King George's War
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King George's War (1744–1748) is the name given to the military operations in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
that formed part of the
War of the Austrian Succession The War of the Austrian Succession () was the last Great Power conflict with the House of Bourbon, Bourbon-Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg dynastic conflict at its heart. It occurred from 1740 to 1748 and marked the rise of Kingdom of Prussia, Prus ...
(1740–1748). It was the third of the four
French and Indian Wars The French and Indian Wars were a series of conflicts that occurred in North America between 1688 and 1763, some of which indirectly were related to the European dynastic wars. The title ''French and Indian War'' in the singular is used in the U ...
. It took place primarily in the British provinces of
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
,
Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers ...
(which included
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
as well as
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ...

Massachusetts
at the time),
New Hampshire New Hampshire ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Gulf of Maine to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the nor ...
(which included
Vermont Vermont () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Vermont
at the time), and
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
. Its most significant action was an expedition organized by Massachusetts Governor
William Shirley William Shirley (2 December 1694 – 24 March 1771) was a British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the U ...
that besieged and ultimately captured the French
fortress of Louisbourg The Fortress of Louisbourg (french: Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a National Historic Site and the location of a one-quarter partial reconstruction of an 18th-century French fortress A fortification is a military A military, also ...

fortress of Louisbourg
, on
Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (french: link=no, Île du Cap-Breton, formerly '; gd, Ceap Breatainn or '; mic, Unamaꞌki) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia ) , image_map = No ...

Cape Breton Island
in Nova Scotia, in 1745. In
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of co ...

French
, it is known as the ''Troisième Guerre Intercoloniale'' or Third Intercolonial War. The
Treaty of Aix-la-ChapelleThere were three Treaties of Aix-la-Chapelle. Although "Aix-la-Chapelle", the French name of the German city of Aachen, is an exonym now rarely used in English, the name Treaty of Aachen is rarely used. *Pax Nicephori, also sometimes called Treaty of ...
ended the war in 1748 and restored Louisbourg to France, but failed to resolve any outstanding territorial issues.


Causes

The
War of Jenkins' Ear The War of Jenkins' Ear (known as in Spain) was a conflict between Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usa ...
(named for a 1731 incident in which a
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
commander sliced off the ear of British merchant captain Robert Jenkins and told him to take it to his king,
George IIGeorge II or 2 may refer to: People * George II of Antioch (seventh century AD) * George II of Armenia (late ninth century) * George II of Abkhazia (916–960) * Patriarch George II of Alexandria (1021–1051) * George II of Georgia (1072–1089) * ...
) broke out in 1739 between Spain and
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
, but was restrained to the
Caribbean Sea The Caribbean Sea ( es, Mar Caribe; french: Mer des Caraïbes; ht, Lamè Karayib; jam, Kiaribiyan Sii; nl, Caraïbische Zee; pap, Laman Karibe) is an Americas, American Mediterranean sea (oceanography), mediterranean sea of the Atlantic Ocean ...
and conflict between
Spanish Florida Spanish Florida ( es, La Florida) was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, Ag ...
and the neighboring British
Province of Georgia The Province of Georgia (also Georgia Colony) was one of the Southern colonies The Southern Colonies within British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire in America from 1607 to 1783. These c ...
. The
War of the Austrian Succession The War of the Austrian Succession () was the last Great Power conflict with the House of Bourbon, Bourbon-Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg dynastic conflict at its heart. It occurred from 1740 to 1748 and marked the rise of Kingdom of Prussia, Prus ...
, nominally a struggle over the legitimacy of the accession of
Maria Theresa Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (german: Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg dominions from 1740 until her death in 1780, and the only woman to hold the position. She was th ...
to the
Austrian throne
Austrian throne
, began in 1740, but at first did not involve either Britain or Spain militarily. Britain was drawn diplomatically into that conflict in 1742 as an ally of Austria and an opponent of France and Prussia, but open hostilities between them did not take place until 1743 at
Dettingen
Dettingen
. War was not formally declared between Britain and France until March 1744. Massachusetts did not declare war against Quebec and France until June 2.


