King Vajiravudh
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Vajiravudh ( th, วชิราวุธ, , 1 January 188126 November 1925) was the sixth
monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority ...
of
Siam Thailand ( ), historically known as Siam () and officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia, located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , with a population of almost 70 mi ...
under the
Chakri dynasty The Chakri dynasty ( th, :wikt:ราชวงศ์, ราชวงศ์:wikt:จักรี, จักรี, , , ) is the current reigning dynasty of the Thailand, Kingdom of Thailand, the head of the house is the Monarchy of Thailand, ki ...
as Rama VI. He ruled from 23 October 1910 until his death in 1925. King Vajiravudh is best known for his efforts to create and promote Siamese nationalism. His reign was characterized by Siam's movement further towards democracy and minimal participation in
World War I World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...
. He had keen interests in Siamese history, archaeology, and literature, as well as economics, politics and world affairs, and founded the country's first university,
Chulalongkorn University Chulalongkorn University (CU, th, จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย, ), nicknamed Chula ( th, จุฬาฯ), is a public university, public and autonomous research university in Bangkok, Thailand. The university ...
.


Education

Vajiravudh was born on 1 January 1881 to
Chulalongkorn Chulalongkorn ( th, จุฬาลงกรณ์, 20 September 1853 – 23 October 1910) was the fifth Monarchy of Thailand, monarch of Rattanakosin Kingdom, Siam under the House of Chakri, titled Rama V. He was known to the Siamese of his t ...
and one of his four queens and half sister
Saovabha Phongsri Queen Saovabha Phongsri ( th, เสาวภาผ่องศรี; Royal Thai General System of Transcription, RTGS: Saowapha PhongsiPronunciation) was an agnatic half-sister and queen of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) of Thailand, and mother of ...
. In 1888, upon coming of age, Vajiravudh received the title ''Krom Khun'' Thep Dvaravati (Prince of Ayutthaya). Prince Vajiravudh was first educated in the royal palace in Thai and English. His full siblings were
Bahurada Manimaya Bahurada Manimaya, Princess Debnariratana ( th, พาหุรัตมณีมัย; ; 19 December 1878 – 27 August 1887), was a Princess of Siam (later Thailand). She was a member of the Thai Royal Family, Siamese royal family. She was a ...
,
Tribejrutama Dhamrong Tribejrutama Dhamrong ( th, ตรีเพ็ชรุตม์ธำรง; ; 8 February 1881 – 22 November 1887) was a Prince of Siam (later Thailand). He was a member of the Thai Royal Family, Siamese Royal Family. He was a son of Chulalong ...
,
Chakrabongse Bhuvanath Field Marshal Chakrabongse Bhuvanath, the Prince of Phitsanulok Province, Bishnulok ( th, จักรพงษ์ภูวนาถ; ; 3 March 1883 – 13 June 1920), was the 40th child of King Chulalongkorn and the fourth child of Queen Saovab ...
,
Siriraj Kakudhabhand Prince Siriraj Kakudhabhand ( th, ศิริราชกกุธภัณฑ์; ; 27 November 1885 – 31 May 1887) was the Prince of Siam (later Thailand). He was a member of the Thai royal family, Siamese royal family and was the son of Kin ...
,
Asdang Dejavudh Asdang Dejavudh, Prince of Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Nakhon Ratchasima ( th, อัษฎางค์เดชาวุธ; , 12 May 1889 – 9 February 1924) was a son of King Chulalongkorn and Queen Saovabha Phongsri of Thailand. Biography ...
,
Chudadhuj Dharadilok Prince Chudadhuj Dharadilok, Prince of Phetchabun Province, Phetchabun ( th, จุฑาธุชธราดิลก; ), (4 July 1892– 8 July 1923) was a son of King Chulalongkorn and Queen Saovabha of Thailand. He was one of the most senio ...
and
Prajadhipok Prajadhipok ( th, ประชาธิปก, Royal Thai General System of Transcription, RTGS: ''Prachathipok'', 8 November 1893 – 30 May 1941), also Rama VII, was the seventh King of Siam, monarch of Thailand, Siam of the Chakri dyn ...
, who succeeded him as King Rama VII. In 1895, his half-brother Crown Prince
Vajirunhis Maha Vajirunhis, Crown Prince of Siam ( th, มหาวชิรุณหิศ; ; 27 June 1878 – 4 January 1895) was the first Crown Prince A crown prince or hereditary prince is the heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial ...
died and Vajiravudh was appointed the new
Crown Prince of Siam The Crown Prince of Thailand (or Siam; th, สยามมกุฎราชกุมาร; ; lit. the royal son of Siam) is a title held by the heir apparent to the Monarchy of Thailand, Thai throne. First created by King Chulalongkorn (Rama V ...
. In 1898, he continued his education in Britain at the
Royal Military College, Sandhurst The Royal Military College (RMC), founded in 1801 and established in 1802 at Great Marlow and High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares l ...
and was commissioned as a captain in the Durham Light Infantry, which he served with for three months of exercises in the south of England upon graduation. He studied law and history at
Christ Church, Oxford Christ Church ( la, Ædes Christi, the temple or house, ''wikt:aedes, ædēs'', of Christ, and thus sometimes known as "The House") is a Colleges of the University of Oxford, constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Founded ...
in 1899, where, coming from a royal household, he was a member of the exclusive
Bullingdon Club The Bullingdon Club is a private all-male dining club for University of Oxford, Oxford University students. It is known for its wealthy members, grand banquets, and bad behaviour, including vandalism of restaurants and students' rooms. The club ...
. However, he suffered from
appendicitis Appendicitis is inflammation of the Appendix (anatomy), appendix. Symptoms commonly include right lower abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia (symptom), decreased appetite. However, approximately 40% of people do not have these typical ...
, which barred him from graduating in 1901. He visited other European countries while he lived in England, including
Belgium Belgium, ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Northwestern Europe. The country is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the ...
where he inspected
Blegny Blegny (, before 2001: Blégny; wa, Blegné) is a Municipalities of Belgium, municipality of Wallonia located in the Liège Province, province of liège, Belgium. On January 1, 2006, Blegny had a total population of 12,799. The total area is 2 ...
fort. He went to
Berlin, Germany Berlin ( , ) is the capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3.7 million inhabitants make it the European Union's List of cities in the European Union by population within ci ...
in May 1902 and
Copenhagen, Denmark Copenhagen ( or .; da, København ) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark ) , song = ( en, "King Christian stood by the lofty mast") , song_type = National and royal anthem , image_map = EU-Denmark.svg , map_caption ...
in September 1902. He attended the 15 May 1902 enthronement ceremonies for
King Alfonso XIII Alfonso XIII (17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941), also known as El Africano or the African, was King of Spain from 17 May 1886 to 14 April 1931, when the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed. He was a monarch from birth as his father, Alfo ...
of Spain in Madrid). 9On behalf of his father, King Chulalongkorn, he attended the coronation of
King Edward VII Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India, from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. The second child and eldest son of Queen Victoria ...
on 9 August 1902. Crown Prince Vajiravudh left England in October 1902 and returned to Siam in January 1903, traveling via USA and Japan. In 1904 became a temporary monk, in accordance with Siamese tradition. In 1906, his father Chulalongkorn travelled to Europe to seek treatment for his lung disease, and Chulalongkorn made Vajiravudh Regent of Siam. One of Crown Prince Vajiravudh's accomplishments during this regency was his supervision of the construction of the equestrian statue of King Chulalongkorn. Chulalongkorn died on 23 October 1910, and Vajiravudh succeeded his father as king of Siam.


