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Kindergarten
Kindergarten
(/ˈkɪndərˌɡɑːrtən/, US: /-dən/ ( listen); from German [ˈkɪndɐˌɡaːɐ̯tn̩] ( listen), literally meaning 'garden for the children')[1] is a preschool educational approach traditionally based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. At first such institutions were created in the late 18th century in Bavaria
Bavaria
and Strasbourg
Strasbourg
to serve children whose parents both worked out of the home. The term was coined by the German Friedrich Fröbel, whose approach globally influenced early-years education. Today, the term is used in many countries to describe a variety of educational institutions and learning spaces for children ranging from two to seven years of age, based on a variety of teaching methods.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Spread

2 By country

2.1 Afghanistan 2.2 Australia and New Zealand 2.3 Bangladesh 2.4 Bulgaria 2.5 Canada 2.6 Chile 2.7 China 2.8 Denmark 2.9 Egypt 2.10 France 2.11 Germany 2.12 Hong Kong 2.13 Hungary 2.14 India 2.15 Italy 2.16 Japan 2.17 South Korea 2.18 Kosovo 2.19 Kuwait 2.20 Luxembourg 2.21 Macedonia 2.22 Malaysia 2.23 Mexico 2.24 Mongolia 2.25 Morocco 2.26 Nepal 2.27 Netherlands 2.28 Norway 2.29 Peru 2.30 Philippines 2.31 Romania 2.32 Russia 2.33 South Africa 2.34 Spain 2.35 Sudan 2.36 Sweden 2.37 Taiwan 2.38 Ukraine 2.39 United Kingdom 2.40 United States

3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

History[edit] In 1779, Johann Friedrich Oberlin
Johann Friedrich Oberlin
and Louise Scheppler founded in Strasbourg
Strasbourg
an early establishment for caring for and educating pre-school children whose parents were absent during the day.[2] At about the same time, in 1780, similar infant establishments were established in Bavaria.[3] In 1802, Princess Pauline zur Lippe established a preschool center in Detmold, the capital of the then principality of Lippe, Germany (now in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia).[4] In 1816, Robert Owen, a philosopher and pedagogue, opened the first British and probably globally the first infants school in New Lanark, Scotland.[5][6][7] In conjunction with his venture for cooperative mills Owen wanted the children to be given a good moral education so that they would be fit for work. His system was successful in producing obedient children with basic literacy and numeracy.[8] Samuel Wilderspin
Samuel Wilderspin
opened his first infant school in London in 1819,[9] and went on to establish hundreds more. He published many works on the subject, and his work became the model for infant schools throughout England and further afield. Play was an important part of Wilderspin's system of education. He is credited with inventing the playground. In 1823, Wilderspin published On the Importance of Educating the Infant Poor, based on the school. He began working for the Infant School Society the next year, informing others about his views. He also wrote The Infant System, for developing the physical, intellectual, and moral powers of all children from 1 to seven years of age. Spread[edit]

Friedrich Fröbel
Friedrich Fröbel
was one of the most influential founders of kindergartens, and he coined the name in 1840.

Countess Theresa Brunszvik
Theresa Brunszvik
(1775–1861), who had known and been influenced by Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, was influenced by this example to open an Angyalkert ("angel garden" in Hungarian) on May 27, 1828, in her residence in Buda, the first of eleven care centers that she founded for young children.[10][11] In 1836 she established an institute for the foundation of preschool centers. The idea became popular among the nobility and the middle class and was copied throughout the Kingdom of Hungary. Friedrich Fröbel
Friedrich Fröbel
(1782–1852) opened a "play and activity" institute in 1837 in the village of Bad Blankenburg
Bad Blankenburg
in the principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Thuringia, as an experimental social experience for children entering school. He renamed his institute Kindergarten
Kindergarten
on June 28, 1840, reflecting his belief that children should be nurtured and nourished "like plants in a garden".[12] Women trained by Fröbel opened kindergartens throughout Europe and around the world. The first kindergarten in the US was founded in Watertown, Wisconsin
Watertown, Wisconsin
in 1856 and was conducted in German by Margaretha Meyer-Schurz.[13] Elizabeth Peabody
Elizabeth Peabody
founded the first English-language kindergarten in the US in 1860. The first free kindergarten in the US was founded in 1870 by Conrad Poppenhusen, a German industrialist and philanthropist, who also established the Poppenhusen Institute. The first publicly financed kindergarten in the US was established in St. Louis
St. Louis
in 1873 by Susan Blow. Canada's first private kindergarten was opened by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, in 1870. By the end of the decade, they were common in large Canadian towns and cities.[14][15] The country's first public-school kindergartens were established in Berlin, Ontario
Ontario
(modern Kitchener), in 1882 T Central School).[16] In 1885, the Toronto Normal School
School
(teacher training) opened a department for kindergarten teaching.[16] Elizabeth Harrison wrote extensively on the theory of early childhood education and worked to enhance educational standards for kindergarten teachers by establishing what became the National College
College
of Education in 1886. By country[edit] See also: Category: Education
Education
by country

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Afghanistan[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Afghanistan

