The KING JAMES VERSION (KJV), also known as the KING JAMES BIBLE
(KJB) or simply the AUTHORIZED VERSION (AV), is an English translation
of the Christian
Bible for the
Church of England
Church of England begun in 1604 and
completed in 1611. The books of the
King James Version
King James Version include the 39
books of the
Old Testament , an intertestamental section containing 14
books of the Apocrypha (most of which correspond to books in the
Vulgate Deuterocanon adhered to by Roman Catholics ), and the 27 books
New Testament .
It was first printed by the King\'s Printer Robert Barker and was the
third translation into English approved by the English Church
authorities. The first had been the _Great
Bible _, commissioned in
the reign of King Henry VIII (1535), and the second had been the
Bible _ of 1568. In January 1604,
James VI and I
James VI and I convened
Hampton Court Conference , where a new English version was
conceived in response to the problems of the earlier translations
perceived by the Puritans , a faction of the Church of England. The
translation is noted for its "majesty of style", and has been
described as one of the most important books in English culture and a
driving force in the shaping of the English-speaking world.
James gave the translators instructions intended to ensure that the
new version would conform to the ecclesiology and reflect the
episcopal structure of the
Church of England
Church of England and its belief in an
ordained clergy. The translation was done by 47 scholars, all of whom
were members of the Church of England. In common with most other
translations of the period, the
New Testament was translated from
Greek , the
Old Testament from Hebrew and Aramaic , and the Apocrypha
from Greek and
Latin . In the
Book of Common Prayer
Book of Common Prayer (1662), the text
of the _Authorized Version_ replaced the text of the _Great Bible_ for
Gospel readings (but not for the Psalter, which
substantially retained Coverdale's Great
Bible version) and as such
was authorised by Act of Parliament.
By the first half of the 18th century, the _Authorized Version_ had
become effectively unchallenged as the English translation used in
Anglican and English Protestant churches, except for the
some short passages in the
Book of Common Prayer
Book of Common Prayer of the Church of
England. Over the course of the 18th century, the _Authorized Version_
Vulgate as the standard version of scripture for
English-speaking scholars. With the development of stereotype printing
at the beginning of the 19th century, this version of the
the most widely printed book in history, almost all such printings
presenting the standard text of 1769 extensively re-edited by Benjamin
Oxford , and nearly always omitting the books of the
Apocrypha . Today the unqualified title "King James Version" usually
indicates that this
Oxford standard text is meant.
* 1 Name
* 2 History
* 2.1 Earlier English translations
* 2.2 Considerations for a new version
* 2.3 Translation committees
* 2.4 Printing
* 2.5 Authorized Version
* 2.6 Standard text of 1769
* 2.7 Editorial criticism
* 3 Literary attributes
* 3.1 Translation
* 3.1.3 Apocrypha
* 3.1.4 Sources
* 3.2 Variations from recent translations
* 3.3 Style and criticism
* 3.4 Mistranslations
* 4 Influence
* 4.1 Copyright status
* 4.1.1 Permission
* 4.2 Apocrypha
King James Only movement
* 5 See also
* 6 Notes
* 7 References
* 8 Further reading
* 9 External links
1612 First KJV bible in quarto size
The title of the first edition of the translation, in Early Modern
English , was "THE HOLY BIBLE, Conteyning the Old Teſtament, _AND THE
NEW: Newly Tranſlated out of the Originall tongues: consequently many
Catholic commentators of the 15th and 16th centuries (such as Thomas
More ) took these manuscript English Bibles to represent an anonymous
earlier orthodox translation.
William Tyndale translated the New
Testament into English in 1525.
William Tyndale , an English contemporary of
Martin Luther ,
undertook a translation of the New Testament. Tyndale's translation
was the first _printed_
Bible in English. Over the next ten years,
Tyndale revised his
New Testament in the light of rapidly advancing
biblical scholarship, and embarked on a translation of the Old
Testament. Despite some controversial translation choices, and in
spite of Tyndale's execution on charges of heresy for having made the
translated bible, the merits of Tyndale's work and prose style made
his translation the ultimate basis for all subsequent renditions into
Early Modern English. With these translations lightly edited and
Myles Coverdale , in 1539, Tyndale's
New Testament and his
incomplete work on the
Old Testament became the basis for the _Great
Bible ._ This was the first "authorised version" issued by the Church
of England during the reign of King Henry VIII . When Mary I
succeeded to the throne in 1553, she returned the
Church of England
Church of England to
the communion of the Roman Catholic faith and many English religious
reformers fled the country, some establishing an English-speaking
Geneva . Under the leadership of
John Calvin ,
the chief international centre of Reformed Protestantism and Latin
These English expatriates undertook a translation that became known
as the _
Bible ._ This translation, dated to 1560, was a
revision of Tyndale's
Bible and the _Great Bible_ on the basis of the
original languages. Soon after Elizabeth I took the throne in 1558,
the flaws of both the _Great Bible_ and the _
Geneva Bible_ (namely,
Bible did not "conform to the ecclesiology and reflect
the episcopal structure of the
Church of England
Church of England and its beliefs about
an ordained clergy") became painfully apparent. In 1568, the Church
of England responded with the _Bishops\'
Bible _, a revision of the
_Great Bible_ in the light of the
Geneva version. While officially
approved, this new version failed to displace the
as the most popular English
Bible of the age – in part because the
Bible was only printed in lectern editions of prodigious size and
at a cost of several pounds. Accordingly, Elizabethan lay people
overwhelmingly read the
Bible in the
Geneva Version – small editions
were available at a relatively low cost. At the same time, there was a
substantial clandestine importation of the rival _Douay – Rheims _
New Testament of 1582, undertaken by exiled Roman Catholics. This
translation, though still derived from Tyndale, claimed to represent
the text of the
In May 1601, King James VI of Scotland attended the General Assembly
of the Church of Scotland at St Columba's Church in
Burntisland , Fife
, at which proposals were put forward for a new translation of the
Bible into English. Two years later, he ascended to the throne of
England as King James I of England.
CONSIDERATIONS FOR A NEW VERSION
The newly crowned King James convened the
Hampton Court Conference in
1604. That gathering proposed a new English version in response to the
perceived problems of earlier translations as detected by the Puritan
faction of the Church of England. Here are three examples of problems
the Puritans perceived with the _Bishops_ and _Great Bibles_:
First, Galatians iv. 25 (from the Bishops' Bible). The Greek word
_susoichei_ is not well translated as now it is, bordereth neither
expressing the force of the word, nor the apostle's sense, nor the
situation of the place. Secondly, psalm cv. 28 (from the Great Bible
), 'They were not obedient;' the original being, 'They were not
disobedient.' Thirdly, psalm cvi. 30 (also from the Great Bible),
'Then stood up Phinees and prayed,' the Hebrew hath, 'executed
Instructions were given to the translators that were intended to
Puritan influence on this new translation. The Bishop of
London added a qualification that the translators would add no
marginal notes (which had been an issue in the _
Geneva Bible_). King
James cited two passages in the
Geneva translation where he found the
marginal notes offensive to the principles of divinely ordained royal
supremacy : Exodus 1:19, where the _
Geneva Bible_ notes had commended
the example of civil disobedience to the Egyptian
Pharaoh showed by
the Hebrew midwives, and also II Chronicles 15:16, where the _Geneva
Bible_ had criticized King Asa for not having executed his idolatrous
'mother', Queen Maachah (Maachah had actually been Asa's grandmother,
but James considered the
Bible reference as sanctioning the
execution of his own mother
Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots ). Further, the King
gave the translators instructions designed to guarantee that the new
version would conform to the ecclesiology of the Church of England.