Accession and early reforms

Even before his coronation, Vajiravudh initiated several reforms. He organized Siam's defence and established military academies. He created the rank of "general" for the first time in Siam, with his uncle, Prince Bhanurangsi Savangwongse as the first Siamese
Field Marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks. Usually, it is the highest rank in an army and as such few persons are appointed to it. It is considered as ...
. On 11 November 1910, Vajiravudh underwent a provisional coronation ceremony, with a more lavish one planned for after the funerary rites of his father were complete. His first act following his accession to the throne was to build the Royal Pages College, subsequently renamed Vajiravudh College by King Prajadhipok to honour his brother. It was built as an all-boy's boarding school in the same tradition as English public schools such as Eton and Harrow. The school was built instead of a royal monastery, formerly a custom of Thai kings, as King Vajiravudh deemed that there were already too many temples in Bangkok. In his own hand written letter, King Vajiravudh wrote that "In the Royal Pages College, what I want is not so much to turn out model boys, all of the same standard, all brilliant scholars with thousands of marks each, as to turn out efficient young men— young men who will be physically and morally clean, and who will be looking forward keenly to take up whatever burden the future of our state may lay upon them". Later he also raised the Civil Servant School to "Chulalongkorn Academy for Civil Officials", then
Chulalongkorn University Chulalongkorn University (CU, th, จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย, ), nicknamed Chula ( th, จุฬาฯ), is a public university, public and autonomous research university in Bangkok, Thailand. The university ...
. Both Vajiravudh College and Chulalongkorn University still benefit from the funds that King Vajiravudh set aside for the use of the two elite institutions. He also improved Siamese healthcare systems and set up some of the earliest public hospitals in Siam, Vajira Hospital in 1912 and
Chulalongkorn Hospital King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH, th, โรงพยาบาลจุฬาลงกรณ์; ) is a public general A general officer is an Officer (armed forces), officer of highest military ranks, high rank in the army, armie ...
in 1914. In 1911, he established the Wild Tiger Corps []) a para-military corp outside of the established military hierarchy. Initially a ceremonial guard, it became a military force of 4,000 within its first year and consumed much of the King's time and energy. It became the source of deep dissatisfaction between the army and the King. A branch for children was also established known as ( ) which became the Boy Scouts. On 28 November 1911 Vajiravudh's second and formal coronation was held with visiting royals from Europe and Japan as guests, a first for Siam, which festivities took 13 days. Later that year, the first airplane was flown in Siam. The early years of Vajiravudh's administration were largely dominated by his two uncles,
Prince Damrong Prince Tisavarakumarn, the Prince Damrong Rajanubhab (Thai language, Thai: ; Full transcription is "Somdet Phrachao Borommawongthoe Phra-ongchao Ditsawarakuman Kromphraya Damrongrachanuphap" (สมเด็จพระเจ้าบรมว ...
and Prince Devawongse, both of them Chulalongkorn's right hand men. However, the king disagreed with Prince Damrong, Minister of Interior, over Damrong's negotiation of the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 that ceded four sultanates to the British Empire. Vajiravudh reformed his father's
monthon ''Monthon'' ( th, มณฑล) were administrative subdivisions of Thailand at the beginning of the 20th century. The Thai word ''monthon'' is a translation of the word '' mandala'' (', literally " circle"), in its sense of a type of political f ...
system by creating the "paks" ( th, ภาค) or "regions" over the administrative monthons. Each pak was governed by an
Uparaja Uparaja or Ouparath, also Ouparaja ( my, ဥပရာဇာ ; km, ឧបរាជ, ; th, อุปราช, ; lo, ອຸປຮາດ, ''Oupahat''), was a royal title reserved for the viceroy A viceroy () is an official who reigns over ...
(
viceroy A viceroy () is an official who reigns over a polity in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix ''vice-'', meaning "in the place of" and the French word ''roy'', meaning "k ...
) directly responsible to the king. The ''Uparaja'' presided over the intendants of monthons in the region—thus concentrating local administrative powers in his hands—much to the dismay of Prince Damrong.