A kindergarten classroom in Afghanistan

In Afghanistan, children between the ages of 3 and 6 attend kindergartens (Dari: کودکستان‎; Pashto: وړکتون‎). Although kindergartens in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
are not part of the school system, they are often run by the government. Early Childhood Development programs were first introduced during the Soviet occupation with the establishment in 1980 of 27 urban preschools, or kodakistan. The number of preschools grew steadily during the 1980s, peaking in 1990 with more than 270 in Afghanistan. At this peak, there were 2,300 teachers caring for more than 21,000 children in the country. These facilities were an urban phenomenon, mostly in Kabul, and were attached to schools, government offices, or factories. Based on the Soviet model, these Early Childhood Development programs provided nursery care, preschool, and kindergarten for children from 3 months to 6 years of age under the direction of the Department of Labor and Social Welfare. The vast majority of Afghan families were never exposed to this system, and many of these families were in opposition to these programs due to the belief that it diminishes the central role of the family and inculcates children with Soviet values. With the onset of civil war after the Soviet withdrawal, the number of kindergartens dropped rapidly. By 1995, only 88 functioning facilities serving 2,110 children survived, and the Taliban restrictions on female employment eliminated all of the remaining centers in areas under their control. In 2007, there were about 260 kindergarten/pre-school centers serving over 25,000 children. Though every government center is required to have an early childhood center,[citation needed] at present, no governmental policies deal with early childhood and no institutions have either the responsibility or the capacity to provide such services.[citation needed]

A kindergarten in Hanoi, Vietnam
Vietnam
in 2011

Australia and New Zealand[edit] See also: Education in Australia
Education in Australia
and Education
Education
in New Zealand In each state of Australia, kindergarten (frequently referred to as "kinder" or "kindy") means something slightly different. In Tasmania, New South Wales
Wales
and the Australian Capital Territory, it is the first year of primary school. In Victoria, kindergarten is a form of preschool and may be referred to interchangeably as preschool or kindergarten. In Victoria and Tasmania
Tasmania
the phrase for the first year of primary school is called Prep (short for "preparatory"), which is followed by grade 1. In Queensland, kindergarten is usually an institution for children around the age of 4 and thus it is the precursor to preschool and primary education. In recent years though, Kindergartens have been taking children as young as 6 months old. The year preceding the first year of primary school education in Western Australia, South Australia or the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
is referred to respectively as pre-primary, reception or transition.[17] In New Zealand, kindergarten can refer to education in the 2 years preceding primary school, from age 3 to 4. Primary Education
Education
starts at age 5. Bangladesh[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Bangladesh In Bangladesh, the term "kindergarten", or "KG School" (Kindergarten School), is used to refer to the schooling children attend from 3 to 6 years of age. The names of the levels are nursery, shishu (children), etc. But the view of kindergarten education has changed much from previous years. Almost every rural area now has at least one Kindergarten
Kindergarten
School, with most being run in the Bengali language. They also follow the text books published by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB) with a light modification, adding some extra books in syllabus. The grades generally start from Nursery (sometimes "Play"), "KG" afterwards, and ends with the 5th grade. Separate from the National Education
Education
System, kindergarten is contributing greatly toward achieving the Millennium Development Goal of universal primary education in Bangladesh. Bulgaria[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Bulgaria In Bulgaria, the term detska gradina (деτска градина) refers to the schooling children attend from 3 to 7 (in some cases 6) years of age. Since 2012, two years of pre-school education are compulsory. These two years of mandatory pre-school education may be attended either at kindergarten or in preparatory groups at primary schools.[18] Canada[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Canada

Student teachers training in a kindergarten class in 1898 in Toronto, Canada

Schools outside of Ontario
Ontario
and the Northwest Territories generally provide one year of kindergarten, except some private schools offer junior kindergarten for 4-year-olds (school before kindergarten is most commonly referred to as pre-school). After kindergarten, the child begins grade one. The province of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
refers to Kindergarten
Kindergarten
as Grade Primary. The province of Ontario
Ontario
and the Northwest Territories provide two years of kindergarten. Within the province of Quebec, junior kindergarten is called prématernelle (which is not mandatory), is attended by 4-year-olds, and senior kindergarten is called maternelle, which is also not mandatory by the age of 5, this class is integrated into primary schools. Within the French school system in the province of Ontario, junior kindergarten is called maternelle and senior kindergarten is called jardin d'enfants, which is a calque of the German word Kindergarten. Chile[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Chile In Chile, the term equivalent to Kindergarten
Kindergarten
is "Educación parvularia", sometimes also called "Educación Preescolar". It is the first level of the Chilean educational system. It meets the needs of boys and girls integrally from their birth until their entry to the Educación Básica (Primary education), without being considered as compulsory. Generally, schools imparting this level, the JUNJI (National Council of Kindergarten
Kindergarten
Schools) and other private institutions have the following organization of groups or sub categories of levels:

Low nursery: It addresses babies from 85 days to 1 year old. High nursery: It addresses children from 1 to 2 years old. Low Middle Level: It addresses children from 2 to 3 years old. High Middle Level: It addresses children from 3 to 4 years old. First level of transition: Often called "Pre-kinder", it addresses children from 4 to 5 years old. Second level of transition: Usually called "Kinder", it addresses children from 5 to 6 years old. It is the last phase of this type of education, by finishing it, children go to "Primero Básico" (First grade of primary education).[19]

China[edit] See also: Education
Education
in China In China, pre-school education, before the child enters formal schooling at 6 years of age, is generally divided into a "nursery" or "preschool" stage and a "kindergarten" (幼儿园 (yòu'éryuán) stage. These can be two separate institutions, or a single combined one in different areas. Where there are two separate institutions, it is common for the kindergarten to consist of the two upper years, and the preschool to consist of one lower year. Common names for these three years are:

Nursery (or "preschool" or "playgroup") (小班/xiăo bān): 3- to 4-year-old children Lower Kindergarten
Kindergarten
(中班/zhōng bān): 4- to 5-year-old children Upper Kindergarten
Kindergarten
(大班/dà bān): 5- to 6-year-old children.