Certain Greek and Hebrew words were to be translated in a manner that
reflected the traditional usage of the church. For example, old
ecclesiastical words such as the word "church" were to be retained and
not to be translated as "congregation". The new translation would
reflect the episcopal structure of the
Church of England
Church of England and
traditional beliefs about ordained clergy.
James' instructions included several requirements that kept the new
translation familiar to its listeners and readers. The text of the
Bible _ would serve as the primary guide for the
translators, and the familiar proper names of the biblical characters
would all be retained. If the _Bishops' Bible_ was deemed problematic
in any situation, the translators were permitted to consult other
translations from a pre-approved list: the _Tyndale
Bible ,_ the
Bible ,_ _Matthew\'s
Bible ,_ the _Great
Bible ,_ and the
Bible ._ In addition, later scholars have detected an
influence on the _Authorized Version_ from the translations of
Bible _ and the
New Testament of the _Douay–Rheims
Bible ._ It is for this reason that the flyleaf of most printings of
the _Authorized Version_ observes that the text had been "translated
out of the original tongues, and with the former translations
diligently compared and revised, by His Majesty's special
commandment." As the work proceeded, more detailed rules were adopted
as to how variant and uncertain readings in the Hebrew and Greek
source texts should be indicated, including the requirement that words
supplied in English to 'complete the meaning' of the originals should
be printed in a different type face.
The task of translation was undertaken by 47 scholars, although 54
were originally approved. All were members of the Church of England
and all except
Sir Henry Savile were clergy. The scholars worked in
six committees, two based in each of the University of Oxford, the
University of Cambridge, and Westminster . The committees included
Puritan sympathies, as well as High Churchmen . Forty
unbound copies of the 1602 edition of the _Bishops' Bible_ were
specially printed so that the agreed changes of each committee could
be recorded in the margins. The committees worked on certain parts
separately and the drafts produced by each committee were then
compared and revised for harmony with each other. The scholars were
not paid directly for their translation work, instead a circular
letter was sent to bishops encouraging them to consider the
translators for appointment to well-paid livings as these fell vacant.
Several were supported by the various colleges at
Cambridge, while others were promoted to bishoprics , deaneries and
prebends through royal patronage .
The committees started work towards the end of 1604. King James I of
England , on 22 July 1604, sent a letter to
Archbishop Bancroft asking
him to contact all English churchmen requesting that they make
donations to his project.
Right trusty and well beloved, we greet you well. Whereas we have
appointed certain learned men, to the number of 4 and 50, for the
translating of the Bible, and in this number, divers of them have
either no ecclesiastical preferment at all, or else so very small, as
the same is far unmeet for men of their deserts and yet we in ourself
in any convenient time cannot well remedy it, therefor we do hereby
require you, that presently you write in our name as well to the
Archbishop of York, as to the rest of the bishops of the province of
Cant. signifying unto them, that we do well and straitly charge
everyone of them ... that (all excuses set apart) when a prebend or
parsonage ... shall next upon any occasion happen to be void ... we
may commend for the same some such of the learned men, as we shall
think fit to be preferred unto it ... Given unto our signet at our
palace of West. on 2 and 20 July , in the 2nd year of our reign of
England, France, and of Ireland, and of Scotland xxxvii."
They had all completed their sections by 1608, the Apocrypha
committee finishing first. From January 1609, a General Committee of
Review met at Stationers\' Hall, London to review the completed marked
texts from each of the six committees. The General Committee included
John Bois , Andrew Downes and
John Harmar , and others known only by
their initials, including "AL" (who may be Arthur Lake ), and were
paid for their attendance by the Stationers' Company. John Bois
prepared a note of their deliberations (in Latin) – which has partly
survived in two later transcripts. Also surviving of the translators'
working papers are a bound-together set of marked-up corrections to
one of the forty _Bishops' Bibles_ – covering the
Old Testament and
Gospels, and also a manuscript translation of the text of the
Epistles , excepting those verses where no change was being
recommended to the readings in the _Bishops' Bible_. Archbishop
Bancroft insisted on having a final say making fourteen further
changes, of which one was the term "bishopricke" at Acts 1:20.
* FIRST WESTMINSTER COMPANY, translated Genesis to 2 Kings :
Lancelot Andrewes , John Overall ,
Hadrian à Saravia , Richard
Clarke , John Layfield ,
Robert Tighe ,
Francis Burleigh , Geoffrey
King , Richard Thomson ,
William Bedwell ;
* FIRST CAMBRIDGE COMPANY, translated 1 Chronicles to the Song of
Edward Lively , John Richardson ,
Lawrence Chaderton , Francis
Roger Andrewes , Thomas Harrison ,
Robert Spaulding ,
Andrew Bing ;
* FIRST OXFORD COMPANY, translated Isaiah to Malachi :
John Harding ,
John Rainolds (or Reynolds), Thomas Holland ,
Richard Kilby , Miles Smith ,
Richard Brett ,
Daniel Fairclough ,
William Thorne ;
* SECOND OXFORD COMPANY, translated the Gospels , Acts of the
Apostles , and the
Book of Revelation :
Thomas Ravis , George Abbot , Richard Eedes ,
Giles Tomson , Sir
Henry Savile ,
John Peryn ,
Ralph Ravens ,
John Harmar , John Aglionby
Leonard Hutten ;
* SECOND WESTMINSTER COMPANY, translated the
William Barlow ,
John Spenser , Roger Fenton , Ralph Hutchinson ,
William Dakins ,
Michael Rabbet , Thomas Sanderson (who probably had
Archdeacon of Rochester );
* SECOND CAMBRIDGE COMPANY, translated the Apocrypha :
John Duport ,
William Branthwaite ,
Jeremiah Radcliffe , Samuel
Ward , Andrew Downes ,
John Bois , Robert Ward ,
Thomas Bilson ,
Richard Bancroft .
Richard Bancroft was the "chief overseer" of the
production of the Authorized Version.
The original printing of the _Authorized Version_ was published by
Robert Barker , the King's Printer, in 1611 as a complete folio Bible.
It was sold looseleaf for ten shillings , or bound for twelve.