Course of the war

News of war declarations reached the French
fortress at Louisbourg
fortress at Louisbourg
first, on May 3, 1744, and the forces there wasted little time in beginning hostilities. Concerned about their overland supply lines to
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
, they raided the British fishing port of Canso on May 23, and then organized an attack on
Annapolis Royal Annapolis Royal, formerly known as Port Royal, is a town located in the western part of Annapolis County, Nova Scotia Annapolis County is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesCham ...
, the capital of
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
. But French forces were delayed in departing Louisbourg, and their Mi'kmaq and
Maliseet The Wəlastəkwewiyik, or Maliseet (, also spelled Malecite), are an Algonquian Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American language ...
First Nations allies, together with Father
Jean-Louis Le Loutre Abbé Jean-Louis Le Loutre (; 26 September 1709 – 30 September 1772) was a Catholic priest and missionary for the Paris Foreign Missions Society. Le Loutre became the leader of the French forces and the Acadian The Acadians (french: Acadi ...
, decided to attack on their own at Fort Anne in early July. Annapolis had received news of the war declaration, and the British forces were somewhat prepared when the First Nations warriors began besieging
Fort Anne Fort Anne (first established in 1629 as the Scottish Charles Fort) is a four- bastion fort built to protect the harbour of Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes ...

Fort Anne
. Lacking heavy weapons, the Mi'kmaq and Maliseet withdrew after a few days. Then, in mid-August, a larger French force arrived at Fort Anne, but it was also unable to mount an effective attack or siege against the garrison. The fort had received supplies and reinforcements from
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ...
. In 1745, British colonial forces captured Fortress Louisbourg after a siege of six weeks. In retaliation, the
Wabanaki Confederacy The Wabanaki Confederacy (''Wabenaki, Wobanaki'', translated to "People of the Dawn" or "Easterner") is a North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can ...
of
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanni ...

Acadia
launched the Northeast Coast Campaign (1745) against the British settlements on the border of Acadia in northeast Maine. France launched a major expedition to recover Louisbourg in 1746. Beset by storms, disease, and finally the death of its commander, the Duc d'Anville, the expedition's survivors returned to France in tatters without reaching its objective. The war was also fought on the frontiers between the northern British colonies and
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
. Each side had allies among the Native Americans, and outlying villages were raided and captives taken for ransom, or sometimes adoption by Native American tribes who had suffered losses to disease or warfare. As a result of the frequent raiding on the northern frontier, Governor
William Shirley William Shirley (2 December 1694 – 24 March 1771) was a British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the U ...
ordered the construction of a chain of frontier outposts stretching west to its border with
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
. On November 28, 1745, the French with their Indian allies raided and destroyed the village of
Saratoga, New York } Saratoga is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use ...
, killing or capturing more than one hundred of its inhabitants. After this, the British abandoned their settlements in New York north of
Albany Albany, derived from the Gaelic name for Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the C ...
, a major trading city. In July 1746 an
Iroquois The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous pe ...

Iroquois
and intercolonial force assembled in northern New York for a retaliatory attack against British forces. When the expected British regulars never arrived, the attack was called off. A large (1,000+ man) French and First Nations force mustered to raid in the upper
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
valley in 1746 instead raided in the
Hoosac River The Hoosic River, also known as the Hoosac, the Hoosick (primarily in New York) and the Hoosuck (mostly archaic), is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map , accessed October 3, 2011 trib ...
valley, including an attack on Fort Massachusetts (at present-day
North Adams, Massachusetts North Adams is a city in Berkshire County Berkshire County (pronounced ) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Pu ...
). This was in retaliation for the slaying of an Indian leader in an earlier skirmish. Other raids included the 1747 French and Mi'kmaq raid on Grand Pré, Nova Scotia; and a raid in 1748 by Indian allies of the French against
Schenectady, New York Schenectady () is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be de ...
.