In some places, children at 5-6 years may in addition or instead attend "reception" or "preparatory" classes (学前班/xué qián bān) focusing on preparing children for formal schooling. State (public) kindergartens only accept children older than 3 years, while private ones do not have such limitations. Denmark[edit] Main article: Danish pre-school education Kindergarten
Kindergarten
is a day-care service offered to children from age three until the child starts attending school. Kindergarten
Kindergarten
classes (grade 0) are voluntary and are offered by primary schools before a child enters 1st grade. Two-thirds of established day-care institutions in Denmark
Denmark
are municipal day-care centres while the other third are privately owned and are run by associations of parents or businesses in agreement with local authorities. In terms of both finances and subject-matter, municipal and private institutions function according to the same principles. Denmark
Denmark
is credited with pioneering (although not inventing) forest kindergartens, in which children spend most of every day outside in a natural environment. Egypt[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Egypt In Egypt, children may go to kindergartens for two years (KG1 and KG2) between the ages of four and six. France[edit]

The wording salle d'asile was the former name of current école maternelle

See also: Education
Education
in France In France, pre-school is known as école maternelle (French for "nursery school", literally "maternal school"). Free maternelle schools are available throughout the country, welcoming children aged from 3 to 6 (although in many places, children under three may not be granted a place). The ages are divided into grande section (GS: 5-year-olds), moyenne section (MS: 4-year-olds), petite section (PS: 3-year-olds) and toute petite section (TPS: 2-year-olds). It is not compulsory, yet almost all children aged 3 to 5 attend. It is regulated by the Ministry of National Education. Germany[edit]

Allgemeine Deutsche Erziehungsanstalt in Keilhau (Germany), nowadays the Keilhau Free Fröbel School

See also: Education
Education
in Germany

(East) German Kindergarten, 1956

In Germany, a Kindergarten
Kindergarten
(masculine: der Kindergarten, plural Kindergärten) is a facility for the care of pre-school children who are typically at least three years old. By contrast, Kinderkrippe or Krippe refers to a crèche for the care of children before they enter Kindergarten
Kindergarten
(9 weeks to about three years), Kindertagesstätte—literally "children's day site", usually shortened to Kita—is an umbrella term for any day care facility for pre-schoolers. Attendance is voluntary, and usually not free of charge. Pre-school children over the age of one are entitled to receive local and affordable day care.[20] Within the federal system, Kindergärten fall under the responsibility of the states,[21] which usually delegate a large share of the responsibility to the municipalities. Due to the subsidiarity principle stipulated by §4 SGB VIII, there are a multitude of operators, from municipalities, churches and welfare societies to parents' initiatives and profit-based corporations. Many Kindergärten follow a certain educational approach, such as Montessori, Reggio Emilia, "Berliner Bildungsprogramm" or Waldorf; forest kindergartens are well established. Most Kindergärten are subsidised by the community councils, with the fees depending on the income of the parents. Even in smaller townships, there are often both Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and Lutheran
Lutheran
kindergartens available. Places in crèches and kindergarten are often difficult to secure, and must be 'reserved' in advance, although the situation has improved with a new law in effect August 2013. The availability of childcare, however, varies greatly by region. It is usually better in eastern regions, and in big cities in the north, such as Berlin[22] or Hamburg,[23] and poorest in parts of Southern Germany.[24] All caretakers in Kita or Kindergarten
Kindergarten
must have a three-year qualified education, or are under special supervision during training. Kindergärten can be open from 7am to 5pm or longer and may also house a crèche (Kinderkrippe) for children between the ages of eight weeks and three years, and possibly an afternoon Hort (often associated with a primary school) for school-age children aged 6 to 10 who spend the time after their lessons there. Alongside nurseries, there are day-care nurses (Tagesmütter or Tagespflegepersonen) working independently of any pre-school institution in individual homes and looking after only three to five children, typically up to the age of three. These nurses are supported and supervised by local authorities. The term Vorschule ("pre-school") is used both for educational efforts in Kindergärten and for a mandatory class that is usually connected to a primary school. Both systems are handled differently in each German state. The Schulkindergarten is a type of Vorschule. Hong Kong[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Hong Kong Pre-primary Services in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
refers to provision of education and care to young children by kindergartens and child care centres. Kindergartens, registered with the Education
Education
Bureau, provide services for children from three to six years old. Child care
Child care
centres, on the other hand, are registered with the Social Welfare Department and include nurseries, catering for children aged two to three, and creches, looking after infants from birth to two. At present, most of the kindergartens operate on half-day basis offering upper, lower kindergarten classes and nursery classes. Some kindergartens operate full-day kindergarten classes too. Child care centres also provide full-day and half-day services with most centres providing full-day services. The aim of pre-primary education in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
is to provide children with a relaxing and pleasurable learning environment to promote a balanced development of different aspects necessary to a child's development such as the physical, intellectual, language, social, emotional and aesthetic aspects. To help establish the culture of self-evaluation in kindergartens and to provide reference for the public in assessing the quality and standard of pre-primary education, the Education
Education
Bureau has developed Performance Indicators for pre-primary institutions in Hong Kong. Commencing in the 2000/01 school year, Quality Assurance Inspection was launched to further promote the development of quality Early Childhood Education. Hungary[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Hungary