Robert Barker's father, Christopher, had, in 1589, been granted by
Elizabeth I the title of royal Printer, with the perpetual Royal
Privilege to print Bibles in England. Robert Barker invested very
large sums in printing the new edition, and consequently ran into
serious debt, such that he was compelled to sub-lease the privilege
to two rival London printers, Bonham Norton and John Bill. It appears
that it was initially intended that each printer would print a portion
of the text, share printed sheets with the others, and split the
proceeds. Bitter financial disputes broke out, as Barker accused
Norton and Bill of concealing their profits, while Norton and Bill
accused Barker of selling sheets properly due to them as partial
Bibles for ready money. There followed decades of continual
litigation, and consequent imprisonment for debt for members of the
Barker and Norton printing dynasties, while each issued rival
editions of the whole Bible. In 1629 the Universities of
Cambridge successfully managed to assert separate and prior royal
Bible printing, for their own university presses – and
Cambridge University took the opportunity to print revised editions of
the _Authorized Version_ in 1629, and 1638. The editors of these
John Bois and John Ward from the original
translators. This did not, however, impede the commercial rivalries of
the London printers, especially as the Barker family refused to allow
any other printers access to the authoritative manuscript of the
Two editions of the whole
Bible are recognized as having been
produced in 1611, which may be distinguished by their rendering of
Ruth 3:15; the first edition reading "he went into the city", where
the second reads "she went into the city."; these are known
colloquially as the "He" and "She" Bibles. _ The opening of the
Epistle to the Hebrews of the 1611 edition of the Authorized Version_
shows the original typeface . Marginal notes reference variant
translations and cross references to other
Bible passages. Each
chapter is headed by a précis of contents. There are decorative
initial letters for each Chapter, and a decorated headpiece to each
Biblical Book, but no illustrations in the text.
The original printing was made before
English spelling was
standardized, and when printers, as a matter of course, expanded and
contracted the spelling of the same words in different places, so as
to achieve an even column of text. They set V for initial U and V,
and U for U and V everywhere else. They used long ſ for non-final S.
The glyph J occurs only after I, as in the final letter in a Roman
Punctuation was relatively heavy, and differed from current
practice. When space needed to be saved, the printers sometimes used
_ye_ for _the_, (replacing the
Middle English thorn with the
continental Y), set ã for _an_ or _am_ (in the style of scribe's
shorthand ), and set the punctuation has also been standardized, but
still varies from current usage norms.
The first printing used a black letter typeface instead of a roman
typeface, which itself made a political and a religious statement.
Like the Great
Bible and the Bishops\'
Bible , the Authorized Version
was "appointed to be read in churches". It was a large folio volume
meant for public use, not private devotion; the weight of the type
mirrored the weight of establishment authority behind it. However,
smaller editions and roman-type editions followed rapidly, e.g. quarto
roman-type editions of the
Bible in 1612. This contrasted with the
Geneva Bible, which was the first English
Bible printed in a roman
typeface (although black-letter editions, particularly in folio
format, were issued later).
In contrast to the _
Geneva Bible_ and the _Bishops' Bible_, which had
both been extensively illustrated, there were no illustrations at all
in the 1611 edition of the Authorized Version, the main form of
decoration being the historiated initial letters provided for books
and chapters – together with the decorative title pages to the Bible
itself, and to the New Testament.
In the Great Bible, readings derived from the
Vulgate but not found
in published Hebrew and Greek texts had been distinguished by being
printed in smaller roman type . In the
Geneva Bible, a distinct
typeface had instead been applied to distinguish text supplied by
translators, or thought needful for English grammar but not present in
the Greek or Hebrew; and the original printing of the Authorized
Version used roman type for this purposed, albeit sparsely and
inconsistently. This results in perhaps the most significant
difference between the original printed text of the King James Bible
and the current text. When, from the later 17th century onwards, the
Authorized Version began to be printed in roman type, the typeface for
supplied words was changed to italics , this application being
regularised and greatly expanded. This was intended to de-emphasise
The original printing contained two prefatory texts; the first was a
Epistle Dedicatory_ to "the most high and mighty Prince" King
James. Many British printings reproduce this, while most non-British
printings do not.
The second preface was called _Translators to the Reader_, a long and
learned essay that defends the undertaking of the new version. It
observes the translators' stated goal, that they, "never thought from
the beginning that should need to make a new translation, nor yet to
make of a bad one a good one, ... but to make a good one better, or
out of many good ones, one principal good one, not justly to be
excepted against; that hath been our endeavour, that our mark." They
also give their opinion of previous English
stating, "We do not deny, nay, we affirm and avow, that the very
meanest translation of the
Bible in English, set forth by men of our
profession, (for we have seen none of theirs of the whole
yet) containeth the word of God, nay, is the word of God." As with the
first preface, some British printings reproduce this, while most
non-British printings do not. Almost every printing that includes the
second preface also includes the first. The first printing contained a
number of other apparatus , including a table for the reading of the
Psalms at matins and evensong , and a calendar , an almanac , and a
table of holy days and observances. Much of this material became
obsolete with the adoption of the Gregorian
Calendar by Britain and
its colonies in 1752, and thus modern editions invariably omit it.
So as to make it easier to locate a particular passage, each chapter
was headed by a brief precis of its contents with verse numbers. Later
editors freely substituted their own chapter summaries, or omitted
such material entirely.
Pilcrow marks are used to indicate the
beginnings of paragraphs except after the book of Acts.
The Authorized Version was meant to replace the _Bishops' Bible_ as
the official version for readings in the
Church of England
Church of England . No record
of its authorization exists; it was probably effected by an order of
the Privy Council but the records for the years 1600 to 1613 were
destroyed by fire in January 1618/19 and it is commonly known as the
Authorized Version in the United Kingdom. The
King's Printer issued no
further editions of the _Bishops' Bible_, so necessarily the
Authorized Version replaced it as the standard lectern
Bible in parish
church use in England.
In the 1662 _Book of Common Prayer_, the text of the Authorized
Version finally supplanted that of the _Great Bible_ in the Epistle
Gospel readings – though the Prayer Book
continues in the Great
The case was different in Scotland, where the
Bible had long
been the standard church bible. It was not until 1633 that a Scottish
edition of the Authorized Version was printed – in conjunction with
the Scots coronation in that year of Charles I . The inclusion of
illustrations in the edition raised accusations of Popery from
opponents of the religious policies of Charles and
William Laud ,
Archbishop of Canterbury. However, official policy favoured the
Authorized Version, and this favour returned during the Commonwealth
– as London printers succeeded in re-asserting their monopoly on
Bible printing with support from
Oliver Cromwell – and the "New
Translation" was the only edition on the market. F.F. Bruce reports
that the last recorded instance of a Scots parish continuing to use
the "Old Translation" (i.e. Geneva) as being in 1674.
The _Authorized Version_'s acceptance by the general public took
longer. The _
Geneva Bible_ continued to be popular, and large numbers
were imported from Amsterdam, where printing continued up to 1644 in
editions carrying a false London imprint. However, few if any genuine
Geneva editions appear to have been printed in London after 1616, and
Archbishop Laud prohibited their printing or importation. In
the period of the
English Civil War , soldiers of the New Model Army
were issued a book of
Geneva selections called _"The Soldiers' Bible"_
. In the first half of the 17th century the Authorized Version is
most commonly referred to as "The
Bible without notes", thereby
distinguishing it from the
Bible with notes". There were
several printings of the Authorized Version in Amsterdam – one as
late as 1715 which combined the Authorized Version translation text
Geneva marginal notes; one such edition was printed in
London in 1649. During the Commonwealth a commission was established
by Parliament to recommend a revision of the Authorized Version with
acceptably Protestant explanatory notes, but the project was
abandoned when it became clear that these would nearly double the bulk
Bible text. After the
English Restoration , the _
was held to be politically suspect and a reminder of the repudiated
Puritan era. Furthermore, disputes over the lucrative rights to print
the Authorized Version dragged on through the 17th century, so none of
the printers involved saw any commercial advantage in marketing a
rival translation. The Authorized Version became the only current
version circulating among English-speaking people.