Aftermath

The war took a heavy toll, especially in the northern British colonies. The losses of Massachusetts men alone in 1745–46 have been estimated as 8% of that colony's adult male population. According to the
Treaty of Aix-la-ChapelleThere were three Treaties of Aix-la-Chapelle. Although "Aix-la-Chapelle", the French name of the German city of Aachen, is an exonym now rarely used in English, the name Treaty of Aachen is rarely used. *Pax Nicephori, also sometimes called Treaty of ...
, Louisbourg was returned to France three years later, in exchange for the city of
Madras Chennai (, ), also known as Madras (List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996), is the capital city of the states and territories of India, Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The state's largest city in area ...
in
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
, which had been captured by the French from the British. This decision outraged New Englanders, particularly Massachusetts colonists who had contributed the most to the expedition (in terms of funding and personnel). The British government eventually acknowledged Massachusetts' effort with a payment of £180,000 after the war. The province used this money to retire its devalued paper currency. The peace treaty, which restored all colonial borders to their pre-war status, did little to end the lingering enmity between France, Britain, and their respective colonies, nor did it resolve any territorial disputes. Tensions remained in both North America and Europe. They broke out again in 1754, with the start of the
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain ...

French and Indian War
in North America, which spread to Europe two years later as the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
. Between 1749 and 1755 in Acadia and Nova Scotia, the fighting continued in
Father Le Loutre's War Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755), also known as the Indian War, the Micmac War and the Anglo-Micmac War, took place between King George's War and the French and Indian War in Acadia and Nova Scotia. On one side of the conflict, the Kingdom ...
.


See also

*
American Indian Wars The American Indian Wars, also known as the American Frontier Wars, the First Nations Wars in Canada (french: Guerres des Premières Nations) and the Indian Wars were fought by European governments and colonists, and later by the United States an ...
* Colonial American military history *
Military history of Canada The military history of Canada comprises hundreds of years of armed actions in the territory encompassing modern Canada, and interventions by the Canadian military The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF; french: Forces armées canadiennes; ''FAC'') is ...
*
Military history of the Mi'kmaq people A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their ...
*
Military history of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , ...
*
Military history of the Acadians The military history of the Acadians consisted primarily of militias made up of Acadians, Acadian settlers who participated in wars against the Kingdom of England, English (the Kingdom of Great Britain, British after 1707) in coordination with the ...
*
Military of New France The military of New France consisted of a mix of regular soldiers from the French Army ( Carignan-Salières Regiment) and French Navy ( Troupes de la marine, later Compagnies Franches de la Marine) supported by small local volunteer militia units ...


References


Further reading

*Boyer, Clark, Kett, Salisbury, Sitkoff and Woloch. ''The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People'' *Drake, Samuel Gardner
''A Particular History of the Five Years French and Indian War in New England''
*Kingsford, William
''The history of Canada'', Volume 3
* *Peckham, Harry H. ''The Colonial Wars, 1689–1762''


External links



compiled by the
United States Army Center of Military History The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within TRADOC Established 1 July 1973, the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) is a major command of the United States Army The United States ...

Journal of Captain William Pote captive 1745–1747 published 1896
{{Authority control Military history of Acadia Military history of Nova Scotia Military history of New England Military history of the Thirteen Colonies Wars involving Canada Wars involving France Wars involving Great Britain Wars involving the indigenous peoples of North America War of the Austrian Succession 1740s conflicts Conflicts in Canada New France Conflicts in Nova Scotia Colonial American and Indian wars Military history of Quebec Acadian history Pre-statehood history of Massachusetts Pre-statehood history of New York (state) Pre-statehood history of New Hampshire Pre-statehood history of Maine 1740s in North America 1744 in North America 1745 in North America 1746 in North America 1747 in North America 1748 in North America Colonial United States (British) Colonial United States (French) Colonization history of the United States Wabanaki Confederacy Indigenous conflicts in Canada Wars of succession involving the states and peoples of Europe Wars of succession involving the states and peoples of North America