A Hungarian pre-school class having outdoor activities, March 2007

In Hungary
Hungary
a kindergarten is called an óvoda ("place for caring"). Children attend kindergarten between ages 3–6/7 (they go to school in the year in which they have their 7th birthday). Attendance in kindergarten is compulsory from the age of 3 years, though exceptions are made for developmental reasons.[25] Though kindergartens may include programs in subjects such as foreign languages and music, children spend most of their time playing. In their last year children begin to be prepared to attend elementary school. Most kindergartens are state-funded. Kindergarten
Kindergarten
teachers are required to have a diploma. India[edit] See also: Education
Education
in India In India, there are only informal directives pertaining to pre-primary education, for which pre-primary schools and sections need no affiliation. Directives state that children who are three years old on 30 May in the given academic year are eligible to attend Nursery and Kindergarten
Kindergarten
classes. Typically, children spend 3 to 4 years of their time in pre-primary school after which they are eligible to attend 1st Standard in Primary School
Primary School
which falls under HRD ministry norms. Primary education
Primary education
is now compulsory in India, and accompanied with mid-day meals, in most parts of the country run by the government. Pre-primary is not mandatory, however preferred. All government schools and affiliated private schools allow children who are 5 years of age as of 30 May to enroll to standard 1 of a primary school. Italy[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Italy

Typical classroom layout in an Italian nursery school. From left to right: restroom, bathroom, playroom, and outdoor playground.

In Italy, pre-school education refers to two different grades:

Nursery schools, called asili-nido for children between 3 and 36 months; Maternal schools formerly scuola materna and now scuola dell'infanzia, for children 3 to 5 years old.

Italian asili-nido were officially instituted in a 1971 State Law (L. 1044/1971), and may be ruled by either private or public institutions. They were originally established to allow mothers a chance to work out of their homes, and were therefore seen as a social service. Today, they mostly serve the purpose of general education and social interaction. In Italy, much effort has been spent on developing a pedagogical approach to children's care: well known is the so-called Reggio Emilia approach, named after the city of Reggio Emilia, in Emilia-Romagna. Asili-nido normally occupy small one-story buildings, surrounded by gardens; usually suitable for no more than 60 or 70 children. The heart of the asili-nido are the classrooms, split into playroom and restroom; the playroom always has windows and doors leading to the outside playground and garden. Maternal schools (scuola materna) were established in 1968 after State Law n. 444 and are a full part of the official Italian education system, though attendance is not compulsory. Like asili-nido (nursery schools), maternal schools may be held either by public or private institutions. Japan[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Japan

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Early childhood education
Early childhood education
begins at home, and there are numerous books and television shows aimed at helping mothers & fathers of preschool children to educate their children and to parent more effectively. Much of the home training is devoted to teaching manners, proper social behavior, and structured play, although verbal and number skills are also popular themes. Parents are strongly committed to early education and frequently enroll their children in preschools. Kindergartens (幼稚園 yōchien), predominantly staffed by young female junior college graduates, are supervised by the Ministry of Education, but are not part of the official education system. The 58% of kindergartens that are private accounted for 77% of all children enrolled. In addition to kindergartens, there exists a well-developed system of government-supervised day-care centers (保育園 hoikuen), supervised by the Ministry of Labor. Whereas kindergartens follow educational aims, preschools are predominantly concerned with providing care for infants and toddlers. Just as there are public and private kindergartens, there are both public and privately run preschools. Together, these two kinds of institutions enroll well over 90 percent of all preschool-age children prior to their entrance into the formal system at first grade. The Ministry of Education's 1990 Course of Study for Preschools, which applies to both kinds of institutions, covers such areas as human relationships, health, environment, language, and expression. Starting from March 2008 the new revision of curriculum guidelines for kindergartens as well as for preschools came into effect. South Korea[edit] See also: Education
Education
in South Korea In South Korea, children normally attend kindergarten (Korean: 유치원 yuchi won) between the ages of three or four and six or seven in the Western age system. (Korean ages are calculated differently from Western ages: when they are born they are considered one-year-olds, rather than one day old. Additionally, every January 1, everyone's age increases by one year regardless of when their birthday is. Hence in Korea, kindergarten children are called five-, six- and seven-year-olds.) The school year begins in March. It is followed by primary school. Normally the kindergartens are graded on a three-tier basis. Korean kindergartens are private schools, and monthly costs vary. Korean parents often send their children to English kindergartens to give them a head start in English. Such specialized kindergartens can be mostly taught in Korean with some English lessons, mostly taught in English with some Korean lessons, or completely taught in English. Almost all middle-class parents send their children to kindergarten. Kindergarten
Kindergarten
programs in South Korea
South Korea
attempt to incorporate much academic instruction alongside more playful activities. Korean kindergartners learn to read, write (often in English as well as Korean) and do simple arithmetic. Classes are conducted in a traditional classroom setting, with the children focused on the teacher and one lesson or activity at a time. The goal of the teacher is to overcome weak points in each child's knowledge or skills. Because the education system in Korea is very competitive, kindergartens are becoming more intensely academic. Children are pushed to read and write at a very young age. They also become accustomed to regular and considerable amounts of homework. These very young children may also attend other specialized afternoon schools, taking lessons in art, piano or violin, taekwondo, ballet, soccer or mathematics. Kosovo[edit]