A small minority of critical scholars were slow to accept the latest
Hugh Broughton , the most highly regarded English
Hebraist of his time (but who had been excluded from the panel of
translators because of his utterly uncongenial temperament ), issued
in 1611 a total condemnation of the new version, criticizing
especially the translators' rejection of word-for-word equivalence and
stated that "he would rather be torn in pieces by wild horses than
that this abominable translation (KJV) should ever be foisted upon the
English people". Walton\'s London Polyglot of 1657 disregards the
Authorized Version (and indeed the English language) entirely.
Walton's reference text throughout is the Vulgate. The
is also found as the standard text of scripture in
Thomas Hobbes 's
_Leviathan _ of 1651, indeed Hobbes gives
Vulgate chapter and verse
numbers (e.g., Job 41:24, not Job 41:33) for his head text. In Chapter
35: _'The Signification in Scripture of Kingdom of God'_ , Hobbes
discusses Exodus 19:5, first in his own translation of the _'Vulgar
Latin'_ , and then subsequently as found in the versions he terms
_"...the English translation made in the beginning of the reign of
King James"_, and _"The
Geneva French"_ (i.e. Olivétan ). Hobbes
advances detailed critical arguments why the
Vulgate rendering is to
be preferred. For most of the 17th century the assumption remained
that, while it had been of vital importance to provide the scriptures
in the vernacular for ordinary people, nevertheless for those with
sufficient education to do so, Biblical study was best undertaken
within the international common medium of Latin. It was only in 1700
that modern bilingual Bibles appeared in which the Authorized Version
was compared with counterpart Dutch and French Protestant vernacular
In consequence of the continual disputes over printing privileges,
successive printings of the Authorized Version were notably less
careful than the 1611 edition had been – compositors freely varying
spelling, capitalization and punctuation – and also, over the
years, introducing about 1,500 misprints (some of which, like the
omission of "not" from the commandment "Thou shalt not commit
adultery" in the "Wicked
Bible ", became notorious). The two
Cambridge editions of 1629 and 1638 attempted to restore the proper
text – while introducing over 200 revisions of the original
translators' work, chiefly by incorporating into the main text a more
literal reading originally presented as a marginal note. A more
thoroughly corrected edition was proposed following the Restoration ,
in conjunction with the revised 1662 Book of Common Prayer, but
Parliament then decided against it.
By the first half of the 18th century, the Authorized Version was
effectively unchallenged as the sole English translation in current
use in Protestant churches, and was so dominant that the Roman
Catholic Church in England issued in 1750 a revision of the 1610
Bible _ by
Richard Challoner that was very much closer
to the Authorized Version than to the original. However, general
standards of spelling, punctuation, typesetting, capitalization and
grammar had changed radically in the 100 years since the first edition
of the Authorized Version, and all printers in the market were
introducing continual piecemeal changes to their
Bible texts to bring
them into line with current practice – and with public expectations
of standardized spelling and grammatical construction.
Over the course of the 18th century, the Authorized Version
supplanted the Hebrew, Greek and the
Vulgate as the standard
version of scripture for English speaking scholars and divines, and
indeed came to be regarded by some as an inspired text in itself –
so much so that any challenge to its readings or textual base came to
be regarded by many as an assault on Holy Scripture. This has been
contemptuously labelled "AVolatry", a play on the name "Authorized
Version" (AV) and idolatry .
STANDARD TEXT OF 1769
Title page of the 1760 Cambridge edition
By the mid-18th century the wide variation in the various modernized
printed texts of the Authorized Version, combined with the notorious
accumulation of misprints, had reached the proportion of a scandal,
and the Universities of
Oxford and Cambridge both sought to produce an
updated standard text. First of the two was the Cambridge edition of
1760, the culmination of 20-years work by
Francis Sawyer Parris , who
died in May of that year. This 1760 edition was reprinted without
change in 1762 and in
John Baskerville 's fine folio edition of
1763. This was effectively superseded by the 1769
Benjamin Blayney , though with comparatively few changes
from Parris's edition; but which became the
Oxford standard text, and
is reproduced almost unchanged in most current printings. Parris and
Blayney sought consistently to remove those elements of the 1611 and
subsequent editions that they believed were due to the vagaries of
printers, while incorporating most of the revised readings of the
Cambridge editions of 1629 and 1638, and each also introducing a few
improved readings of their own. They undertook the mammoth task of
standardizing the wide variation in punctuation and spelling of the
original, making many thousands of minor changes to the text. In
addition, Blayney and Parris thoroughly revised and greatly extended
the italicization of "supplied" words not found in the original
languages by cross-checking against the presumed source texts. Blayney
seems to have worked from the 1550 Stephanus edition of the Textus
Receptus , rather than the later editions of
Beza that the translators
of the 1611
New Testament had favoured; accordingly the current Oxford
standard text alters around a dozen italicizations where
Stephanus differ. Like the 1611 edition, the 1769
included the Apocrypha, although Blayney tended to remove
cross-references to the Books of the Apocrypha from the margins of
their Old and New Testaments wherever these had been provided by the
original translators. Altogether, the standardization of spelling and
punctuation caused Blayney's 1769 text to differ from the 1611 text in
around 24,000 places. Since that date, a few further changes have
been introduced to the
Oxford standard text. The
Press paperback edition of the "Authorized King James Version"
provides Oxford's standard text, and also includes the prefatory
section "The Translators to the Reader".
The 1611 and 1769 texts of the first three verses from _I Corinthians
13_ are given below.
1. Though I speake with the tongues of men and though I have all
faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am
nothing. 3 And though I bestow all my goods to feed _the poor_, and
though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth
There are a number of superficial edits in these three verses: 11
changes of spelling, 16 changes of typesetting (including the changed
conventions for the use of u and v), three changes of punctuation, and
one variant text – where "not charity" is substituted for "no
charity" in verse two, in the erroneous belief that the original
reading was a misprint.
A particular verse for which Blayney\'s 1769 text differs from
Parris\'s 1760 version is Matthew 5:13, where Parris (1760) has
Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost HIS savour,
wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing but
to be cast out, and to be TRODEN under foot of men.
Blayney (1769) changes 'lost HIS savour' to 'lost ITS savour', and
TRODEN to TRODDEN.
