD THE ELDER 26 October 899 – 17 July 924 c. 874

Son of Alfred and Ealhswith (1) Ecgwynn two children (2) Ælfflæd eight children (3) Eadgifu four children 17 July 924 Aged about 50 Son of Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great

-------------------------

DISPUTED CLAIMANT

There is some evidence that Ælfweard of Wessex
Wessex
may have been king for up to four weeks in 924 (timing itself is unclear, as he died 16 days, not 28 days, after his father), between his father Edward the Elder and his brother Æthelstan, although he was not crowned. However, this is not accepted by all historians. Also, it is unclear whether Ælfweard was declared king of the whole kingdom or of Wessex only: there is evidence that when Edward died, Ælfweard was declared king in Wessex
Wessex
and Æthelstan
Æthelstan
in Mercia.

NAME PORTRAIT BIRTH MARRIAGES DEATH CLAIM

ÆLFWEARD July 924 – 3 August 924 c. 901

Son of Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder
and Ælfflæd Unmarried? No children 3 August 924 Aged about 23 Buried at Winchester
Winchester
Son of Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder

-------------------------

NAME PORTRAIT BIRTH MARRIAGES DEATH CLAIM

ÆTHELSTAN 924 – 27 October 939 King of the Anglo-Saxons 924–927 King of the English 927–939 894

Son of Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder
and Ecgwynn Unmarried 27 October 939 Aged about 45 Son of Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder

EDMUND I 28 October 939 – 26 May 946 c. 921

Son of Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder
and Eadgifu of Kent (1) Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury two children (2) Æthelflæd of Damerham No children 26 May 946 Pucklechurch Aged about 25 (Killed in a brawl) Son of Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder

EADRED 27 May 946 – 23 November 955 c. 923

Son of Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder
and Eadgifu of Kent Unmarried 23 November 955 Frome
Frome
Aged about 32 Son of Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder

EADWIG 24 November 955 – 1 October 959 c. 940

Son of Edmund I
Edmund I
and Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury Ælfgifu 1 October 959 Aged about 19 Son of Edmund I
Edmund I

EDGAR THE PEACEFUL 2 October 959 – 8 July 975 7 August 943 Wessex

Son of Edmund I
Edmund I
and Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury (1) Æthelflæd c. 960 1 son (2) Ælfthryth c. 964 2 sons 8 July 975 Winchester Aged 31 Son of Edmund I
Edmund I

EDWARD THE MARTYR 9 July 975 – 18 March 978 c. 962

Son of Edgar the Peaceful and Æthelflæd Unmarried 18 March 978 Corfe Castle
Corfe Castle
Aged about 16 (Assassinated) Son of Edgar the Peaceful

ÆTHELRED THE UNREADY 19 March 978 – 1013 (_first reign_) c. 968

Son of Edgar the Peaceful and Ælfthryth (1) Ælfgifu of York 991 nine children (2) Emma of Normandy 1002 three children 23 April 1016 London Aged about 48 Son of Edgar the Peaceful

HOUSE OF DENMARK

Main article: House of Knýtlinga

England came under the control of Sweyn Forkbeard, a Danish king , after an invasion in 1013, during which Æthelred abandoned the throne and went into exile in Normandy.

NAME PORTRAIT BIRTH MARRIAGES DEATH CLAIM

SWEYN FORKBEARD 25 December 1013 – 3 February 1014 c. 960 Denmark

Son of Harald Bluetooth
Harald Bluetooth
and Gyrid Olafsdottir (1) Gunhild of Wenden c. 990 seven children (2) Sigrid the Haughty c. 1000 1 daughter 3 February 1014 Gainsborough Aged about 54 Right of conquest

HOUSE OF WESSEX (RESTORED, FIRST TIME)

Following the death of Sweyn Forkbeard, Æthelred the Unready returned from exile and was again proclaimed king on 3 February 1014. His son succeeded him after being chosen king by the citizens of London
London
and a part of the Witan , despite ongoing Danish efforts in wresting the crown from the West Saxons .

NAME PORTRAIT BIRTH MARRIAGES DEATH CLAIM

ÆTHELRED THE UNREADY 3 February 1014 – 23 April 1016 (_second reign_) c. 968

Son of Edgar the Peaceful and Ælfthryth (1) Ælfgifu of York 991 nine children (2) Emma of Normandy 1002 three children 23 April 1016 London Aged about 48 Son of Edgar the Peaceful

EDMUND IRONSIDE 24 April 1016 – 30 November 1016 c. 990

Son of Æthelred the Unready and Ælfgifu of York Edith of East Anglia two children 30 November 1016 Glastonbury
Glastonbury
Aged 26 Son of Æthelred the Unready

HOUSE OF DENMARK (RESTORED)

Following the decisive Battle of Assandun on 18 October 1016, King Edmund signed a treaty with Cnut in which all of England except for Wessex
Wessex
would be controlled by Cnut. Upon Edmund's death on 30 November, Cnut ruled the whole kingdom as its sole king.

NAME PORTRAIT BIRTH MARRIAGES DEATH CLAIM

CNUT THE GREAT 18 October 1016 – 12 November 1035 c. 995

Son of Sweyn Forkbeard
Sweyn Forkbeard
and Gunhilda of Poland (1) Aelfgifu of Northampton two children (2) Emma of Normandy 1017 two children 12 November 1035 Shaftesbury
Shaftesbury
Aged about 40 Son of Sweyn Forkbeard
Sweyn Forkbeard
(Treaty of Deerhurst )

HAROLD HAREFOOT 13 November 1035 – 17 March 1040 c. 1016

Son of Cnut and Ælfgifu of Northampton Ælfgifu? 1 son? 17 March 1040 Oxford
Oxford
Aged about 24 Son of Cnut the Great

HARTHACNUT 17 March 1040 – 8 June 1042 1018

Son of Cnut and Emma of Normandy Unmarried 8 June 1042 Lambeth Aged about 24 (Stroke caused by excessive alcohol consumption) Son of Cnut the Great

HOUSE OF WESSEX (RESTORED, SECOND TIME)

After Harthacnut , there was a brief Saxon Restoration between 1042 and 1066.