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In Kosovo, kindergarten is known as Çerdhe or Kopshti i fëmijëve, and they serve as Day Care Centers. There are public and private kindergartens, and they are for children under the age of 3. Children between 3–6 years old go to Institucione parashkollore, which are different from the Day Care Centers, because here children start the basic learning process, and they serve as preparatory institutions for the Primary School. After the age of 6, children continue in Primary School. However, neither the Day Care Centers nor the Preparatory Institutions are mandatory. Kuwait[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Kuwait In Kuwait, Kuwaiti children may go to free government kindergartens for two years (KG1 and KG2) between the ages of four and six. Luxembourg[edit] In Luxembourg, a Kindergarten
Kindergarten
is called Spillschoul (literally "Playschool", plural Spillschoulen). It is a public education facility which is attended by children between the age of 4 (or 5) and 6 when they advance to the Grondschoul (elementary school). Macedonia[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Macedonia The Macedonian equivalent of kindergarten is detska gradinka (детска градинка), sometimes called zabavishte (забавиште) when the kids are younger than 4 years. Detska gradinka is not part of the state's mandatory education, because the educational process in the country begins at the age of 5 or 6, i.e. first grade. Malaysia[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Malaysia In Malaysia, kindergarten is known as tadika. Most kindergartens are available to children of ages five and six (and some are available to children as young as four). For children up to the age of three (or four), there are pre-school playgroups. There are no fixed rules for when a child needs to go to a kindergarten, but the majority will when the child turns 5 years old. The child will usually attend kindergarten for two years, before proceeding to primary school at age 7.[26] Mexico[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Mexico In Mexico, kindergarten is called kínder, with the last year sometimes referred to as preprimaria (primaria is the name given to grades 1 through 6, so the name literally means "prior to elementary school"). The kindergarten system in Mexico
Mexico
was developed by professor Rosaura Zapata, who received the country's highest honor for her contribution. It consists of three years of pre-school education, which are mandatory before elementary school. Previous nursery is optional, and may be offered in either private schools or public schools. At private schools, kinders usually consist of three grades, and a fourth one may be added for nursery. The fourth one is called maternal. It goes before the other three years and is not obligatory. While the first grade is a playgroup, the other two are of classroom education. In 2002, the Congress of the Union approved the Law of Obligatory Pre-schooling, which made pre-school education for three to six-year-olds obligatory, and placed it under the auspices of the federal and state ministries of education.[27][28] Mongolia[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Mongolia In Mongolia, kindergarten is known as "цэцэрлэг" or tsetserleg. As of September 2013, there are approximately 152 kindergartens registered in the country. From those 152 kindergartens, 142 are state owned. Children begin kindergarten at the age of 2 and finish it by 5. The education system before kindergarten in Mongolia is called "ясль", which accepts children between 0 and 2 years of age. Morocco[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Morocco In Morocco, pre-school is known as école maternelle, kuttab, or ar-rawd. State-run, free maternelle schools are available throughout the kingdom, welcoming children aged from 2 to 5 (although in many places, children under 3 may not be granted a place). It is not compulsory, yet almost 80% of children aged 3 to 5 attend. It is regulated by the Moroccan department of education. Nepal[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Nepal In Nepal, kindergartens are run as private institutions, with their lessons conducted in English. The kindergarten education in Nepal
Nepal
is most similar to that of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and India. Children start attending kindergarten from the age of 2 until they are at least 5 years old. The kindergartens in Nepal
Nepal
have the following grades:

Nursery/playgroup: 2- to 3-year-olds Lower Kindergarten: 3- to 4-year-olds Upper Kindergarten: 4- to 5-year-olds