For a period, Cambridge continued to issue Bibles using the Parris
text, but the market demand for absolute standardization was now such
that they eventually adapted Blayney's work, but omitted some of the
Oxford spellings. By the mid-19th century, almost all
printings of the Authorized Version were derived from the 1769 Oxford
text – increasingly without Blayney's variant notes and cross
references, and commonly excluding the Apocrypha. One exception to
this was a scrupulous original-spelling, page-for-page, and
line-for-line reprint of the 1611 edition (including all chapter
headings, marginalia, and original italicization, but with Roman type
substituted for the black letter of the original), published by Oxford
in 1833. Another important exception was the 1873 Cambridge Paragraph
Bible, thoroughly revised, modernized and re-edited by F. H. A.
Scrivener, who for the first time consistently identified the source
texts underlying the 1611 translation and its marginal notes.
Scrivener, like Blayney, opted to revise the translation where he
considered the judgement of the 1611 translators had been faulty. In
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press released its New Cambridge Paragraph
Bible with Apocrypha, edited by David Norton, which followed in the
spirit of Scrivener's work, attempting to bring spelling to
present-day standards. Norton also innovated with the introduction of
quotation marks, while returning to a hypothetical 1611 text, so far
as possible, to the wording used by its translators, especially in the
light of the re-emphasis on some of their draft documents. This text
has been issued in paperback by
Penguin books .
From the early 19th century the Authorized Version has remained
almost completely unchanged – and since, due to advances in printing
technology, it could now be produced in very large editions for mass
sale, it established complete dominance in public and ecclesiastical
use in the English-speaking Protestant world. Academic debate through
that century, however, increasingly reflected concerns about the
Authorized Version shared by some scholars: (a) that subsequent study
in oriental languages suggested a need to revise the translation of
Bible – both in terms of specific vocabulary, and also in
distinguishing descriptive terms from proper names; (b) that the
Authorized Version was unsatisfactory in translating the same Greek
words and phrases into different English, especially where parallel
passages are found in the synoptic gospels ; and (c) in the light of
subsequent ancient manuscript discoveries, the New Testament
translation base of the Greek
Textus Receptus could no longer be
considered to be the best representation of the original text.
Responding to these concerns, the
Convocation of Canterbury resolved
in 1870 to undertake a revision of the text of the Authorized Version,
intending to retain the original text "except where in the judgement
of competent scholars such a change is necessary". The resulting
revision was issued as the
Revised Version in 1881 (New Testament),
1885 (Old Testament) and 1894 (Apocrypha); but, although it sold
widely, the revision did not find popular favour, and it was only
reluctantly in 1899 that Convocation approved it for reading in
By the early 20th century, editing had been completed in Cambridge's
text, with at least 6 new changes since 1769, and the reversing of at
least 30 of the standard
Oxford readings. The distinct Cambridge text
was printed in the millions, and after the Second World War "the
unchanging steadiness of the KJB was a huge asset." The Cambridge
edition is preferred by scholars.
The Authorized Version maintained its effective dominance throughout
the first half of the 20th century. New translations in the second
half of the 20th century displaced its 250 years of dominance (roughly
1700 to 1950), but groups do exist – sometimes termed the King
James Only movement – that distrust anything not in agreement with
the Authorized Version.
F. H. A. Scrivener and D. Norton have both written in detail on
editorial variations which have occurred through the history of the
publishing of the Authorized Version from 1611 to 1769. In the 19th
century, there were effectively three main guardians of the text.
Norton identified five variations among the Oxford, Cambridge and
London (Eyre and Spottiswoode) texts of 1857, such as the spelling of
"farther" or "further" at Matthew 26:39.
In the 20th century, variation between the editions was reduced to
comparing the Cambridge to the Oxford. Distinctly identified Cambridge
readings included "or Sheba" (Joshua 19:2), "sin" (2 Chronicles
33:19), "clifts" (Job 30:6), "vapour" (Psalm 148:8), "flieth" (Nahum
3:16), "further" (Matthew 26:39) and a number of other references. In
effect the Cambridge was considered the current text in comparison to
the Oxford. These are instances where both
Oxford and Cambridge have
now diverged from Blayney's 1769 Edition. The distinctions between the
Oxford and Cambridge editions have been a major point in the Bible
version debate , and a potential theological issue, particularly in
regard to the identification of the Pure Cambridge Edition.
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press introduced a change at 1 John 5:8 in 1985,
reversing its longstanding tradition of printing the word "spirit" in
lower case by using a capital letter "S". A Rev. Hardin of Bedford,
Pennsylvania, wrote a letter to Cambridge inquiring about this verse,
and subsequently received a reply from Dr. Cooper on June 3, 1985,
admitting that it was a "matter of some embarrassment regarding the
lower case 's' in Spirit".
Like Tyndale\'s translation and the
Geneva Bible, the Authorized
Version was translated primarily from Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic texts,
although with secondary reference both to the
Vulgate , and to
more recent scholarly
Latin versions; two books of the Apocrypha were
translated from a
Latin source. Following the example of the _Geneva
Bible_, words implied but not actually in the original source were
distinguished by being printed in distinct type (albeit
inconsistently), but otherwise the translators explicitly rejected
word-for-word equivalence . F.F Bruce gives an example from Romans
2 By whom also wee have accesse by faith, into this grace wherein wee
stand, and REJOYCE in hope of the glory of God. 3 And not onely so,
but we GLORY in tribulations also, knowing that tribulation worketh
The English terms "rejoice" and "glory" stand for the same word in
the Greek original. In Tyndale, _Geneva_ and the _Bishops' Bibles_,
both instances are translated "rejoice". In the _Douay – Rheims _
New Testament, both are translated "glory". Only in the Authorized
Version does the translation vary between the two verses.
In obedience to their instructions, the translators provided no
marginal interpretation of the text, but in some 8,500 places a
marginal note offers an alternative English wording. The majority of
these notes offer a more literal rendering of the original (introduced
as "Heb", "Chal", "Gr" or "Lat"), but others indicate a variant
reading of the source text (introduced by "or"). Some of the annotated
variants derive from alternative editions in the original languages,
or from variant forms quoted in the fathers . More commonly, though,
they indicate a difference between the literal original language
reading and that in the translators' preferred recent
Tremellius for the Old Testament, Junius for the Apocrypha, and Beza
for the New Testament. At thirteen places in the
New Testament (e.g.
Luke 17:36 and Acts 25:6) a marginal note records a variant reading
found in some Greek manuscript copies; in almost all cases reproducing
a counterpart textual note at the same place in Beza's editions. A
few more extensive notes clarify Biblical names and units of
measurement or currency. Modern reprintings rarely reproduce these
annotated variants – although they are to be found in the New
Bible . In addition, there were originally some
9,000 scriptural cross-references, in which one text was related to
another. Such cross-references had long been common in
and most of those in the Authorized Version were copied unaltered from
Latin tradition. Consequently the early editions of the KJV
Vulgate verse references – e.g. in the numbering of the
Psalms . At the head of each chapter, the translators provided a
short précis of its contents, with verse numbers; these are rarely
included in complete form in modern editions.