Attempted coup

Radicals expected a new constitution upon the coronation of Vajiravudh. However, no constitution was forthcoming. In 1911, the
Wuchang Uprising The Wuchang Uprising was an armed rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty that took place in Wuchang (now Wuchang District of Wuhan), Hubei, China on 10 October 1911, beginning the Xinhai Revolution that successfully overthrew China's last i ...
that led to the fall of
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty ( ), officially the Great Qing,, was a Manchu people, Manchu-led Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China and the last orthodox dynasty in Chinese history. It emerged from the Later Jin (1616–1636), La ...
prompted Siamese radicals to act. So, for the first time in Siam, an attempt was made to overthrow the monarchy and establish democracy. The immediate cause, however, occurred even before Vajiravudh's coronation. In 1909, Crown Prince Vajiravudh ordered a Thai Royal Military Academy student who had had an argument with one of Vajiravudh's pages to be caned. Academy alumni were further provoked by Vajiravudh's creation of the Wild Tiger Corps, seen by the army as a threat to their prerogatives. The plotters were relatively young army and naval officers, students during the 1909 incident. The coup was planned for 1 April—the traditional Siamese
New Year's Day New Year's Day is a festival observed in most of the world on 1 January, the first day of the year in the modern Gregorian calendar. 1 January is also New Year's Day on the Julian calendar, but this is not the same day as the Gregorian one. Whi ...
. They planned to elevate one of Vajiravudh's half brothers, Prince
Raphi Phatthanasak Prince Raphi Phatthanasak, Prince of Ratchaburi Province, Ratchaburi ( th, รพีพัฒนศักดิ์; ), (21 October 18747 August 1920) was a son of king Chulalongkorn and Chao Chom manda Talab. He had one full sister, Princess Ajraba ...
, to be the first
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese ful ...
of Siam. They believed that, if the absolute monarchy were removed, Siam would achieve modernization as in Japan under Emperor Taishō. The coup leaders accused the king of devoting his time to writing and acting in theatrical plays with his companions. They also accused him of living a luxurious Western-style life, building Sanam Chan Palace and
Lumphini Park Lumphini Park ( th, สวนลุมพินี, , ), also Lumpini or Lumpinee, is a 360 Rai (area), rai () park in Bangkok, Thailand. The park offers rare open public space, trees, and playgrounds in the Thai capital and contains an artif ...
, and owning expensive horses from Australia, while preaching austerity and nationalism to his subjects. The counter-argument is that the assertions were political and his developments were for the good of the state, in terms of impressing visiting dignitaries, or developing assets for the nation. Rama VI donated Lumphini Park, originally an exhibition ground on royal land, to the public in 1925 at his expense. The coup plan was leaked. Captain Yut Kongyu, who was selected as the assassin by
lottery A lottery is a form of gambling that involves the drawing of numbers at random for a prize. Some governments outlaw lotteries, while others endorse it to the extent of organizing a national or state lottery. It is common to find some degree of ...
, told ''Mom Chao'' Prawatpan, and then Prince Chakrabongse, of the intended coup. Prince Chakrabongse arrested all the conspirators. Their sentences were severe, ranging from execution to long-term imprisonment. However, Vajiravudh rescinded the punishments and released the plotters, saying that what they did was for the sake of the kingdom.


Administration, economy, infrastructure

Rama VI inherited his father's plan of building a modern nation although he was more skeptical of outside methods. Disagreements occurred incessantly with "old aristocrats", many of whom were his relatives such as the celebrated
Prince Damrong Prince Tisavarakumarn, the Prince Damrong Rajanubhab (Thai language, Thai: ; Full transcription is "Somdet Phrachao Borommawongthoe Phra-ongchao Ditsawarakuman Kromphraya Damrongrachanuphap" (สมเด็จพระเจ้าบรมว ...
, his uncle, who took charge of the Ministry of Interior. As more and more corruption in the newly created provinces was reported, Rama VI created a viceroy system. Viceroys, appointed directly by the king, were sent to supervise provincial governors and local officials. In 1912, Vajiravudh announced the change in the solar calendar era from the Rattanakosin Era (R.S.) designated by Chulalongkorn to the
Buddhist Era The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendar A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures, combining lunar calendars and solar calendars. The date of Lunisolar calendars therefore indicates both the Moon phase and the time of ...
with the year beginning 1 April 2455 BE (1912 CE). In 1913, Siam faced a financial crisis as the Chinese-Siamese Bank went bankrupt. In 1914, Vajiravudh, having determined that the act providing for the invocation of
martial law Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civil functions or suspension of civil law by a government, especially in response to an emergency where civil forces are overwhelmed, or in an military occupation, occupied t ...
, first promulgated by his father in 1907, was not consistent with modern
laws of war The law of war is the component of international law that regulates the conditions for initiating war (''jus ad bellum'') and the conduct of warring parties (''jus in bello''). Laws of war define sovereignty and nationhood, states and territor ...
nor convenient for the preservation of the external or internal security of the state, changed to the modern form that, with minor amendments, continues in force. Also in 1914, the construction of
Don Mueang Airport Don Mueang International Airport ( th, ท่าอากาศยานดอนเมือง, , , or colloquially as , ) is one of two international airports serving the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, the other one being Suvarnabhumi Airpor ...
began. In the same year the Siamese government borrowed from the
Federated Malay States The Federated Malay States (FMS, ms, Negeri-negeri Melayu Bersekutu, Jawi script, Jawi: ) was a federation of four protectorate, protected states in the Malay Peninsula—Selangor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang—established by the United Ki ...
to extend railways to the south. In 1915, Vajiravudh himself visited the southern provinces to oversee railway construction. The Bangkok railway station at Hua Lamphong was then established as a center of Siamese railroads. Prince Damrong eventually left the Ministry of Interior in 1915. In 1916, Vajiravudh appointed his half-brother, Prince of Kamphang Phet, as the Head of the Railway Department. The king continued his father's rice varieties competition. He also continued the overall royal encouragement of development of rice varieties, founding the Rangsit Rice Experiment Station in 1916 (now called Pathum Thani Rice Research Center and run by the Ministry of Agriculture). In 1917, Vajiravudh established the Nakorn Sri Thammarat Regiment as his personal guard. In the same year Vajiravudh founded Chulalongkorn University, the first university in Siam, named in honor of his father. In 1918, Vajiravudh founded the Dusit Thani near Dusit Palace as an experimental site for democracy. The democratic institutions were imitated including elections, parliament, and the press. Vajiravudh himself acted as one of the citizens of Dusit Thani, yet the city was criticized by others as another of Vajiravudh's theatrical conceits. During 1918-1919 the price of rice soared. The government faced public criticism due to its tepid response. The major cause of the problem was the hoarding of rice. Chinese millers and rice merchants bought huge amounts of rice from farmers for export to Singapore, the largest rice market in the region. Price speculation was rampant. The government imposed a ban on rice exports. At the same time, public servants asked for higher wages due to the rising cost of living. The public, mainly the urban "middle-class", and Chinese traders became more and more unhappy with the government.