NAME PORTRAIT BIRTH MARRIAGES DEATH CLAIM

EDWARD THE CONFESSOR 9 June 1042 – 5 January 1066 c. 1003 Islip, Oxfordshire

Son of Æthelred the Unready and Emma of Normandy Edith of Wessex
Wessex
23 January 1045 No children 5 January 1066 Westminster
Westminster
Palace Aged about 63 Son of Æthelred the Unready

HAROLD GODWINSON 6 January 1066 – 14 October 1066 c. 1022

Son of Godwin, Earl of Wessex
Wessex
and Gytha Thorkelsdóttir (1) Edith Swannesha five children (2) Ealdgyth c. 1064 two children 14 October 1066 Hastings
Hastings
Aged 44 (Died in battle) Supposedly named heir by Edward the Confessor Elected by the Witan

EDGAR THE ÆTHELING 15 October 1066 – 17 December 1066 Proclaimed, but never crowned c. 1051 Hungary

Son of Edward the Exile and Agatha Unmarried c. 1126 Aged about 75 Grandson of Edmund Ironside

HOUSE OF NORMANDY

Main article: House of Normandy

In 1066, several rival claimants to the English throne emerged. Among them were Harold Godwinson, elected king by the Witenagemot after the death of Edward the Confessor, as well as Harald Hardrada
Harald Hardrada
, King of Norway
Norway
who claimed to be the rightful heir of Harthacnut, and Duke William II of Normandy
Normandy
, descendant of Rollo , founder of the royal House of Normandy , vassal to the King of France, and first cousin once-removed of Edward the Confessor . Harald and William both invaded separately in 1066. Godwinson successfully repelled the invasion by Hardrada, but ultimately lost the throne of England in the Norman conquest of England . After the Battle of Hastings
Hastings
, William the Conqueror made permanent the recent removal of the capital from Winchester
Winchester
to London
London
. Following the death of Harold Godwinson on 14 October, the Anglo-Saxon Witenagemot elected as king Edgar the Ætheling , the son of Edward the Exile and grandson of Edmund Ironside, but the young monarch was unable to resist the invaders and was never crowned. William was crowned King William I of England on Christmas Day 1066, in Westminster Abbey , and is today known as William the Conqueror, William the Bastard or William I.

Name Reign PORTRAIT BIRTH Marriage(s) Issue DEATH CLAIM

WILLIAM I WILLIAM THE BASTARD WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR 25 December 1066 – 9 September 1087 c. 1028 Falaise Castle

Son of Robert I, Duke of Normandy and Herleva
Herleva
Matilda of Flanders Chapel Notre Dame of the castle in Eu, Normandy
Normandy
1053 nine children 9 September 1087 Rouen
Rouen
After wounding himself on the saddle when his horse stumbled. Buried at Saint Etienne Abbey ( Abbaye aux Hommes ) of Caen
Caen
Supposedly named heir by Edward the Confessor in 1052 right of conquest

WILLIAM II WILLIAM RUFUS 9 September 1087 – 2 August 1100 c. 1056 Normandy
Normandy

Son of William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
and Matilda of Flanders Unmarried 2 August 1100 New Forest
New Forest
Aged 44 when shot with an arrow, events still unclear. Son of William I (appointment)

HENRY I HENRY BEAUCLERC 2 August 1100 – 1 December 1135 September 1068 Selby

Son of William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
and Matilda of Flanders (1) Matilda of Scotland Westminster Abbey 11 November 1100 two children (2) Adeliza of Louvain Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle
29 January 1121 No children 1 December 1135 Castle of Lyons-la-Forêt (Saint-Denis-en-Lyons) Aged 67 apparently from eating a surfeit of lampreys. Buried at Reading Abbey Son of William I (seizure of the crown)

HOUSE OF BLOIS

Main article: House of Blois

Henry I left no legitimate male heirs, his son William Adelin having died in the _ White Ship
White Ship
_ disaster. This ended the direct Norman line of kings in England. Henry named his eldest daughter, the dowager Empress Matilda as his heir. Before naming Matilda as heir, however, he had been in negotiations to name his nephew Stephen of Blois as his heir. When Henry died, Stephen invaded England, and in a coup d\'etat had himself crowned instead of Matilda. The period which followed is known as The Anarchy , as parties supporting each side fought in open warfare on both Britain and on the continent for the better part of two decades.

Name Reign PORTRAIT BIRTH Marriage(s) Issue DEATH CLAIM

STEPHEN STEPHEN OF BLOIS 22 December 1135 – 25 October 1154 c. 1096 Blois

Son of Stephen, Count of Blois and Adela of Normandy
Normandy
Matilda of Boulogne Westminster
Westminster
1125 six children 25 October 1154 Dover Castle Aged about 58 Grandson of William I (appointment/ usurpation)

-------------------------

DISPUTED CLAIMANTS

EMPRESS MATILDA was declared heir presumptive by her father, Henry I, after the death of her brother on the White Ship
White Ship
, and acknowledged as such by the barons. However, upon Henry I's death, the throne was seized by Matilda's cousin, Stephen of Blois . During the ensuing Anarchy , Matilda controlled England for a few months in 1141 — the first woman so to do — but was never crowned and is rarely listed as a monarch of England.