Also in obedience to their instructions, the translators indicated
'supplied' words in a different typeface; but there was no attempt to
regularise the instances where this practice had been applied across
the different companies; and especially in the New Testament, it was
used much less frequently in the 1611 edition than would later be the
case. In one verse, 1 John 2:23, an entire clause was printed in
roman type (as it had also been in the Great
Bible and Bishop's
Bible); indicating a reading then primarily derived from the Vulgate,
albeit one for which the later editions of
Beza had provided a Greek
Old Testament the translators render the
by "the LORD" (in later editions in small capitals as LORD), or "the
LORD God" (for _YHWH
Elohim _, יהוה אלהים), except in four
places by "IEHOVAH " (Exodus 6:3, Psalm 83:18, Isaiah 12:2 and Isaiah
26:4) and three times in a combination form. (Genesis 22:14, Exodus
17:15, Judges 6:24) However, if the
Tetragrammaton occurs with the
Hebrew word adonai (Lord) then it is rendered not as the "Lord LORD"
but as the "Lord God". (Psalm 73:28,etc.) In later editions as "Lord
GOD" with "GOD" in small capitals indicating to the reader that God's
name appears in the original Hebrew.
For their Old Testament, the translators used a text originating in
the editions of the Hebrew Rabbinic
Daniel Bomberg (1524/5),
but adjusted this to conform to the Greek
passages to which Christian tradition had attached a Christological
interpretation. For example, the
Septuagint reading "They pierced my
hands and my feet " was used in Psalm 22:16 (vs. the
reading of the Hebrew "like lions my hands and feet" ). Otherwise,
however, the Authorized Version is closer to the Hebrew tradition than
any previous English translation – especially in making use of the
rabbinic commentaries, such as Kimhi , in elucidating obscure passages
Masoretic Text ; earlier versions had been more likely to
Vulgate readings in such places.
For their New Testament, the translators chiefly used the 1598 and
1588/89 Greek editions of
Theodore Beza , which also present Beza's
Latin version of the Greek and Stephanus 's edition of the Latin
Vulgate. Both of these versions were extensively referred to, as the
translators conducted all discussions amongst themselves in Latin.
F.H.A. Scrivener identifies 190 readings where the Authorized Version
translators depart from Beza's Greek text, generally in maintaining
the wording of the _Bishop's Bible_ and other earlier English
translations. In about half of these instances, the Authorized
Version translators appear to follow the earlier 1550 Greek Textus
Receptus of Stephanus . For the other half, Scrivener was usually able
to find corresponding Greek readings in the editions of
Erasmus , or
Complutensian Polyglot . However, in several dozen readings he
notes that no printed Greek text corresponds to the English of the
Authorized Version, which in these places derives directly from the
Vulgate. For example, at John 10:16, the Authorized Version reads
"one fold" (as did the _Bishops' Bible_, and the 16th century
vernacular versions produced in Geneva), following the
"unum ovile", whereas Tyndale had agreed more closely with the Greek,
"one flocke" (μία ποίμνη). The Authorized Version New
Testament owes much more to the
Vulgate than does the Old Testament;
still, at least 80% of the text is unaltered from Tyndale's
Unlike the rest of the Bible, the translators of the Apocrypha
identified their source texts in their marginal notes. From these it
can be determined that the books of the Apocrypha were translated from
Septuagint – primarily, from the Greek
Old Testament column in
the Antwerp Polyglot – but with extensive reference to the
Vulgate text, and to Junius's
Latin translation. The
translators record references to the Sixtine
Septuagint of 1587, which
is substantially a printing of the
Old Testament text from the Codex
Vaticanus Graecus 1209 , and also to the 1518
Greek Septuagint edition
Aldus Manutius . They had, however, no Greek texts for
2 Esdras ,
or for the
Prayer of Manasses , and Scrivener found that they here
used an unidentified
The translators appear to have otherwise made no first-hand study of
ancient manuscript sources, even those that – like the Codex Bezae
– would have been readily available to them. In addition to all
previous English versions (including, and contrary to their
instructions, the _Rheimish
New Testament _ which in their preface
they criticized); they made wide and eclectic use of all printed
editions in the original languages then available, including the
New Testament printed with an interlinear
in the Antwerp Polyglot of 1573 . In the preface the translators
acknowledge consulting translations and commentaries in Chaldee,
Hebrew, Syrian, Greek, Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German.
The translators took the Bishop's
Bible as their source text, and
where they departed from that in favour of another translation, this
was most commonly the
Geneva Bible. However, the degree to which
readings from the Bishop's
Bible survived into final text of the King
Bible varies greatly from company to company, as did the
propensity of the King James translators to coin phrases of their own.
John Bois's notes of the General Committee of Review show that they
discussed readings derived from a wide variety of versions and
patristic sources; including explicitly both Henry Savile 's 1610
edition of the works of
John Chrysostom and the Rheims New Testament,
which was the primary source for many of the literal alternative
readings provided for the marginal notes.
VARIATIONS FROM RECENT TRANSLATIONS
Main article: List of major textual variants in the
See also: List of
Bible verses not included in modern translations
A number of
Bible verses in the
King James Version
King James Version of the New
Testament are not found in more recent
Bible translations; where these
are based on modern critical texts . In the early seventeenth century,
the source Greek texts of the
New Testament used for the production of
Protestant bible versions depended mainly on manuscripts of the late
Byzantine text-type , and with minor variations contained what became
known as the
Textus Receptus . With the subsequent identification of
much earlier manuscripts, most modern textual scholars value the
evidence of manuscripts belonging to the Alexandrian family as better
witnesses to the original text of the biblical authors, without
giving it, or any family, automatic preference.
STYLE AND CRITICISM
A primary concern of the translators was to produce an appropriate
Bible, dignified and resonant in public reading. Although the
Authorized Version's written style is an important part of its
influence on English, research has found only one verse – Hebrews
13:8 – for which translators debated the wording's literary merits.
While they stated in the preface that they used stylistic variation,
finding multiple English words or verbal forms in places where the
original language employed repetition, in practice they also did the
opposite; for example, 14 different Hebrew words were translated into
the single English word "prince".
In a period of rapid linguistic change the translators avoided
contemporary idioms, tending instead towards forms that were already
slightly archaic, like _verily_ and _it came to pass_. The pronouns
_thou_/_thee_ and _ye_/_you_ are consistently used as singular and
plural respectively, even though by this time _you_ was often found as
the singular in general English usage, especially when addressing a
social superior (as is evidenced, for example, in Shakespeare). For
the possessive of the third person pronoun, the word _its_, first
recorded in the _
Oxford English Dictionary _ in 1598, is avoided. The
older _his _ is usually employed, as for example at Matthew 5:13: "if
the salt have lost _his_ savour, wherewith shall it be salted?"; in
other places _of it_, _thereof_ or bare _it_ are found. Another sign
of linguistic conservativism is the invariable use of _-eth_ for the
third person singular present form of the verb, as at Matthew 2:13:
"the Angel of the Lord appear_eth_ to Joseph in a dreame". The rival
ending _-(e)s_, as found in present-day English, was already widely
used by this time (for example, it predominates over _-eth_ in the
plays of Shakespeare and Marlowe). Furthermore, the translators
preferred _which_ to _who_ or _whom_ as the relative pronoun for
persons, as in Genesis 13:5: "And Lot also _which_ went with Abram,
had flocks and heards, especially in the
Old Testament where the
knowledge of Hebrew and cognate languages was uncertain at the time.