World War I and Siamese nationalism

On 22 July 1917 Vajiravudh declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary. He aligned Siam with the Allied Powers and expelled German and Austrian officials from the Railway Department and Siam Commercial Bank. He also put the properties of the
Central Powers The Central Powers, also known as the Central Empires,german: Mittelmächte; hu, Központi hatalmak; tr, İttifak Devletleri / ; bg, Централни сили, translit=Tsentralni sili was one of the two main coalitions that fought in W ...
under a Siamese government protectorate. Vajiravudh saw the war as an opportunity to create and promote Siamese nationalism. He changed the Flag of Siam from the elephant banner to the tricolor banner. King Vajiravudh is considered by some writers to be the father of Thai nationalism, which was later built upon by Field Marshal
Phibunsongkhram Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram ( th, แปลก พิบูลสงคราม ; alternatively transcribed as ''Pibulsongkram'' or ''Pibulsonggram''; 14 July 1897 – 11 June 1964), locally known as Marshal P. ( th, จอมพล ...
and
Sarit Dhanarajata Field Marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks. Usually, it is the highest rank in an army and as such few persons are appointed to it. ...
. The alternative view is that the idea of nationalism by Rama VI was a later political construct. Prince
Chula Chakrabongse Chula Chakrabongse ( th, จุลจักรพงษ์; ; 28 March 1908 – 30 December 1963), was a member of the family of the Chakri Dynasty of Thailand and of the House of Chakkraphong. He was the only child of Prince Chakrabongse Bhuvan ...
classified him as a liberal. Vajiravudh wrote a letter (held in the Gloucestershire Archives, England) to his friend Maynard Colchester Wemyss setting out his reasons for going to war, dated 18 September 1917. Wemyss was guardian to King Bhumipol's father and two of his brothers. Vajiravudh described the presence of Imperial German spy activity in Bangkok, allying with business groups for economic arrangements after a German take-over of Siam. Wemyss and the King also corresponded about
Kaiser Wilhelm II Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (german: Kaiser) and List of monarchs of Prussia, King of Prussia, reigning from 15 June 1888 until Abdication of Wilhelm II, his abdication on 9 ...
's Asian aggression, on atrocities involving the Kaiser's army in Belgium (the Rape of Belgium) and the killing of British civilians by naval bombardment during the
raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby The Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby on 16 December 1914 was an attack by the Imperial German Navy The Imperial German Navy or the Imperial Navy () was the navy of the German Empire, which existed between 1871 and 1919. It grew ou ...
. In 1921, Rama VI wrote to Wemyss that in avoiding the "German militaristic spirit . . . Thai people had been protected as free minds". Vajiravudh introduced the practice of using the name
Rama Rama (; ), Ram, Raman or Ramar, also known as Ramachandra (; , ), is a major deity in Hinduism. He is the seventh and one of the most popular ''avatars'' of Vishnu. In Rama-centric traditions of Hinduism, he is considered the Supreme Being ...
for the Chakri kings in deference to the dynasty and following western practice, being then himself Rama VI. Other than 140,000
Vietnam Vietnam or Viet Nam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,., group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia, at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia, with an area of and population of 96 million, making it ...
ese colonial troops and workers drafted by the French, Siamese troops were the only Southeast Asians in the European theatre of World War I. However, the Siamese troops did not see much action, as they arrived in Europe towards the end of the war. Participation in the war allowed Siam to later negotiate with the Western powers as a partner, albeit a junior one. Although the Siamese pilots who trained in France did not see combat because the war ended, Siam's participation in the First World war led to the founding of the Royal Thai Airforce and the airborne postal service. The Royal Siamese Transport Corps (Ror Yor) and Medical Corps did see front line action, but not in combat. Nineteen soldiers died, some in accidents, but mainly from the
Spanish Flu The 1918–1920 influenza pandemic, commonly known by the misnomer Spanish flu or as the Great Influenza epidemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic caused by the influenza A virus subtype H1N1, H1N1 influenza A virus. Th ...
.