Name Reign PORTRAIT BIRTH Marriage(s) Issue DEATH CLAIM

_MATILDA _ EMPRESS MATILDA 7 April 1141 – 1 November 1141 Title disputed 7 February 1102 Sutton Courtenay
Sutton Courtenay

Daughter of Henry I and Edith of Scotland (1) Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Mainz
Mainz
6 January 1114 No children (2) Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou Le Mans Cathedral 22 May 1128 three children 10 September 1167 Notre Dame du Pré in Rouen
Rouen
Aged 65 Daughter of Henry I (seizure of the crown )

COUNT EUSTACE IV OF BOULOGNE (c. 1130 – 17 August 1153) was appointed co-king of England by his father, King Stephen , on 6 April 1152, in order to guarantee his succession to the throne (as was the custom in France, but not in England). However, the Pope
Pope
and the Church would not agree to this, and Eustace was not crowned. Eustace died the next year aged 23, during his father's lifetime, and so never became king in his own right.

HOUSE OF ANJOU

Main article: Angevin kings of England

Stephen came to an agreement with Matilda in November 1153 with the signing of the Treaty of Wallingford , where Stephen recognised Prince Henry , son of Matilda and her second husband Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou , as the heir-apparent to the throne in lieu of his own son, who had died that August. The royal house descended from Matilda and Geoffrey is widely known by two names, the House of Anjou (after Geoffrey's title as Count of Anjou) or the House of Plantagenet, after his sobriquet . Some historians prefer to group the subsequent kings into two groups, before and after the loss of the Angevin Empire, although they are not different royal houses.

The Angevins ruled over the Angevin Empire
Angevin Empire
during the 12th and 13th centuries, an area stretching from the Pyrenees to Ireland. They did not regard England as their primary home until most of their continental domains were lost by John . Though the Angevin Dynasty was short-lived, their male line descendants included the House of Plantagenet, the House of Lancaster and the House of York.

The Angevins formulated England\'s royal coat of arms , which usually showed other kingdoms held or claimed by them or their successors, although without representation of Ireland for quite some time. _Dieu et mon droit _ has generally been used as the motto of English monarchs since being adopted by Edward III
Edward III
, but it was first used as a battle cry by Richard I
Richard I
in 1198 at the Battle of Gisors , when he defeated the forces of Philip II of France , after which, he made it his motto.

Name Reign PORTRAIT ARMS BIRTH Marriage(s) Issue DEATH CLAIM

HENRY II HENRY CURTMANTLE 25 October 1154 – 6 July 1189

5 March 1133 Le Mans
Le Mans

Son of Geoffrey V of Anjou and Matilda , daughter of Henry I Eleanor of Aquitaine Bordeaux Cathedral 18 May 1152 eight children 6 July 1189 Chinon
Chinon
Aged 56. Buried at Fontevraud Abbey
Fontevraud Abbey
Grandson of Henry I ( Treaty of Wallingford )

RICHARD I RICHARD THE LIONHEART 6 July 1189 – 6 April 1199

8 September 1157 Beaumont Palace

Son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine Berengaria of Navarre Limassol
Limassol
12 May 1191 No children 6 April 1199 Châlus Aged 41 from an arrow wound in the shoulder that became infected. Buried: Heart at Rouen
Rouen
Cathedral . Body at Fontevraud Abbey
Fontevraud Abbey
Son of Henry II (primogeniture )

JOHN LACKLAND 6 April 1199 – 19 October 1216

24 December 1166 Beaumont Palace

Son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine (1) Isabel of Gloucester Marlborough Castle 29 August 1189 No children

(2) Isabella of Angoulême Bordeaux Cathedral 24 August 1200 five children 19 October 1216 Newark-on-Trent Aged 49. Buried at Worcester Cathedral
Worcester Cathedral
brother of Richard I
Richard I
(proximity of blood)

Henry II named his son, another HENRY (1155–1183), as co-ruler with him. But this was a Norman custom of designating an heir, and Prince Henry did not outlive his father and rule in his own right, so he is not counted as a monarch on lists of kings. -------------------------

DISPUTED CLAIMANT

LOUIS VIII OF FRANCE briefly ruled about half of England from 1216 to 1217 at the conclusion of the First Barons\' War against King John . On marching into London
London
he was openly received by the rebel barons and citizens of London
London
and proclaimed (though not crowned) king at St Paul's cathedral. Many nobles, including Alexander II of Scotland for his English possessions, gathered to give homage to him. However, in signing the Treaty of Lambeth in 1217, Louis conceded that he had never been the legitimate king of England.

Name Reign PORTRAIT ARMS BIRTH Marriage(s) Issue DEATH CLAIM

_LOUIS _ THE LION 1216– 22 September 1217 Title disputed

5 September 1187 Paris

Son of Philip II of France and Isabella of Hainault Blanche of Castile Portmont 23 May 1200 13 children 8 November 1226 Montpensier
Montpensier
Aged 39 Right of conquest

HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET

Main article: House of Plantagenet

The House of Plantagenet takes its name from Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou , husband of the Empress Matilda and father of Henry II. The name Plantagenet itself was unknown as a family name _per se_ until Richard of York adopted it as his family name in the 15th century. It has since been retroactively applied to English monarchs from Henry II onward. It is common among modern historians to refer to Henry II and his sons as the "Angevins" due to their vast continental Empire, and most of the Angevin kings before John spent more time in their continental possessions than in England. It is from the time of Henry III, after the loss of most of the family's continental possessions, that the Plantagenet kings became more English in nature. The Houses of Lancaster and York are cadet branches of the House of Plantagenet.