Netherlands[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Netherlands In the Netherlands, the equivalent term to kindergarten was kleuterschool. From the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century the term Fröbelschool was also common, after Friedrich Fröbel. However this term gradually faded in use as the verb Fröbelen gained a slightly derogatory meaning in everyday language. Until 1985, it used to be a separate non-compulsory form of education (for children aged 4–6 years), after which children (aged 6–12 years) attended the primary school (lagere school). After 1985, both forms were integrated into one, called basisonderwijs (Dutch for primary education). For children under 4, the country offers private, subsidized daycares (kinderdagverblijf), which are non compulsory but nevertheless very popular. Norway[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Norway In Norway, barnehage (children's garden) is the term equivalent to kindergarten, used for children in the ages between 10 months and 6 years. The first barnehager were founded in Norway
Norway
in the late 19th century. Although they have existed for 120 years, they are not considered part of the education system. They are both publicly and privately owned and operated. The staff, at minimum the manager, should be educated as barnehagelærer (kindergarten teacher), previously known as førskolelærer (pre-school teachers). The children spend most of the time outdoors. There is also an institution called barnepark (children's park), which does not need to have certified staff. Peru[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Peru In Peru, the term nido refers to the schooling children attend from 3 to 6 years of age. It is followed by primary school classes, which last for six years. Some families choose to send their children to primary school at the age of 6. In 1902 the teacher Elvira Garcia and Garcia co-founder of the Society cited above, organized the first kindergarten for children 2 to 8 years old, Fanning annex to the Lyceum
Lyceum
for ladies. Her studies and concern for children led her to spread through conferences and numerous documents, the importance of protecting children early and to respond to the formation of a personality based on justice and understanding, as well as the use of methods Fröbel and from Montessori
Montessori
and participation of parents in this educational task. Philippines[edit] See also: Education
Education
in the Philippines In the Philippines, education officially starts at the Elementary level and placing children into early childhood education through kindergarten is optional to parents. Early childhood education
Early childhood education
in the Philippines
Philippines
is classified into:

Center-based programs, such as the Barangay
Barangay
day care service, public and private pre-schools, kindergarten or school-based programs, community or church-based early childhood education programs initiated by nongovernment organizations or people's organizations, workplace-related child care and education programs, child-minding centers, health centers and stations; and Home-based programs, such as the neighborhood-based play groups, family day care programs, parent education and home visiting programs.

Early childhood education
Early childhood education
was strengthened through the creation of the Early Childhood Care and Development Act of 2000 (Republic Act No. 8980).[29] In 2011, the Department of Education
Education
disseminated copies of the Kindergarten
Kindergarten
Education
Education
Act through Republic Act No. 10157 making it compulsory and mandatory in the entire nation. As a provision in this law, children under five years old are required to enroll in a kindergarten in any public elementary school in the country. This goes with the implementation of the K-12
K-12
system in the Basic Education Curriculum. Romania[edit]

Kindergarten
Kindergarten
children in 1942 in Slobozia, Romania

See also: Education
Education
in Romania In Romania, grădiniţă, which means "little garden", is the favored form of education for preschool children usually aged 3–6. The children are divided in three groups: "little group" (grupa mică, age 3–4), "medium group" (grupa mijlocie, age 4-5) and "big group" (grupa mare, age 5-6). In the last few years, private kindergartens have become popular, supplementing the state preschool education system. Kindergarten
Kindergarten
is optional. The "preparatory school year" (clasa pregătitoare) is for children aged 6–7, and since it became compulsory in 2012,[30] it usually takes place at school. Russia[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Russia

Children of a kindergarten on a walk, Leningrad, Russia, 1930s

In the Russian Federation, Детский сад (dyetskiy sad, literal translation of "children's garden") is a preschool educational institution for children, usually 3 to 6 years of age. South Africa[edit] See also: Education
Education
in South Africa Kindergartens (commonly known as creche) in South Africa
South Africa
provide from 0-6 years of age spent of preschool programs for children of all ages up to six. The one to three-year program, known as nursery, kindergarten 1 (K1), and kindergarten 2 (K2), prepares children for their first year in primary school education. Some kindergartens further divide nursery into N1 and N2. Spain[edit] In Spain, kindergarten is called infantil, ciclo infantil or guardería, and serves children from 3 to 6 years of age. It's commonly known by some people as parvulitos. 1º ciclo de Educación Infantil (from 0 to 3 years of age) 2º ciclo de Educación Infantil (from 3 to 6 years of age). Sudan[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Sudan Kindergarten
Kindergarten
in Sudan is divided into private and public kindergarten. Preschool
Preschool
is compulsory in Sudan. The proper kindergarten age spans from 3–6 years. The curriculum covers Arabic, English, religion, mathematics and more. Sweden[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Sweden In Sweden, kindergarten activities were established in the 19th century, and have been widely expanded since the 1970s.[31][32] The first Swedish kindergarten teachers were trained by Henriette Schrader-Breymann at the Pestalozzi-Fröbel Haus, which she founded in 1882.[31][32] Taiwan[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Taiwan While many public kindergartens and preschools exist in Taiwan, private kindergartens and preschools are also quite popular. Many private preschools offer accelerated courses in various subjects to compete with public preschools and capitalize on public demand for academic achievement. Curriculum at such preschools often encompasses subject material such as science, art, physical education and even mathematics classes. The majority of these schools are part of large school chains, which operate under franchise arrangements. In return for annual fees, the chain enterprises may supply advertising, curriculum, books, materials, training, and even staff for each individual school. There has been a huge growth in the number of privately owned and operated English immersion preschools in Taiwan
Taiwan
since 1999. These English immersion preschools generally employ native English speaking teachers to teach the whole preschool curriculum in an "English only" environment. The legality of these types of schools has been called into question on many occasions, yet they continue to prosper. Some members of Taiwanese society have raised concerns as to whether local children should be placed in English immersion environments at such a young age, and have raised fears that the students abilities in their mother language may suffer as a result. The debate continues, but at the present time, the market for English Immersion Preschools continues to grow. Ukraine[edit] See also: Education
Education
in Ukraine In 2010, a total of 56% of children aged one to six years old had the opportunity to attend preschool education, the Education
Education
and Science Ministry of Ukraine reported in August 2010.[33] Many preschools and kindergartens were closed previously in light of economic and demographic considerations.[34] United Kingdom[edit] See also: Education
Education
in the United Kingdom The term kindergarten is never used in the UK to describe modern pre-school education or the first year(s) of compulsory primary school education. Pre-schools are usually known as creche, nursery schools or playgroups, while the first year of compulsory schooling is known as Reception in England, Dosbarth Derbyn in Welsh ("reception class") and Primary One in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Nursery forms part of the Foundation Stage of education. In the 1980s, England and Wales officially adopted the Northern Irish system whereby children start school either in the term or year in which they will become five depending on the policy of the local education authority. In Scotland, schooling becomes compulsory between the ages of 4½ and 5½ years, depending on their birthday (school starts in August for children who were 4 by the end of the preceding February). However, the word "kindergarten" is used for more specialist organisations such as forest kindergartens, and is sometimes used in the naming of private nurseries that provide full-day child care for working parents. Historically the word was used during the nineteenth century when activists like Adelaide Manning
Adelaide Manning
were introducing educators to the work of Friedrich Fröbel.[35] In the UK, parents have the option of nursery for their children at the ages of three or four years, before compulsory education begins. Before that, less structured childcare is available privately. The details vary between England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Some nurseries are attached to state infant or primary schools, but many are provided by the private sector. The Scottish government provides funding[36] so that all children from the age of three until they start compulsory school can attend five sessions per week of two and a half hours each, either in state-run or private nurseries. Working parents can also receive from their employers child care worth £55 per week free of income tax,[37] which is typically enough to pay for one or two days per week. The Scottish Government defines its requirements for nursery schools in the Early Years Framework[38] and the Curriculum for Excellence.[39] Each school interprets these with more or less independence (depending on their management structure) but must satisfy the Care Commission[40] in order to retain their licence to operate. The curriculum aims to develop:

confident individuals effective contributors responsible citizens successful learners

United States[edit] See also: Education
Education
in the United States

1921 kindergarten class at the East Texas State Normal College Training School

In the US, kindergarten is usually part of the K-12
K-12
educational system. In most state and private schools, children begin kindergarten at age 5 and attend for one year. They do activities such as addition (+), subtraction (-), and playing outside on the playground. [41] Forty-three states require their school districts to offer a kindergarten year.[42] In a typical US kindergarten classroom, resources like toys, picture books, and crayons are available for children's use. The daily schedule varies from town to town, but there are some similarities. In the morning, the children usually do circle time. This includes saying the pledge of allegiance, looking at the calendar, and discussing the weather and season that day. Next, the children work on different subjects: In math, kindergartners usually do single digit addition and subtraction, learn to count with "more or less" games, become acquainted with a clock, and learn skip counting to prepare them for one digit multiplication. In language arts (English), children learn sight words, (cat, fun), rhyming, blends, and silent e. They then learn how to write, form sentences, and are required to write three complete sentences by the end of the year. In social studies, kindergarteners learn about the months, U.S. states, the continents, and sometimes about people performing community functions (e.g. doctor, barber, teacher) and places (e.g."You go to a hospital when you're sick or to have surgery." "You go to a park to play.") After a few lessons, there is a break for lunch. Children either fetch their own lunchboxes brought from home or get a lunch from the cafeteria and eat it (or take) there or in the classroom. Sometimes after lunch the children have recess, some students' favorite part of the day, when they can go outside to play on swings, slides, play basketball, or socialize. After recess kindergartners go back inside to do more learning. Some schools let children take a nap or do free choice (blocks, tic tac toe, play doh, etc.) When kindergarten is over for the day, parents come to pick up their child or the children ride a bus home. See also[edit]

Forest kindergarten Head Start Program Montessori
Montessori
education Pre-math skills Reggio Emilia approach Universal preschool Waldorf education

References[edit]