Financial crisis

In 1917, the price of silver rose and exceeded the face value of silver coins. The coins were then melted down and sold. The government solved this by changing the pure silver coin to alloy. Vajiravudh eventually forbade exports of Siamese coins. In 1918, the usage of 1-baht coins was nullified and 1-baht banknotes were introduced. Coins were recalled and kept as a national reserve. In 1919, Vajuravudh imposed a military-exemptation tax ( th, เงินรัชชูปการ) nationwide including on the royal members. As the need for huge capital increased, a new bank, later known as the " Government Savings Bank", was founded in 1923. Though the Siamese forces that joined the march at
Versailles The Palace of Versailles ( ; french: Château de Versailles ) is a former royal residence built by King Louis XIV located in Versailles, Yvelines, Versailles, about west of Paris, France. The palace is owned by the French Republic and since 19 ...
returned triumphant in 1919, the worldwide economic problems caused by World War I were serious. In the same year, drought hit Siam and rice shortages ensued. The government forbade the export of rice, the main Siamese export since the
Bowring Treaty The Bowring Treaty was a treaty signed between the British Empire and the Rattanakosin Kingdom (1782–1932), Kingdom of Siam on 18 April 1855. The treaty had the primary effect of liberalizing foreign trade in Siam, and was signed by five Siames ...
. Queen Mother
Saovabha Queen Saovabha Phongsri ( th, เสาวภาผ่องศรี; Royal Thai General System of Transcription, RTGS: Saowapha PhongsiPronunciation) was an agnatic half-sister and queen of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) of Thailand, and mother of ...
, Vajiravudh's mother, died in 1919. Siamese participation in World War I opened the way to reconciliation, first with the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
in 1920, then to redress the unequal treaties imposed by Western powers in the 19th century. In spite of the financial crisis, railway constructions continued. The railway reached
Narathiwat Narathiwat ( th, นราธิวาส, ) is a town (thesaban mueang) in southern Thailand and capital of Narathiwat Province. The town is in the Mueang Narathiwat District and was established in 1936. As of 2008, the population was 40,521. I ...
and was expanded north and east. The construction of the
Rama VI Bridge Rama VI Bridge ( th, สะพานพระราม 6, , ) is a railway bridge over the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok, in Thailand, connecting the districts Bang Sue and Bang Phlat. It is the first bridge to cross the Chao Phraya River and was ...
carrying the railway over the
Chao Phraya River The Chao Phraya ( or ; th, wikt:เจ้าพระยา, แม่น้ำเจ้าพระยา, , or ) is the major river in Thailand, with its low alluvial plain forming the centre of the country. It flows through Bangkok and th ...
in Bangkok began in 1922 and the same year the railway reached
Chiang Mai Chiang Mai (, from th, เชียงใหม่ , nod, , เจียงใหม่ ), sometimes written as Chiengmai or Chiangmai, is the largest city in northern Thailand, the capital of Chiang Mai province Chiang Mai ( th, เ ...
. However, the treasury was in such straits that a large loan from Britain was negotiated. Also in 1922, an insurgency occurred in Pattani over new taxation policies. It was readily suppressed by the Nakorn Sri Thammarat Regiment. In 1923, Vajiravudh announced his six principles in the governance of Pattani Province, emphasizing local freedom and tax measures.