Name Reign PORTRAIT ARMS BIRTH Marriage(s) Issue DEATH CLAIM

HENRY III HENRY OF WINCHESTER 19 October 1216 – 16 November 1272

1 October 1207 Winchester
Winchester
Castle

Son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême Eleanor of Provence Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
14 January 1236 five children 16 November 1272 Westminster
Westminster
Palace Aged 65 Son of King John (primogeniture)

EDWARD I LONGSHANKS 16 November 1272 – 7 July 1307

17 June 1239 Westminster
Westminster
Palace

Son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence (1) Eleanor of Castile Abbey of Santa Maria la Real de Huelgas 18 October 1254 16 children

(2) Margaret of France 10 September 1299 three children 7 July 1307 Burgh by Sands Aged 68 Son of Henry III (primogeniture)

EDWARD II EDWARD OF CAERNARFON 7 July 1307 – 25 January 1327

25 April 1284 Caernarfon Castle

Son of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile Isabella of France Boulogne Cathedral 25 January 1308 four children 21 September 1327 Berkeley Castle Aged 43 (murdered) Son of Edward I (primogeniture)

EDWARD III 25 January 1327 – 21 June 1377

13 November 1312 Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle

Son of Edward II
Edward II
and Isabella of France Philippa of Hainault York Minster 24 January 1328 14 children 21 June 1377 Sheen Palace Aged 64 Son of Edward II
Edward II
(primogeniture)

RICHARD II 21 June 1377 – 29 September 1399

6 January 1367 Bordeaux

Son of Edward, the Black Prince and Joan of Kent (1) Anne of Bohemia 14 January 1382 No children

(2) Isabella of Valois Calais
Calais
4 November 1396 No children 14 February 1400 Pontefract Castle
Pontefract Castle
Aged 33 probably from starvation Grandson of Edward III
Edward III
(primogeniture)

HOUSE OF LANCASTER

Main article: House of Lancaster

This house descended from Edward III's third surviving son, John of Gaunt . Henry IV seized power from Richard II (and also displaced the next in line to the throne, Edmund Mortimer (then aged 7), a descendant of Edward III's second son, Lionel of Antwerp ).

Name Reign PORTRAIT ARMS BIRTH Marriage(s) Issue DEATH CLAIM

HENRY IV BOLINGBROKE 30 September 1399 – 20 March 1413

3 April 1367 Bolingbroke Castle

Son of John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster (1) Mary de Bohun Arundel Castle 27 July 1380 seven children

(2) Joanna of Navarre Winchester
Winchester
Cathedral 7 February 1403 No children 20 March 1413 Westminster Abbey Aged 45 Grandson and heir male of Edward III
Edward III
(usurpation / agnatic primogeniture )

HENRY V 20 March 1413 – 31 August 1422

16 September 1386 Monmouth Castle
Monmouth Castle

Son of Henry IV and Mary de Bohun Catherine of Valois
Catherine of Valois
Troyes Cathedral 2 June 1420 one son 31 August 1422 Château de Vincennes Aged 36 Son of Henry IV (agnatic primogeniture)

HENRY VI 31 August 1422 – 4 March 1461

6 December 1421 Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle

Son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois
Catherine of Valois
Margaret of Anjou Titchfield Abbey 22 April 1445 one son 21 May 1471 Tower of London
London
Aged 49 Son of Henry V (agnatic primogeniture)

HOUSE OF YORK

Main article: House of York

The House of York inherited its name from the fourth surviving son of Edward III, Edmund , 1st Duke of York , but claimed the right to the throne through Edward III's second surviving son, Lionel of Antwerp .

The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485) saw the throne pass back and forth between the rival houses of Lancaster and York.

Name Reign PORTRAIT ARMS BIRTH Marriage(s) Issue DEATH CLAIM

EDWARD IV 4 March 1461 – 3 October 1470

28 April 1442 Rouen
Rouen

Son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville Elizabeth Woodville Grafton Regis 1 May 1464 ten children 9 April 1483 Westminster
Westminster
Palace Aged 40 Great-great-grandson and heir general of Edward III
Edward III
(seizure of the crown /cognatic primogeniture )

HOUSE OF LANCASTER (RESTORED)

Name Reign PORTRAIT ARMS BIRTH Marriage(s) Issue DEATH CLAIM

HENRY VI 3 October 1470 – 11 April 1471

6 December 1421 Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle

Son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois
Catherine of Valois
Margaret of Anjou Titchfield Abbey 22 April 1445 one son 21 May 1471 Tower of London
London
Aged 49 (reportedly murdered on orders of Edward IV). Son of Henry V (seizure of the crown )

HOUSE OF YORK (RESTORED)

Name Reign PORTRAIT ARMS BIRTH Marriage(s) Issue DEATH CLAIM

EDWARD IV (_second reign_) 11 April 1471 – 9 April 1483

28 April 1442 Rouen
Rouen

Son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville Elizabeth Woodville Grafton Regis 1 May 1464 ten children 9 April 1483 Westminster
Westminster
Palace Aged 40 Great-great-grandson and heir general of Edward III
Edward III
(seizure of the crown /cognatic primogeniture )

EDWARD V 9 April 1483 – 25 June 1483

2 November 1470 Westminster
Westminster

Son of Edward IV
Edward IV
and Elizabeth Woodville Unmarried Disappeared in mid-1483 London Aged 12 (probably murdered) Son of Edward IV
Edward IV
(cognatic primogeniture)

RICHARD III 26 June 1483 – 22 August 1485

2 October 1452 Fotheringhay Castle
Fotheringhay Castle

Son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville Anne Neville Westminster Abbey 12 July 1472 one son 22 August 1485 Bosworth Field
Bosworth Field
Aged 32 (killed in battle). Re-interred Leicester Cathedral, 26 March 2015 Great-great-grandson of Edward III
Edward III
( Titulus Regius ); brother of Edward IV
Edward IV

HOUSE OF TUDOR

Main article: Tudor dynasty

The Tudors descended matrilineally from John Beaufort , one of the illegitimate children of John of Gaunt (third surviving son of Edward III), by Gaunt's long-term mistress Katherine Swynford
Katherine Swynford
. Those descended from English monarchs only through an illegitimate child would normally have no claim on the throne, but the situation was complicated when Gaunt and Swynford eventually married in 1396 (25 years after John Beaufort's birth). In view of the marriage, the church retroactively declared the Beauforts legitimate via a papal bull the same year (also enshrined in an Act of Parliament in 1397). A subsequent proclamation by John of Gaunt's legitimate son, King Henry IV , also recognised the Beauforts' legitimacy, but declared them ineligible ever to inherit the throne. Nevertheless, the Beauforts remained closely allied with Gaunt's other descendants, the Royal House of Lancaster .