Most of these are minor and do not significantly change the meaning
compared to the source material. Among the most commonly cited errors
is in the Hebrew of Job and Deuteronomy, where רֶאֵם "Re\'em "
with the probable meaning of "wild-ox, aurochs", is translated in the
KJV as "unicorn"; following in this the
Vulgate _unicornis_ and
several medieval rabbinic commentators. The translators of the KJV
note the alternative rendering, "rhinocerots" in the margin at Isaiah
34:7. On a similar note Martin Luther's German translation had also
relied on the
Latin on this point, consistently translating
רֶאֵם using the German word for unicorn, "Einhorn." Otherwise,
the translators on several occasions mistakenly interpreted a Hebrew
descriptive phrase as a proper name (or vice versa); as at 2 Samuel
1:18 where 'the Book of Jasher ' סֵפֶר הַיׇּשׇׁר
properly refers not to a work by an author of that name, but should
rather be rendered as "the Book of the Upright."
Despite royal patronage and encouragement, there was never any overt
mandate to use the new translation. It was not until 1661 that the
Authorized Version replaced the _Bishops Bible_ in the
Gospel lessons of the
Book of Common Prayer
Book of Common Prayer , and it never did replace
the older translation in the
Psalter . In 1763 _
The Critical Review _
complained that "many false interpretations, ambiguous phrases,
obsolete words and indelicate expressions...excite the derision of the
scorner". Blayney's 1769 version, with its revised spelling and
punctuation, helped change the public perception of the Authorized
Version to a masterpiece of the English language. By the 19th
F. W. Faber could say of the translation, "It lives on the
ear, like music that can never be forgotten, like the sound of church
bells, which the convert hardly knows how he can forego."
The Authorized Version has been called "the most influential version
of the most influential book in the world, in what is now its most
influential language", "the most important book in English religion
and culture", and "the most celebrated book in the English-speaking
David Crystal has estimated that it is responsible for 257
idioms in English, examples include feet of clay and reap the
whirlwind. Furthermore, prominent atheist figures such as the late
Christopher Hitchens and
Richard Dawkins have praised the King James
Version as being "a giant step in the maturing of English literature"
and "a great work of literature", respectively, with Dawkins then
adding, "A native speaker of English who has never read a word of the
Bible is verging on the barbarian".
Although the Authorized Version's former monopoly in the
English-speaking world has diminished – for example, the Church of
England recommends six other versions in addition to it – it is
still the most popular translation in the United States, especially
Evangelicals . In addition, in the
Orthodox Church in America ,
King James Version
King James Version is used liturgically, and was made "the
'official' translation for a whole generation of American Orthodox".
The later Service Book of the Antiochian Archdiocese, in vogue today,
also uses the King James Version. The
King James Version
King James Version is also one
of the versions authorized to be used in the services of the Episcopal
Church and the
Anglican Communion , as it is the historical
The Authorized Version is in the public domain in most of the world.
However, in the United Kingdom, the right to print, publish and
distribute it is a
Royal prerogative and the Crown licenses publishers
to reproduce it under letters patent . In England, Wales and Northern
Ireland the letters patent are held by the Queen\'s Printer , and in
Scotland by the Scottish
Bible Board. The office of Queen's Printer
has been associated with the right to reproduce the
centuries, the earliest known reference coming in 1577. In the 18th
century all surviving interests in the monopoly were bought out by
John Baskett . The Baskett rights descended through a number of
printers and, in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, the Queen's
Printer is now
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press , who inherited the right
when they took over the firm of Eyre
Bible Society adopted a similar policy. Both societies
eventually reversed these policies in light of 20th century ecumenical
efforts on translations, the ABS doing so in 1964 and the BFBS in
KING JAMES ONLY MOVEMENT
King James Only movement
King James Only movement advocates the superiority of the King
James Version over all other English translations. Most adherents of
the movement believe that the
Textus Receptus is very close, if not
identical, to the original autographs thereby making it the ideal
Greek source for the translation. They argue that most modern English
translations are based on a corrupted
New Testament text that relies
primarily on the
Codex Sinaiticus and
Codex Vaticanus manuscripts.
* Anglicanism portal
Dynamic and formal equivalence
List of books of the King James Version
Modern English Bible translations § King James Versions and
Red letter edition
* ^ "And now at last, ...it being brought unto such a conclusion,
as that we have great hope that the Church of _England_ (sic) shall
reape good fruit thereby..."
* ^ The Royal Privilege was a virtual monopoly.
* ^ _The Holy Bible, an Exact Reprint Page for Page of the
Authorized Version Published in the Year MDCXI_. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1833 (reprints, ISBN 0-8407-0041-5 , 1565631625 ).
According to J.R. Dore, the edition "so far as it goes, represents
the edition of 1611 so completely that it may be consulted with as
much confidence as an original. The spelling, punctuation, italics,
capitals, and distribution into lines and pages are all followed with
the most scrupulous care. It is, however, printed in Roman instead of
black letter type."
* ^ Genesis 4:1
* ^ Genesis 2:4 "אלה תולדות השמים והארץ
בהבראם ביום עשות יהוה אלהים ארץ ושמים"
* ^ e.g. Matthew 7:27: "great was the fall _of it_.", Matthew 2:16:
"in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts _thereof_", Leviticus 25:5: "That
which groweth of _it_ owne accord of thy harvest". (Leviticus 25:5 is
changed to _its_ in many modern printings).
* ^ e.g. at Genesis 3:12: "The woman _whom_ thou gavest to be with
* ^ That which is most used liturgically is the King James Version.
It has a long and honorable tradition in our Church in America.
Professor Orloff used it for his translations at the end of the last
century, and Isabel Hapgood's Service Book of 1906 and 1922 made it
the "official" translation for a whole generation of American
Orthodox. Unfortunately, both Orloff and Hapgood used a different
version for the
Psalms (that of the
Anglican Book of Common Prayer),
thereby giving us two translations in the same services. This was
rectified in 1949 by the Service Book of the Antiochian Archdiocese,
which replaced the Prayer Book psalms with those from the King James
Version and made some other corrections. This beautiful translation,
reproducing the stately prose of 1611, was the work of Fathers Upson
and Nicholas. It is still in widespread use to this day, and has
familiarized thousands of believers with the KJV.
* ^ The only other perpetual copyright grants Great Ormond Street
Hospital for Children "a right to a royalty in respect of the public
performance, commercial publication or communication to the public of
the play 'Peter Pan ' by Sir James Matthew Barrie , or of any
adaptation of that work, notwithstanding that copyright in the work
expired on 31st December 1987". See CDPA 1988 s301
* ^ Cloud 2006 .
* ^ KJV Dedicatorie 1611 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Daniell 2003 , p. 204.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 435.