Personal life


Vajiravudh as a writer

King Vajiravudh was one of Thailand's most highly renowned artists, writing modern novels, short stories, newspaper articles, poems, plays, and journals. He translated many of
English literature English literature is literature written in the English language from United Kingdom, its crown dependencies, the Republic of Ireland, the United States, and the countries of the former British Empire. ''The Encyclopaedia Britannica'' defines En ...
and
French literature French literature () generally speaking, is literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak traditional languages of France other than Fr ...
into Thai, Among his works were translations of three
Shakespeare William Shakespeare ( 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor. He is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's nation ...
plays: ''
The Merchant of Venice ''The Merchant of Venice'' is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1596 and 1598. A merchant in Venice named Antonio defaults on a large loan provided by a Jewish moneylender, Shylock. Although classified as a ...
'', ''
As You Like It ''As You Like It'' is a pastoral comedy by William Shakespeare William Shakespeare ( 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor. He is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and ...
'', and ''
Romeo and Juliet ''Romeo and Juliet'' is a Shakespearean tragedy, tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about the romance between two Italian youths from feuding families. It was among Shakespeare's most popular plays during his lifetim ...
''. He wrote many other pieces promoting Thai
nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation should be congruent with the State (polity), state. As a movement, nationalism tends to promote the interests of a particular nation (as in a in-group and out-group, group of peo ...
, one of his nationalistic works is "" ( th, เกียรติศักดิ์ทหารเสือ) based on ancient French chivalric rhyme "Mon âme â Dieu, Ma vie au Roi, Mon coeur aux Dames, L'honneur pour moi.", and might also be influenced by
Alexandre Dumas Alexandre Dumas (, ; ; born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie (), 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas père (where '' '' is French for 'father', to distinguish him from his son Alexandre Dumas fils), was a French writer ...
's ''
The Three Musketeers ''The Three Musketeers'' (french: Les Trois Mousquetaires, links=no, ) is a French historical adventure novel written in 1844 by French author Alexandre Dumas. It is in the swashbuckler genre, which has heroic, chivalrous swordsmen who figh ...
''. King Vajiravudh also composed nonfiction such as “The War of Polish Succession”, which he wrote while he was Crown Prince (see also external links below). The king was among those writers who introduced mysteries and detective stories to the Thai reading public. He translated
Agatha Christie Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie, Lady Mallowan, (; 15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976) was an English writer known for her 66 detective novels and 14 short story collections, particularly those revolving around fictiona ...
's
Hercule Poirot Hercule Poirot (, ) is a fictional Belgians, Belgian detective created by British writer Agatha Christie. Poirot is one of Christie's most famous and long-running characters, appearing in 33 novels, two plays (''Black Coffee (play), Black Coffe ...
novels into Thai, and created the character "Nai Thong-In" ( th, นักสืบนายทองอิน) as a Siamese consulting detective, using
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer and physician. He created the character Sherlock Holmes in 1887 for ''A Study in Scarlet'', the first of four novels and fifty-six short stories about Hol ...
's
Sherlock Holmes Sherlock Holmes () is a fictional detective created by British author Arthur Conan Doyle. Referring to himself as a "Private investigator, consulting detective" in the stories, Holmes is known for his proficiency with observation, deduction, f ...
and
Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe (; Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, poet, editor, and literary criticism, literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories, particularly his tales of mystery and the ...
's Dupin as a archetypes. He translated
Sax Rohmer Arthur Henry "Sarsfield" Ward (15 February 1883 – 1 June 1959), better known as Sax Rohmer, was an English novelist. He is best remembered for his series of novels featuring the master criminal Dr. Fu Manchu."Rohmer, Sax" by Jack Adrian in Da ...
's ''The Golden Scorpion''. The king was well-versed in
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor languages had Trans-cul ...
and
Hindu Hindus (; ) are people who religiously adhere to Hinduism.Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 Historically, the term has also been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for ...
literature, including the
Ramayana The ''Rāmāyana'' (; sa, रामायणम्, ) is a Sanskrit literature, Sanskrit Indian epic poetry, epic composed over a period of nearly a millennium, with scholars' estimates for the earliest stage of the text ranging from the 8th ...
and the
Mahabharata The ''Mahābhārata'' ( ; sa, महाभारतम्, ', ) is one of the two major Sanskrit literature, Sanskrit Indian epic poetry, epics of ancient India in Hinduism, the other being the ''Ramayana, Rāmāyaṇa''. It narrates the s ...
epics. He translated many stories from the two epics into Thai and also wrote plays inspired by Hindu literature. He was influenced by
Rama Rama (; ), Ram, Raman or Ramar, also known as Ramachandra (; , ), is a major deity in Hinduism. He is the seventh and one of the most popular ''avatars'' of Vishnu. In Rama-centric traditions of Hinduism, he is considered the Supreme Being ...
, the incarnation of Lord
Vishnu Vishnu ( ; , ), also known as Narayana and Hari, is one of the Hindu deities, principal deities of Hinduism. He is the supreme being within Vaishnavism, one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism. Vishnu is known as "The Prese ...
and hero of the Ramayana epic, to the extent that he systemized and promoted the use of the name ''Rama'' as the (English) reign names of all Thai kings of the Bangkok (Rattanakosin) era. His own reign was dubbed as "Rama VI". (See
Rama (Kings of Thailand) All kings in the current Chakri dynasty of Thailand are often referred to as King Rama in the English speaking world. The name Rama was adopted from the name of the Hindu God Rama, an avatar of Vishnu. The use of the name "King Rama 'n'th" is in ...
) As a homage to his great, great, great grandfather, Tao Sên-pom, King Vajiravudh published a fictional play in Thai, based on the Prince and designed for performance with musical accompaniment in 1913. Prince Sên-pom was the father of Chao Praya Chakri,
Rama I Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok Maharaj (, 20 March 1737 – 7 September 1809), personal name Thongduang (), also known as Rama I, was the founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom and the first monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New ...
. The drama centres on a tale of Siamese courtly romance. It is absorbing fun and well-written. A copy of the play was given as a present to the Armstrong family in
Cragside Cragside is a Victorian era, Victorian country house near the town of Rothbury in Northumberland, England. It was the home of William Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong, founder of the Armstrong Whitworth armaments firm. An industrial magnate, scien ...
House,
Rothbury Rothbury is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in Northumberland, England, on the River Coquet. It is northwest of Morpeth, Northumberland, Morpeth and of Newcastle upon Tyne. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, 2001 Ce ...
, where it remains in the library. On a trip to the English
Lake District The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous for its lakes, forests, and mountains (or ''fells''), and its associations with William Wordswort ...
, Vajiravudh directed the performance of a play at the Stonehenge-like setting of Castlerigg Stone Circle, in the mountains near Keswick. In 1914 King Vajiravudh published in a Thai newspaper an article titled "Jews of the Orient" ( th, ยิวแห่งบูรพาทิศ). It was written in the context of a recent strike by Chinese merchants and workers which had paralyzed Bangkok, and may also have been the product of Vajiravudh's exposure to European
anti-Semitism Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice towards, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is considered to be a form of racism. Antis ...
. The article described Chinese immigrants in Thailand as having excessive "racial loyalty and astuteness in financial matters." The king wrote, "Money is their God. Life itself is of little value compared with the leanest bank account."