John Beaufort's granddaughter Lady Margaret Beaufort was married to Edmund Tudor . Tudor was the son of Welsh courtier Owain Tudur (anglicised to Owen Tudor ) and Catherine of Valois
Catherine of Valois
, the widowed queen consort of the Lancastrian King Henry V . Edmund Tudor and his siblings were either illegitimate, or the product of a secret marriage, and owed their fortunes to the goodwill of their legitimate half-brother King Henry VI . When the House of Lancaster fell from power, the Tudors followed. By the late 15th century, the Tudors were the last hope for the Lancaster supporters. Edmund Tudor's son became king as Henry VII after defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field
Bosworth Field
in 1485, ending the Wars of the Roses. King Henry married Elizabeth of York
Elizabeth of York
, daughter of Edward IV, thereby uniting the Lancastrian and York lineages.

With Henry VIII
Henry VIII
's break from the Roman Catholic Church, the monarch became the Supreme Head of the Church of England and of the Church of Ireland . Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
's title became the Supreme Governor of the Church of England .

Name Reign PORTRAIT ARMS BIRTH Marriage(s) Issue DEATH CLAIM

HENRY VII 22 August 1485 – 21 April 1509

28 January 1457 Pembroke Castle
Pembroke Castle

Son of Edmund Tudor and Lady Margaret Beaufort Elizabeth of York
Elizabeth of York
Westminster Abbey 18 January 1486 eight children 21 April 1509 Richmond Palace Aged 52 Great-great-great-grandson of Edward III
Edward III
(right of conquest )

HENRY VIII 21 April 1509 – 28 January 1547

28 June 1491 Greenwich
Greenwich
Palace

Son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York
Elizabeth of York
Catherine of Aragon Greenwich
Greenwich
11 June 1509 one daughter 28 January 1547 Whitehall
Whitehall
Palace Aged 55 Son of Henry VII (primogeniture )

Anne Boleyn
Anne Boleyn
Westminster
Westminster
Palace 25 January 1533 one daughter

Jane Seymour
Jane Seymour
Whitehall
Whitehall
Palace 30 May 1536 one son

Anne of Cleves Greenwich
Greenwich
Palace 6 January 1540

Catherine Howard Hampton Court Palace 28 July 1540

Catherine Parr
Catherine Parr
Hampton Court Palace 12 July 1543

EDWARD VI 28 January 1547 – 6 July 1553

12 October 1537 Hampton Court Palace

Son of Henry VIII
Henry VIII
and Jane Seymour
Jane Seymour
Unmarried 6 July 1553 Greenwich
Greenwich
Palace Aged 15 Son of Henry VIII
Henry VIII
(primogeniture )

-------------------------

DISPUTED CLAIMANT

Edward VI named LADY JANE GREY as his heir presumptive , overruling the order of succession laid down by Parliament in the Third Succession Act . Four days after his death on 6 July 1553, Jane was proclaimed queen—the first of three Tudor women to be proclaimed queen regnant. Nine days after the proclamation, on 19 July, the Privy Council switched allegiance and proclaimed Edward VI's Catholic half-sister Mary . Jane was executed in 1554, aged 16. Many historians do not consider her to have been a legitimate monarch.

Name Reign PORTRAIT ARMS BIRTH Marriage(s) Issue DEATH CLAIM

_JANE _ 10 July 1553 – 19 July 1553 Title disputed

October 1537 Bradgate Park
Bradgate Park

Daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Lady Frances Brandon Lord Guildford Dudley The Strand 21 May 1553 No children 12 February 1554 Tower of London
London
Aged 16 (beheaded) Great-granddaughter of Henry VII (Devise for the succession )

-------------------------

Name Reign PORTRAIT ARMS BIRTH Marriage(s) Issue DEATH CLAIM

MARY I 19 July 1553 – 17 November 1558

18 February 1516 Greenwich
Greenwich
Palace

Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
Winchester
Winchester
Cathedral 25 July 1554 No children 17 November 1558 St James\'s Palace Aged 42 Daughter of Henry VIII
Henry VIII
( Third Succession Act )

PHILIP 25 July 1554 – 17 November 1558 (_jure uxoris _) 21 May 1527 Valladolid , Spain

Son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
and Isabella of Portugal
Isabella of Portugal
(2) Mary I of England
Mary I of England
Winchester
Winchester
Cathedral 25 July 1554 No children three other marriages and seven children 13 September 1598 El Escorial
El Escorial
, Spain Aged 71 Husband of Mary I ( Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain )

Under the terms of the marriage treaty between PHILIP I OF NAPLES ( Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
from 15 January 1556) and Queen Mary I, Philip was to enjoy Mary's titles and honours for as long as their marriage should last. All official documents, including Acts of Parliament , were to be dated with both their names, and Parliament was to be called under the joint authority of the couple. An Act of Parliament gave him the title of king and stated that he "shall aid her Highness … in the happy administration of her Grace's realms and dominions" (although elsewhere the Act stated that Mary was to be "sole queen"). Nonetheless, Philip was to co-reign with his wife. As the new King of England could not read English, it was ordered that a note of all matters of state should be made in Latin or Spanish. Coins were minted showing the heads of both Mary and Philip, and the coat of arms of England (right) was impaled with Philip's to denote their joint reign. Acts which made it high treason to deny Philip's royal authority were passed in England and Ireland. In 1555, Pope
Pope
Paul IV issued a papal bull recognising Philip and Mary as rightful King and Queen of Ireland.