* ^ Hill 1997 , pp. 4–5.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "400 years of the King James Bible". The Times
Literary Supplement. 9 February 2011. Archived from the original on
2011-06-17. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
* ^ "The King James Bible: The Book That Changed the World - BBC
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Daniell 2003 , p. 439.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Daniell 2003 , p. 436.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Daniell 2003 , p. 488.
* ^ Cross & Livingstone 1974 , Authorised Version of the Bible.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Douglas 1974 ,
Bible (English Versions).
* ^ Hobbes 2010 , Chapter XXXV.
* ^ Pearse 1761 , p. 79.
* ^ Kimber 1775 , p. 279.
* ^ Butler 1807 , p. 219.
* ^ Holmes 1815 , p. 277.
* ^ Horne 1818 , p. 14.
* ^ Adams, Thacher & Emerson 1811 , p. 110.
* ^ Hacket 1715 , p. 205.
* ^ Anon 1814 , p. 356.
* ^ Anon 1783 , p. 27.
* ^ Newcome 1792 , p. 113.
* ^ Anon 1801 , p. 145.
* ^ "Authorized Version". _
Oxford English Dictionary _ (2nd ed.).
Oxford University Press . 1989.
* ^ Smith 1814 , p. 209.
* ^ Chapman 1856 , p. 270.
* ^ Anon 1856 , pp. 530-531.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 75.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 143.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 152.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 156.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 277.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 291.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 292.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 304.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 339.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 344.
* ^ Bobrick 2001 , p. 186.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 364.
* ^ Bobrick 2001 , p. 221.
* ^ Valpy, Michael (5 February 2011). "How the mighty has fallen:
The King James
Bible turns 400". _The Globe and Mail_. Retrieved 8
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 433.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Daniell 2003 , p. 434.
* ^ Bobrick 2001 , p. 328.
* ^ Norton 2005 , p. 10.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Bobrick 2001 , p. 223.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 442.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 444.
* ^ Wallechinsky & Wallace 1975 , p. 235.
* ^ Norton 2005 , p. 11.
* ^ Bois, Allen & Walker 1969 .
* ^ Norton 2005 , p. 20.
* ^ Norton 2005 , p. 16.
* ^ Bobrick 2001 , p. 257.
* ^ DeCoursey 2003 , pp. 331–332.
* ^ Bobrick 2001 , pp. 223–244.
* ^ Herbert 1968 , p. 309.
* ^ Herbert 1968 , p. 310.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Daniell 2003 , p. 453.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 451.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 454.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Daniell 2003 , p. 455.
* ^ Herbert 1968 , p. 424.
* ^ Herbert 1968 , p. 520.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 4557.
* ^ Norton 2005 , p. 62.
* ^ Anon 1996 .
* ^ Norton 2005 , p. 46.
* ^ Bobrick 2001 , p. 261.
* ^ Herbert 1968 , pp. 313-314.
* ^ Scrivener 1884 , p. 61.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Scrivener 1884 , p. 70.
* ^ Norton 2005 , p. 162.
* ^ Procter & Frere 1902 , p. 187.
* ^ Hague 1948 , p. 353.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Daniell 2003 , p. 458.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 459.
* ^ Bruce 2002 , p. 92.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hill 1993 , p. 65.
* ^ Herbert 1968 , p. 577.
* ^ Herbert 1968 , p. 936.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 457.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Bobrick 2001 , p. 264.
* ^ Bobrick 2001 , p. 266.
* ^ Bobrick 2001 , p. 265.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 510.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 478.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 489.
* ^ Norton 2005 , p. 94.
* ^ Herbert 1968 , p. 444.
* ^ Scrivener 1884 , pp. 147–194.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 515.
* ^ Norton 2005 , p. 99.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 619.
* ^ Norton 2005 , p. 114.
* ^ Norton 2005 .
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* ^ Norton 2005 , p. 106.
* ^ Herbert 1968 , p. 1196.
* ^ Norton 2005 , p. 113.
* ^ Scrivener 1884 , p. 242.
* ^ Norton 2005 , p. 120.
* ^ Prickett ">(PDF). ourkjv.com. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
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* ^ "CUP letter" (PDF). ourkjv.com. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 792.
* ^ Bruce 2002 , p. 105.
* ^ Scrivener 1884 , p. 56.
* ^ Scrivener 1884 , p. 43.
* ^ Metzger, Bruce (1968). _Historical and Literary Studies_.
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* ^ Scrivener 1884 , p. 58.
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* ^ Scrivener 1884 , p. 68.
* ^ Scrivener 1884 , p. 254.
* ^ Scrivener 1884 , p. 42.
* ^ Bobrick 2001 , p. 271.
* ^ The Jewish Publication Society Tanakh, copyright 1985
* ^ Daiches 1968 , pp. 208.
* ^ Scrivener 1884 , p. 60.
* ^ Scrivener 1884 , pp. 243–263.
* ^ Scrivener 1884 , p. 262.
* ^ Daniell 2003 , p. 448.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Scrivener 1884 , p. 47.
* ^ Scrivener 1884 , p. 59.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Daniell 2003 , p. 440.
* ^ Bois, Allen & Walker 1969 , p. xxv.
* ^ Bobrick 2001 , p. 246.
* ^ KJV Translators to the Reader 1611 .
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of the English Bible, 1611, its subsequent reprints and modern
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Chronological order of publication (newest first)
* Burke, David G., John F. Kutsko, and Philip H. Towner, eds. _The
King James Version
King James Version at 400: Assessing Its Genius as
and Its Literary Influence_ (Society of Biblical Literature; 2013) 553
pages; scholars examine such topics as the KJV and 17th-century
religious lyric, the KJV and the language of liturgy, and the KJV in
Christian Orthodox perspective.
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* Nicolson, Adam (2003). _Power and Glory: Jacobean England and the
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0-00-710893-1 . In US: (2003). _God's secretaries: the making of the
King James Bible_. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-018516-3 .
Paperback: (2011). _When God Spoke English: The Making of the King
James Bible_. London: HarperPress. ISBN 978-0-00-743100-7 .
* The Diary Of Samuel Ward: A Translator Of The 1611 King James
Bible, edited by John Wilson Cowart and M.M. Knappen, contains
surviving pages of Samuel Ward's diary from 11 May 1595 to 1 July
* Ward, Thomas (1903). _Errata of the Protestant
Bible ; or, The
Truth of the English Translations Examined, in a Treatise Showing Some
of the Errors That Are to Be Found in the English Translations of the
Sacred Scriptures, Used by Protestants_.... A new ed., carefully rev.
and corr., in which are add.... New York: P. J. Kennedy and Sons.
_N.B_.: A polemical Roman Catholic work, first published in the late
* Keay, Julia (2005). _Alexander the Corrector: the tormented genius
who unwrote the Bible_. London: Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-00-713196-8 .
* Hallihan, C.P. (2010). _Authorized Version: A Wonderful and
Unfinished History_. Trinitarian
Bible Society. ISBN 978-1-86228-049-6
. Published to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the initial
publication, in 1611, of the Authorized ("King James") Version of the
* Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). _Misquoting Jesus: the story behind who
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* _Collection of English Almanacs for the Years 1702-1835_. 1761.
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