Marriages

Vajiravudh had been a king without a queen for about ten years. In 1920, he met ''Her Serene Highness'' Princess Varnvimol at his theatre at
Phayathai Palace The Phya Thai Palace ( th, วังพญาไท ''Wang Phaya Thai'') or Royal Phya Thai Palace ( ''Phra Ratcha Wang Phaya Thai'') is on the banks of the Samsen Canal ( ''Khlong Sam Sen'') on Rajavithee Road ( ''Thanon Ratchawithi'') in the ...
. They were engaged and Princess Vanbimol was elevated to ''Her Royal Highness ''Princess Vallabhadevi. However, four months later in 1921, Vajiravudh nullified the engagement and pursued Princess Vallabha's sister, Princess Lakshamilavan, whom he engaged. However, the marriage was never held and the couple then separated. Princess Vallabha Devi was house-arrested in the
Grand Palace The Grand Palace ( th, พระบรมมหาราชวัง, Royal Institute of Thailand. (2011). ''How to read and how to write.'' (20th Edition). Bangkok: Royal Institute of Thailand. .) is a complex of buildings at the heart of Ban ...
from then on. In 1921, Vajiravudh married Prueang Sucharitakul, who was a daughter of Lord Suthammamontri and elevated her to Lady Sucharitsuda. He then married Sucharitsuda's sister, Prabai Sucharitakul, with the title of Lady Indrani. In 1922, Lady Indrani was elevated to Princess and Queen Indrasakdisachi. However, the queen suffered two miscarriages. In 1924, Vajiravudh married Krueakaew Abhaiwongse (Later ''Suvadhana''), a daughter of Lord Aphaiphubet. Queen Indrasakdisachi was then demoted to Princess Consort in 1925. Vajiravudh had only one child, a daughter with
Suvadhana Princess Suvadhana ( th, สุวัทนา; , 15 April 1906 – 10 October 1985) was the royal consort of King Vajiravudh Vajiravudh ( th, วชิราวุธ, , 1 January 188126 November 1925) was the sixth Monarchy of Thailand, mo ...
, Princess Bejaratana Rajasuda ( th, เพชรรัตนราชสุดา; 1925–2011). In his influential book '' Imagined Communities'', Anglo-Irish political scientist and historian
Benedict Anderson Benedict Richard O'Gorman Anderson (August 26, 1936 – December 13, 2015) was an Anglo-Irish political scientist and historian who lived and taught in the United States. Anderson is best known for his 1983 book '' Imagined Communities'', which ...
speculated that the king was
homosexual Homosexuality is Romance (love), romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or Human sexual activity, sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender. As a sexual orientation, homosexuality is "an enduring pattern of emotional, romant ...
and that this would prevent him from accession if the law of succession was not reformed. Anderson was the first modern scholar to break the taboo and write about king's personal preferences. File:Lashamilavan.jpg,
Lakshamilavan Lakshamilavan, also spelled Lakshami Lavan ( th, ลักษมีลาวัณ; ; 3 July 1899 – 29 August 1961), née Princess Wanphimon Worawan ( th, วรรณพิมล วรวรรณ), was a Thai writer and a member of the Thai ...
File:SucharitSuda and King Vajiravudh (Rama VI).jpg,
Sucharit Suda Phra Sucharit Suda ( th, สุจริตสุดา; 13 November 1895 – 1 January 1982), formerly Prueng Sucharitakul ( th, เปรื่อง สุจริตกุล; ), daughter of Chao Phraya Sudharm Montri, was the High concubine ...
File:HM Queen Indrasakdi Sachi.jpg,
Indrasakdi Sachi th, อินทรศักดิศจี , birth_name = Praphai Sucharitakul , birth_date = , birth_place = Bangkok Bangkok, officially known in Thai language, Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon and colloquially as Krung Thep, is the capit ...
File:Queen Suvadhana in Rama VI.jpg,
Suvadhana Princess Suvadhana ( th, สุวัทนา; , 15 April 1906 – 10 October 1985) was the royal consort of King Vajiravudh Vajiravudh ( th, วชิราวุธ, , 1 January 188126 November 1925) was the sixth Monarchy of Thailand, mo ...


Succession law

In 1924, Vajiravudh promulgated his Law of Succession, which has since become the code for
Chakri dynasty The Chakri dynasty ( th, :wikt:ราชวงศ์, ราชวงศ์:wikt:จักรี, จักรี, , , ) is the current reigning dynasty of the Thailand, Kingdom of Thailand, the head of the house is the Monarchy of Thailand, ki ...
successions. According to the law, the throne would be passed to the king's sons and grandsons. However, in the case of Vajiravudh who had no sons, the throne would pass to his eldest "true" or full brother, that is, a brother who shared both the same father and mother, Queen
Saovabha Queen Saovabha Phongsri ( th, เสาวภาผ่องศรี; Royal Thai General System of Transcription, RTGS: Saowapha PhongsiPronunciation) was an agnatic half-sister and queen of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) of Thailand, and mother of ...
. The law gave priority to the descendants of princes born to Queen Saovabha, then to Queen
Savang Vadhana Sri Savarindira ( th, ศรีสวรินทิรา; , 10 September 1862 – 17 December 1955), also known as Savang Vadhana ( th, สว่างวัฒนา; ), was a consort and half-sister of Chulalongkorn Chulalongkorn ( th ...
, and then to Queen Sukumalmarsri. The law also forbade princes whose mother was foreign from the throne. This referred to his brother, Prince Chakrabongse, who had married a Russian woman. His son, Prince Chula Chakrabongse, was therefore barred from the throne.


Financial problems and death

In 1924, King Vajiravudh, accompanied by Suvadhana, visited the Federated Malay States. The reconciliation with European powers on unequal treaties progressed gradually, while the financial crisis was taking a great toll on Siam as another loan was taken from Britain and the firing of numerous government officials occurred. In 1925 Vajiravudh had to dissolve his Nakorn Sri Thammarat Regiment and merged provinces into larger units to lower maintenance costs. In November 1925, it was announced that Vajiravudh fell ill. Princess Consort Suvadhana was then pregnant. Vajiravudh then announced his succession instructions: if Princess Suvadhana gave birth to a son, the throne would go to him. If not, the throne would pass to his surviving brother, Prince
Prajadhipok Prajadhipok ( th, ประชาธิปก, Royal Thai General System of Transcription, RTGS: ''Prachathipok'', 8 November 1893 – 30 May 1941), also Rama VII, was the seventh King of Siam, monarch of Thailand, Siam of the Chakri dyn ...
of Sukhothai. He barred Princess Inthrasaksachi from being interred with him in the future and instead granted that right to Princess Suvadhana. And Vajiravudh also barred his uncle, Prince Damrong, from the government. On the night of 25 November, Princess Suvadhana gave birth to a princess only two hours before Vajiravudh's death. Vajiravudh glimpsed his sole daughter for the first and only time before his demise on the 26 November 1925. The throne passed to his brother, Prajadhipok, who named Vajiravudh's daughter as Princess
Bejaratana Princess Bejaratana Rajasuda ( th, เพชรรัตนราชสุดา; ; , 24 November 1925 – 27 July 2011) was the only child of the King Vajiravudh of Thailand. She was a first cousin of King Bhumibol Adulyadej and third cousin of ...
.


Tributes to King Vajiravudh

Image:Rama 6 in stamp.jpg, King Vajiravudh on a stamp Image:Monument of Rama VI at Lumphini Park (2).jpg, Statue of the king in
Lumphini Park Lumphini Park ( th, สวนลุมพินี, , ), also Lumpini or Lumpinee, is a 360 Rai (area), rai () park in Bangkok, Thailand. The park offers rare open public space, trees, and playgrounds in the Thai capital and contains an artif ...
, Dusit, Bangkok


Honors


Military rank

*
Field Marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks. Usually, it is the highest rank in an army and as such few persons are appointed to it. It is considered as ...
, Admiral of the Fleet and Captain General of the Wild Tiger Corps * Honorary General,
British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western ...