Name Reign PORTRAIT ARMS BIRTH Marriage(s) Issue DEATH CLAIM

ELIZABETH I 17 November 1558 – 24 March 1603

7 September 1533 Greenwich
Greenwich
Palace

Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
Anne Boleyn
Unmarried 24 March 1603 Richmond Palace Aged 69 Daughter of Henry VIII
Henry VIII
( Third Succession Act )

HOUSE OF STUART

Main article: House of Stuart

Following the death of Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
in 1603 without issue, her cousin, James VI , King of Scots , succeeded to the English throne as James I in the Union of the Crowns . James was descended from the Tudors through his great-grandmother, Margaret Tudor , the eldest daughter of Henry VII. In 1604, he adopted the title _King of Great Britain_. However, the two parliaments remained separate until the Acts of Union 1707 .

Name Reign PORTRAIT ARMS BIRTH Marriage(s) Issue DEATH CLAIM

JAMES I 24 March 1603 – 27 March 1625

19 June 1566 Edinburgh Castle
Edinburgh Castle

Son of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and Mary I, Queen of Scots Anne of Denmark
Anne of Denmark
Oslo
Oslo
23 November 1589 seven children 27 March 1625 Theobalds House Aged 58 Great-great-grandson and heir general of Henry VII

CHARLES I 27 March 1625 – 30 January 1649

19 November 1600 Dunfermline Palace
Dunfermline Palace

Son of James I
James I
and Anne of Denmark
Anne of Denmark
Henrietta Maria of France St Augustine\'s Abbey 13 June 1625 nine children 30 January 1649 Whitehall
Whitehall
Palace Aged 48 (beheaded) Son of James I
James I
(cognatic primogeniture )

INTERREGNUM

Main article: Commonwealth of England

No monarch reigned between the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. Between 1649 and 1653, there was no single English head of state , as England was ruled directly by the Rump Parliament
Rump Parliament
during a period known as the Commonwealth of England . After a coup d\'etat in 1653, Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
forcibly took control of England from Parliament. He dissolved the Rump Parliament
Rump Parliament
at the head of a military force and England entered a period known as The Protectorate , under the direct control of a single individual known as the Lord Protector . While not officially monarchs, the holder of the office of Lord was passed from Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
to his son Richard. Richard lacked both the ability to rule and confidence of the Army, and he was forcibly removed by the English Committee of Safety under the leadership of Charles Fleetwood
Charles Fleetwood
in May 1659. England again lacked any single head of state during several months of conflict between Fleetwood's party and that of George Monck . Monck took control of the country in December 1659, and after almost a year of anarchy, the monarchy was formally restored when Charles II returned from France to accept the throne of England following the Declaration of Breda and an invitation to reclaim the throne from the Convention Parliament of 1660 . Lords Protector

Name Reign PORTRAIT ARMS BIRTH Marriage(s) Issue DEATH

OLIVER CROMWELL OLD IRONSIDES 16 December 1653 – 3 September 1658

25 April 1599 Huntingdon
Huntingdon

Son of Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Steward Elizabeth Bourchier in St Giles 22 August 1620 nine children 3 September 1658 Whitehall
Whitehall
Aged 59

RICHARD CROMWELL TUMBLEDOWN DICK 3 September 1658 – 7 May 1659

4 October 1626 Huntingdon
Huntingdon

Son of Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
and Elizabeth Bourchier Dorothy Maijor May 1649 nine children 12 July 1712 Cheshunt Aged 85

HOUSE OF STUART (RESTORED)

After the Monarchy was restored, England came under the rule of Charles II , whose reign was relatively peaceful domestically, given the tumultuous time of the Interregnum years. Tensions still existed between Catholics and Protestants, however, and with the ascension of Charles's brother, the openly Catholic James II
James II
, England was again sent into a period of political turmoil. James II
James II
was ousted by Parliament less than three years after ascending to the throne, replaced by his daughter Mary II and her husband (also his nephew) William III during the Glorious Revolution . While James and his descendants would continue to claim the throne, all Catholics (such as James and his son Charles ) were barred from the throne by the Act of Settlement 1701 , enacted by Anne , another of James's Protestant daughters. After the Acts of Union 1707
Acts of Union 1707
, England as a sovereign state ceased to exist, replaced by the new Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
.

Name Reign PORTRAIT ARMS BIRTH Marriage(s) Issue DEATH CLAIM

CHARLES II 29 May 1660 – 6 February 1685 _Recognised by Royalists in 1649_

29 May 1630 St James\'s Palace

Son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France Catherine of Braganza Portsmouth
Portsmouth
21 May 1662 No children 6 February 1685 Whitehall
Whitehall
Palace Aged 54 Son of Charles I (cognatic primogeniture ; English Restoration )

JAMES II 6 February 1685 – 23 December 1688 (deposed)

14 October 1633 St James\'s Palace

Son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France (1) Anne Hyde
Anne Hyde
The Strand 3 September 1660 eight children

(2) Mary of Modena
Mary of Modena
Dover
Dover
21 November 1673 seven children 16 September 1701 Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye Aged 67 Son of Charles I (cognatic primogeniture )

MARY II 13 February 1689 – 28 December 1694

30 April 1662 St James\'s Palace

Daughter of James II and Anne Hyde
Anne Hyde
St James\'s Palace 4 November 1677 No children 28 December 1694 Kensington Palace Aged 32 Grandchildren of Charles I (offered the crown by Parliament )

WILLIAM III WILLIAM OF ORANGE 13 February 1689 – 8 March 1702

4 November 1650 The Hague

Son of William II, Prince of Orange , and Mary, Princess Royal 8 March 1702 Kensington Palace Aged 51 after breaking his collarbone from falling off his horse

ANNE 8 March 1702 – 1 May 1707

Queen of Great Britain and Ireland (1 May 1707 – 1 August 1714)

6 February 1665 St James\'s Palace

Daughter of James II and Anne Hyde
Anne Hyde
George of Denmark St James\'s Palace 28 July 1683 5 children 1 August 1714 Kensington Palace Aged 49 Daughter of James II
James II
(cognatic primogeniture ; Bill of Rights 1689 )

MONARCHS AFTER 1707 See LIST OF BRITISH MONARCHS

ACTS OF UNION

The Acts of Union 1707
Acts of Union 1707
were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland to put into effect the Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union
agreed on 22 July 1706. The Acts joined the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland (previously separate sovereign states , with separate legislatures but with the same monarch ) into the Kingdom of Great Britain .

