The Info List - King Zhou Of Shang

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King Zhou (/dʒoʊ/;[1] Chinese: 紂王; pinyin: Zhòu Wáng) was the pejorative posthumous name given to Di Xin (Chinese: 帝辛; pinyin: Dì Xīn), the last king of the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
of ancient China.[2] He is also called Zhou Xin (紂辛; Zhòu Xīn). He may also be referred to by adding "Shang" (商 Shāng) in front of any of his names. In Chinese, 紂 also refers to a horse crupper,[3] the part of a saddle or harness that is most likely to be soiled by the horse.


1 Early reign 2 Late reign 3 Fall 4 Mentions in literature and legend 5 God of marriage 6 Notes 7 References

Early reign[edit] In the Records of the Grand Historian, Sima Qian
Sima Qian
wrote that Di Xin, in the early part of his reign, had abilities which surpassed those of the ordinary man, and was quick-witted and quick-tempered. According to legend, he was intelligent enough to win all of his arguments, and he was strong enough to hunt wild beasts with his bare hands.[4] He was the younger brother of Zi Qi (子启) and Zi Yan (子衍) (later rulers of Zhou's vassal state Song)[5] and father of Wu Geng. His father Di Yi had two brothers, Ji Zi
Ji Zi
and Bi Gan. Di Xin added to the territory of Shang by battling the tribes surrounding it, including the Dongyi
to the east. Late reign[edit] In his later years, Di Xin gave himself over to drinking, women and abandoned morals, preferring these to the proper governance of the country, and ignored almost all affairs of state. According to Sima Qian, he even hosted festive orgies where many people engaged in immoral things at the same time with his concubines and created songs with crude (erotic) lyrics and poor rhythm. In legends, he is depicted as having come under the influence of his wicked wife Daji, and committing all manner of evil and cruel deeds with her. In fictionalizations, including the novel Fengshen Yanyi, she was said to be possessed by a malevolent fox spirit. One of the most famous forms of entertainment Zhou enjoyed was the "Wine Pool and Meat Forest" (酒池肉林). A large pool, big enough for several canoes, was constructed on the Palace grounds, with inner linings of polished oval shaped stones from the sea shores. This allowed for the entire pool to be filled with alcohol. A small island was constructed in the middle of the pool, where trees were planted, which had branches made of roasted meat skewers hanging over the pool. This allowed Zhou and his friends and concubines to drift on canoes in the pool. When they thirsted, they reached down into the pool with their hands and drank the wine. When they hungered, they reached up with their hands to eat the roasted meat. This was considered one of the most famous examples of decadence and corruption of a ruler in Chinese history.[citation needed] In order to please Daji, he created the "Cannon Burning Punishment" (炮烙之刑). One large hollow bronze cylinder was stuffed with burning charcoal and allowed to burn until red-hot, then prisoners were made to literally hug the cylinder, which resulted in a painful and unsightly death.[citation needed] Zhou and Daji
were known to get highly aroused after watching such torture. Victims ranged from ordinary people and prisoners to high government officials, such as Mei Bo.[6] In order to fund Zhou's heavy daily expenses, extremely heavy taxes were implemented. The people suffered greatly, and lost all hope for the Shang dynasty. Zhou's brother Wei Zi tried to persuade him to change, but was rebuked. His uncle Bi Gan similarly remonstrated with him, but Di Xin had his heart ripped out so he could see what the heart of a sage looked like. When his other uncle Ji Zi
Ji Zi
heard this, he went to remonstrate with the kingly nephew and, feigning madness, was imprisoned. Fall[edit] When Zhou dynasty's army, led by the famous Jiang Ziya, defeated the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
at the Battle of Muye
Battle of Muye
in 1046 BC, Di Xin gathered all his treasures around himself in the Palace, and then set fire to his palace and committed suicide. The name "Zhou" actually appeared after the death of King Zhou, a posthumous name (although perhaps used furtively by his contemporaries). This name was a representation of his actions, both dishonorable and cold-hearted. King Zhou would go down in history as one of the worst examples of a corrupted king in China. Mentions in literature and legend[edit] Zhou is mentioned in the Confucian Analects
Confucian Analects
(19 "子張");[7] and also in the Three Character Classic.[8] Zhou is also one of the main subjects of Fengshen Yanyi
Fengshen Yanyi
and its various derivations in popular media. Thus, Di Xin, also known as Zhou, has served as a (negative) exemplar of Confucian principles (presented as the wicked ruler who justifies regime change according to the Mandate of Heaven), as well as becoming an icon of popular culture. This makes for a biographically interesting figure, but one challenging a clear distinction between history, legend, and philosophical point-making. In Fengshen Yanyi, Zhou visited the Goddess Nüwa's temple and offended the Goddess with his lustful comments towards her beauty. In response, Nüwa
decided that the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
should end and sent her three subordinates to become three beautiful women (including Daji) to bewitch Zhou. Under the influence of these women, Zhou becomes a ruthless king, losing the support of people and triggering his downfall. God of marriage[edit] According to the Investiture of the Gods, Jiang Ziya
Jiang Ziya
recognized that King Zhou was a well-versed and well-trained individual that became an incapable ruler only because of having fallen victim to seduction. After his death, Jiang Ziya
Jiang Ziya
deified King Zhou as the Tianxi Xing (天喜星 "Star of Heavenly Happiness"). As the Tianxi Xing, he had the responsibility of managing the marriage affairs of humans. Notes[edit]

^ "Zhou". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ Wu, 220. ^ U+7D02 ^ Wu, 220-221, referencing Sima Qian's Yin Benji chapter (史记 · 辛本纪). ^ Lüshi Chunqiu
Lüshi Chunqiu
(吕氏春秋·仲冬纪第十一) ^ See, for example, Qu Yuan, Tian Wen (天问). "梅伯受醢". ^ http://ctext.org/analects/zi-zhang#n1593 ^ http://ctext.org/three-character-classic#n90610


Wu, K. C. (1982). The Chinese Heritage. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-517-54475-X.

King Zhou of Shang Shang dynasty

Regnal titles

Preceded by Di Yi King of China 1075 BC – 1046 BC Succeeded by Wu of Zhou

v t e

Kings of the Shang dynasty

Early Shang

Da Yi Da Ding Da Jia Bu Bing Da Geng Xiao Jia Da Wu Lü Ji Zhong Ding Bu Ren Jian Jia Zu Yi Zu Xin Qiang Jia Zu Ding Nan Geng Xiang Jia

Yin period

Pan Geng Xiao Xin Xiao Yi Wu Ding Zu Geng Zu Jia Lin Xin Kang Ding Wu Yi Wen Wu Ding Di Yi Di Xin

Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16 Kingdoms → S. Dynasties / N. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms → Liao / Song / W. Xia / Jīn → Yuan → Ming →