National honours

*: ** Knight (and Sovereign) of the Most Illustrious
Order of the Royal House of Chakri The Most Illustrious Order of the Royal House of Chakri ( th, เครื่องขัตติยราชอิสริยาภรณ์อันมีเกียรติคุณรุ่งเรืองยิ่งมหาจัก ...
** Knight (and Sovereign) of the Ancient and Auspicious
Order of the Nine Gems The Ancient and Auspicious Order of the Nine Gems ( th, เครื่องราชอิสริยาภรณ์อันเป็นโบราณมงคลนพรัตนราชวราภรณ์; ) was established in 1851 by ...
** Knight Grand Cordon (and Sovereign) of the Most Illustrious
Order of Chula Chom Klao The Most Illustrious Order of Chula Chom Klao ( th, เครื่องราชอิสริยาภรณ์จุลจอมเกล้า; ) was established on 16 November 1873 by King Chulalongkorn, Rama V of The Thailand, Kingdom of ...
** Knight Grand Commander (and Sovereign) of the Honourable Order of Rama ** Knight Grand Cordon (and Sovereign) of the Most Exalted
Order of the White Elephant __NOTOC__ The Most Exalted Order of the White Elephant ( th, เครื่องราชอิสริยาภรณ์อันเป็นที่เชิดชูยิ่งช้างเผือก; ) is an order (decoration), orde ...


Foreign honours

* : ** Knight of the Order of the Seraphim (RSerafO), ''14 July 1897'' * : ** Knight of the
Order of the Elephant The Order of the Elephant ( da, Elefantordenen) is a Denmark, Danish order of chivalry and is Denmark's highest-ranked honour. It has origins in the 15th century, but has officially existed since 1693, and since the establishment of consti ...
(RE), ''27 July 1897'' * : ** Knight of the
Order of the Golden Fleece The Distinguished Order of the Golden Fleece ( es, Insigne Orden del Toisón de Oro, german: Orden vom Goldenen Vlies) is a Catholic order of chivalry founded in Bruges by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, in 1430, to celebrate his marriage ...
, ''15 May 1902'' - ** Grand Cross of the
Order of Charles III The Royal and Distinguished Spanish Order of Charles III, originally Royal and Much Distinguished Order of Charles III ( es, Real y Distinguida Orden Española de Carlos III, originally es, Real y Muy Distinguida Orden de Carlos III) was establ ...
, with Collar, ''16 October 1897'' * : ** Knight of the
Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation The Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation ( it, Ordine Supremo della Santissima Annunziata) is a Roman Catholic order of chivalry, originating in Duchy of Savoy, Savoy. It eventually was the pinnacle of the List of Italian orders of knighth ...
, ''1 April 1901'' * : ** Grand Cross of the Royal Hungarian Order of St. Stephen, ''1902'' * : ** Honorary Grand Cross of the
Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I of Great Britain, George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved Bathing#Medieval ...
(GCB)

'"London Gazette"
** Honorary Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted
Order of the Star of India The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1861. The Order includes members of three classes: # Knight Grand Commander (:Knights Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India, GCSI) # ...
(GCSI), ''26 April 1918'' ** Honorary Grand Cross of the
Royal Victorian Order The Royal Victorian Order (french: Ordre royal de Victoria) is a dynastic order of knighthood established in 1896 by Queen Victoria. It recognises distinguished personal service to the British monarch, Monarchy of Canada, Canadian monarch, Mon ...
(GCVO), ''21 April 1902'' * : ** Knight of the
Order of Merit of the Prussian Crown The Order of Merit of the Prussian Crown (''Verdienstorden der Preußischen Krone'') was an award of civil and military merit established 18 January 1901 by King Wilhelm II on the occasion of the bicentennial of the establishment of the Kingdom of ...
, ''30 May 1902'' * : ** Knight of the
House Order of Fidelity The House Order of Fidelity (german: Hausorden der Treue) is a dynastic order of the Margraviate of Baden. It was established by Charles III William, Margrave of Baden-Durlach as a reward for merit and to mark the laying of the foundation ston ...
, ''1902'' * : ** Grand Cordon of the
Order of the Chrysanthemum is Japan's highest Order (decoration), order. The Grand Cordon of the Order was established in 1876 by Emperor Meiji of Japan; the Collar of the Order was added on 4 January 1888. Unlike its European counterparts, the order may be conferred pos ...
, ''9 December 1902''


Ancestry


See also

*
1924 Palace Law of Succession The Palace Law of Succession, Buddhist Era 2467 (1924) ( th, กฎมณเฑียรบาลว่าด้วยการสืบราชสันตติวงศ์ พระพุทธศักราช ๒๔๖๗; ) governs Orde ...


Notes


References


Further reading

*Greene, Stephen Lyon Wakeman. ''Absolute Dreams. Thai Government Under Rama VI, 1910-1925''. Bangkok: White Lotus, 1999. *Vella, Walter Francis. ''Chaiyo! King Vajiravudh and the Development of Thai Nationalism''. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii, 1978.


External links

*
The war of the Polish succession by Vajiravudh, 1901

The Spanish coronation by Vajiravudh, 1902 (reprint in 2007)
* {{DEFAULTSORT:Vajiravudh 1881 births 1925 deaths 19th-century Thai people Crown Princes of Thailand Graduates of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst Honorary Knights Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary Knights of the Golden Fleece of Spain Monarchs of Thailand Thai people of Mon descent Thai poets Regents of Thailand Thai nationalists Thai-language poets Flag designers University and college founders Children of Chulalongkorn Thai male Chao Fa Translators of William Shakespeare Translators to Thai Bullingdon Club members People associated with Scouting and Guiding in Thailand 20th-century Thai monarchs 19th-century Chakri dynasty 20th-century Chakri dynasty