England, Scotland, and Ireland had shared a monarch for more than a hundred years, since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when King James VI of Scotland inherited the English and Irish thrones from his first cousin twice removed, Queen Elizabeth I
Queen Elizabeth I
. Although described as a Union of Crowns, until 1707 there were in fact two separate Crowns resting on the same head. There had been attempts in 1606, 1667, and 1689, to unite England and Scotland by Acts of Parliament, but it was not until the early eighteenth century that the idea had the support of both political establishments behind it, albeit for rather different reasons.

For monarchs after 1707, see List of British monarchs
List of British monarchs
.

TIMELINE OF ENGLISH MONARCHS

TITLES

Main article: Style of the British sovereign

The standard title for all monarchs from Æthelstan
Æthelstan
until the time of King John was _Rex Anglorum_ ("King of the English"). In addition, many of the pre-Norman kings assumed extra titles, as follows:

* Æthelstan
Æthelstan
: _Rex totius Britanniae_ ("King of the Whole of Britain") * Edmund the Magnificent : _Rex Britanniæ_ ("King of Britain") and _Rex Anglorum cæterarumque gentium gobernator et rector_ ("King of the English and of other peoples governor and director") * Eadred
Eadred
: _Regis qui regimina regnorum Angulsaxna, Norþhymbra, Paganorum, Brettonumque_ ("Reigning over the governments of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxons, Northumbrians, Pagans, and British") * Eadwig
Eadwig
the Fair : _Rex nutu Dei Angulsæxna et Northanhumbrorum imperator paganorum gubernator Breotonumque propugnator_ ("King by the will of God, Emperor of the Anglo-Saxons and Northumbrians, governor of the pagans, commander of the British") * Edgar the Peaceful : _Totius Albionis finitimorumque regum basileus_ ("Autocrat of all Albion and its neighbouring realms") * Canute : _Rex Anglorum totiusque Brittannice orbis gubernator et rector_ ("King of the English and of all the British sphere governor and director") and _Brytannie totius Anglorum monarchus_ ("Monarch of all the English of Britain")

In the Norman period _Rex Anglorum_ remained standard, with occasional use of _Rex Anglie_ ("King of England"). The Empress Matilda styled herself _Domina Anglorum_ ("Lady of the English").

From the time of King John onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of _Rex_ or _Regina Anglie_.

In 1604 James I
James I
, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title (now usually rendered in English rather than Latin) _King of Great Britain_. The English and Scottish parliaments, however, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707 under Queen Anne
Queen Anne
(who was of course _Queen of Great Britain_ rather than king).

SEE ALSO

* Alternative successions of the English crown * Bretwalda * Demise of the Crown * English monarchs\' family tree * Heptarchy * List of English consorts * List of British monarchs
List of British monarchs
* List of Irish monarchs * List of monarchs of the British Isles by cause of death * List of monarchs of Wessex
Wessex
, 519 to 927 * Lists of monarchs in the British Isles * List of rulers of the United Kingdom and predecessor states * List of rulers of Wales * List of Scottish monarchs * Line of succession to the British throne (a list of people) * Mnemonic verse of monarchs in England * Succession to the British throne (historical overview and current rules)

NOTES

* ^ _A Brief History of British Kings and Queens: British Royal History from Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
to the Present_, Mike Ashley, Running Press, 2003 * ^ E. B. Fryde et al, eds. (1996). _Handbook of British Chronology_ (3rd ed.). Royal Historical Society. p. 25. ISBN 0-521-56350-X . CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * ^ Keynes, Simon (2001). "Rulers of the English, c.450–1066". In Michael Lapidge, John Blair, Simon Keynes and Donald Scragg. _The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England_. Blackwell Publishing. p. 514. ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1 . CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * ^ In 1801, the Kingdom of Ireland , which had been under English rule since King Henry II , became part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland following the Act of Union , which lasted until the secession of Ireland in 1922 and the subsequent renaming of the state to the United Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland. * ^ "Kings and Queens of England". * ^ Pratt, David (2007). "The political thought of King Alfred the Great". _Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought: Fourth Series_ 67. Cambridge University Press, p. 106. ISBN 978-0-521-80350-2 . * ^ Yorke, Barbara. _Bishop Æthelwold: His Career and Influence_. Woodbridge, 1988. p. 71 * ^ _A_ _B_ Simon Keynes, 'Rulers of the English, c 450–1066', in Michael Lapidge et al ed., _The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England_, 2001, p. 514 * ^ Sean Miller, Æthelstan, in Michael Lapidge et al ed., _The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England_, 2001, p. 16 * ^ _A_ _B_ Simon Keynes, 'Edward, King of the Anglo-Saxons', in N. J. Higham & D. H. Hill eds., _Edward the Elder_, Routledge, 2001, pp. 50–51 * ^ Alan Thacker, 'Dynastic Monasteries and Family Cults', in N. J. Higham & D. H. Hill eds., _Edward the Elder_, Routledge, 2001, p. 253 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Aethelstan @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 15 March 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ EADMUND (Edmund) @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 17 March 2007. * ^ English Monarchs – Kings and Queens of England – Edmund the Elder. Retrieved 17 March 2007. * ^ EADRED (Edred) @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 17 March 2007. * ^ BritRoyals – King Edred. Retrieved 17 March 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ EADWIG (Edwy) @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 17 March 2007. * ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Edwy. Retrieved 17 March 2007. * ^ EADGAR (Edgar the Peacemaker) @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 17 March 2007. * ^ Family of Edgar +* and Aelfthryth +* of DEVON. Retrieved 21 January 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ EADWEARD (Edward the Martyr) @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 17 March 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Æthelred the Unready was forced to go into exile in the summer of 1013, following Danish attacks, but was invited back following Sweyn Forkbeard's death. AETHELRED (the Unready) @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 17 March 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ English Monarchs – Kings and Queens of England – Ethelred II, the Redeless. Retrieved 17 March 2007. * ^ "English Monarchs". Retrieved 27 October 2007. * ^ "Sweyn (Forkbeard) - Archontology.org". Retrieved 27 October 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ EADMUND (Edmund the Ironside) @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 17 March 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ English Monarchs – Kings and Queens of England – Edmund Ironside. Retrieved 17 March 2007. * ^ Edmund II (king of England) @ Britannica.com. Retrieved 25 March 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ CNUT (Canute) @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 21 March 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ Harold was only recognised as regent until 1037, when was recognised as king. "Harold (Harefoot) - Archontology.org". Retrieved 27 October 2007. * ^ "Harold I". Oxford
Oxford
Online Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 20 February 2012. * ^ " Harthacnut - Archontology.org". Retrieved 28 October 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Harthacnut". Oxford
Oxford
Online Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 20 February 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ After reigning for approximately 9 weeks, Edgar the Atheling submitted to William the Conqueror, who had gained control of the area to the south and immediate west of London
London
("Eadgar (the Ætheling) - Archontology.org". Retrieved 26 October 2007. ). * ^ "STEPHEN (of Blois) - Archontology.org". Retrieved 25 October 2007. * ^ Matilda is not listed as a monarch of England in many genealogies within texts, including David Carpenter's _A Struggle for Mastery_ (2003), p. 533, W.L. Warren's _Henry II_ (1973) pg. 176, and John Gillingham's _The Angevin Empire_ (1984), p. x. * ^ "MATILDA (the Empress) - Archontology.org". Retrieved 27 October 2007. * ^ Ashley, Mike (1999). _The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens,_ London: Robinson Publishing Ltd. p. 516. ISBN 1-84119-096-9 * ^ _A_ _B_ Pine, Leslie Gilbert (1983). _A Dictionary of mottoes_. Routledge. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-7100-9339-4 . * ^ Norris, Herbert (1999). _Medieval Costume and Fashion_ (illustrated, reprint ed.). Courier Dover
Dover
Publications. p. 312. ISBN 0-486-40486-2 . * ^ The date of Edward II's death is disputed by Ian Mortimer in his book "The Perfect King: The Life of Edward III, Father of the English Nation," which argues that he may not have been murdered, but held imprisoned in Europe for several more years: ISBN 0-09-952709-X * ^ _A_ _B_ Mortimer, Ian (2007). "Henry IV's date of birth and the royal Maundy". _ Historical Research _. University of London. 80 (210): 567–576. ISSN 0950-3471 . doi :10.1111/j.1468-2281.2006.00403.x . * ^ Allmand, Christopher (September 2010). "Henry V (1386–1422)". _ Oxford
Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography _. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford
Oxford
University Press. doi :10.1093/ref:odnb/12952 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Edward V was deposed by Richard III, who usurped the throne on the grounds that Edward was illegitimate. "EDWARD V - Archontology.org". Retrieved 25 October 2007. * ^ "RICHARD III - Archontology.org". Retrieved 25 October 2007. * ^ Edward Hall and Raphael Holinshed both record an earlier secret wedding between Henry and Anne, which was conducted in Dover
Dover
on 15 November 1532. * ^ "Lady Jane Grey: Marriage". Retrieved 25 October 2007. * ^ Philip was not meant to be a mere consort; rather, the status of Mary I's husband was envisioned as that of a co-monarch during her reign. See Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain . However the extent of his authority and his status are ambiguous. The Act says that Philip shall have the title of king and "shall aid her Highness … in the happy administration of her Grace's realms and dominions," but elsewhere says that Mary shall be the sole Queen. * ^ " Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain (1554)".

* ^ _A_ _B_ Louis Adrian Montrose, _The subject of Elizabeth: authority, gender, and representation_, University of Chicago Press, 2006 * ^ A. F. Pollard, _The History of England – From the Accession of Edward VI. to the Death of Elizabeth (1547–1603)_, READ BOOKS, 2007 * ^ Wim de Groot, _The Seventh Window: The King's Window Donated by Philip II and Mary Tudor to Sint Janskerk in Gouda (1557)_, Uitgeverij Verloren, 2005 * ^ Richard Marks, Ann Payne, British Museum, British Library; _British heraldry from its origins to c. 1800_; British Museum Publications Ltd., 1978 * ^ American Numismatic Association, _The Numismatist_, American Numismatic Association, 1971 * ^ Treason Act 1554 * ^ Robert Dudley Edwards, _Ireland in the age of the Tudors: the destruction of Hiberno-Norman civilisation_, Taylor & Francis, 1977 * ^ Article 3 of the Act of Union 1707 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ " Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
1599–1658". Retrieved 25 October 2007. * ^ " Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
– Faq 1". Archived from the original on 18 June 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2007. * ^ "New Page 1". Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector, 1626–1712". Retrieved 25 October 2007. * ^ "CROMWELL, Richard - Archontology.org". Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2007. * ^ " Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
(1649–1658 AD)". * ^ "WILLIAM III - Archontology.org". Retrieved 25 October 2007. * ^ "Anne (England) - Archontology.org". Retrieved 25 October 2007.

* ^ "Welcome". _parliament.uk_. Archived from the original on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2008. * ^ After the personal union of the crowns , James was the first to style himself _King of Great Britain_, but the title was rejected by the English Parliament and had no basis in law. The Parliament of Scotland also opposed it. Croft, p67; Wilson, pp249–252. See also the early history of the Union Flag
Union Flag
.

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