^ The term was coined in the metaphorical sense of "place where children can grow in a natural way", not in the literal sense of having a "garden". ^ Samuel Lorenzo Knapp (1843), Female biography; containing notices of distinguished women, in different nations and ages. Philadelphia: Thomas Wardle. p. 230. ^ Manfred Berger, "Kurze Chronik der ehemaligen und gegenwärtigen Ausbildungsstätten für Kleinkindlehrerinnen, Kindergärtnerinnen, Hortnerinnen ... und ErzieherInnen in Bayern" Archived September 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. in "Das Kita-Handbuch", ed. Martin R. Textor ^ "Learning is fun at Kinder School". Preschool
Preschool
and Kindergarten. February 7, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2017.  ^ Vag, Otto (March 1975). "The Influence of the English Infant School in Hungary". International Journal of Early Childhood. Springer. 7 (1): 132–136. doi:10.1007/bf03175934.  ^ " New Lanark
New Lanark
Kids".  ^ "infed.org - Education
Education
in Robert Owen's new society: the New Lanark institute and schools". infed.org.  ^ "Socialist - Courier: Robert Owen
Robert Owen
and New Lanark". Socialist-courier.blogspot.co.uk. Retrieved November 27, 2013.  ^ Wilderspin, Samuel (1823). The Importance of Educating the Infant Poor. London.  ^ Budapest
Budapest
Lexikon, 1993 ^ Public Preschool
Preschool
Education
Education
In Hungary: A Historical Survey, 1980 ^ Kinder bilden Sprache - Sprache bildet Kinder, p. 24 (in German) ^ Watertown Historical Society ^ Olsen, M.I. 1955. "The development of play schools and kindergartens and an analysis of a sampling of these institutions in Alberta. Master’s thesis, University
University
of Alberta." ^ Larry Prochner, "A History of Early Education
Education
and Child Care in Canada, 1820-1966" in Early Childhood Care and Education
Education
in Canada (eds. Larry Prochner and Nina Howe), Vancouver: UBC Press, 2000 ^ a b Larry Prochner, History of Early Childhood Education
Education
in Canada, Australia and New Zealand, UBC Press 2009 ^ http://www.det.wa.edu.au/education/ece/enrolments.html#compare ^ http://www.eli-net.eu/fileadmin/ELINET/Redaktion/user_upload/Bulgarian_Short_Report.pdf ^ Chilean Ministry of Education
Education
Help Guide, Educación Parvularia Archived July 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Achtes Buch Sozialgesetzbuch, §24; children under the age of one are entitled to day care if the caretaker is working, seeking work or attending school (section one); children from one to three years (section two) and from over three until they enter school (section three) are unconditionally entitled to receive day care. ^ Grundgesetz Artikel 30, "Kulturhoheit der Länder" ^ " Child care
Child care
in Berlin".  ^ "Germany's child care law aims to get more moms back to work - WBEZ".  ^ SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg, Germany (August 1, 2013). "Law Goes into Effect Requiring Child Care for Most German Children". SPIEGEL ONLINE. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Hungary
Hungary
lowers mandatory school age to three Archived December 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Education in Malaysia
Education in Malaysia
- School
School
grades, view Malaysian school grades here. ^ Senado.gob.mx ^ OECD.org ^ "R.A. 8980".  ^ "Clasa pregătitoare, obligatorie din septembrie. Ce vor învăţa copiii şi cum vor fi evaluaţi". Mediafax. January 22, 2012.  ^ a b Andrew Lees; Lynn Hollen Lees (December 13, 2007). Cities and the Making of Modern Europe, 1750-1914. Cambridge University
University
Press. pp. 177–. ISBN 978-0-521-83936-5.  ^ a b "Henriette Schrader-Breymann".  ^ Education
Education
Ministry: Some 44 percent of children unable to attend kindergarten, Kyiv Post (August 11, 2010) ^ Encyclopedia of Motherhood by Andrea O'Reilly, Sage Publications, Inc, 2010, ISBN 978-1-4129-6846-1 (page 1226) ^ Gillian Sutherland, ‘Manning, (Elizabeth) Adelaide (1828–1905)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University
University
Press, 2004; online edn, May 2007 accessed 26 July 2015 ^ Childcare regulations of the Scottish Government ^ Tax Free Childcare Regulations, UK government HMRC ^ Early Years Framework, Scottish Government, January 2009 ^ Ltscotland.org.uk Archived August 1, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Care Commission". Archived from the original on March 22, 2012.  ^ http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/86/62/8662.pdf ^ " Kindergarten
Kindergarten
requirements, by state: 2010". Table 5.3. National Center for Education
Education
Statistics. April 6, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2011. 

Further reading[edit] The following reading list relates specifically to kindergarten in North America, where it is the first year of formal schooling and not part of the pre-school system as it is in the rest of the world:

Cryan, J. R.; Sheehan, R.; Wiechel, J.; Bandy-Hedden, I. G. (1992). "Success outcomes of full-day kindergarten: More positive behavior and increased achievement in the years after". Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 7 (2): 187–203. doi:10.1016/0885-2006(92)90004-i.  Elicker, J.; Mathur, S. (1997). "What do they do all day? Comprehensive evaluation of a full-day kindergarten". Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 12 (4): 459–480. doi:10.1016/S0885-2006(97)90022-3.  Fusaro, J. A. (1997). "The effect of full-day kindergarten on student achievement: A meta-analysis". Child Study Journal. 27 (4): 269–277. Retrieved September 30, 2013.  Gullo, D. F. (1990). "The changing family context: Implications for the development of all-day kindergarten." Young Children, 45(4), 35–39. EJ 409 110. Housden, T., & Kam, R. (1992). "Full-day kindergarten: A summary of the research." Carmichael, CA: San Juan Unified School
School
District. ED 345 868. Karweit, N. (1992). "The kindergarten experience." Educational Leadership, 49(6), 82–86. EJ 441 182. Koopmans, M. (1991). "A study of longitudal effects of all-day kindergarten attendance on achievement." Newark, NJ: Newark Board of Education. ED 336 494.. Morrow, L. M., Strickland, D. S., & Woo, D. G.(1998). "Literacy instruction in half- and whole-day kindergarten." Newark, DE: International Reading Association. ED 436 756. Olsen, D., & Zigler, E.(1989). "An assessment of the all-day kindergarten movement." Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 4(2), 167–186. EJ 394 085. Puleo, V. T.(1988). "A review and critique of research on full-day kindergarten." Elementary School
Elementary School
Journal, 88(4), 427–439. EJ 367 934. Towers, J. M. (1991). "Attitudes toward the all-day, everyday kindergarten." Children Today, 20(1), 25–28. EJ 431 720. West, J., Denton, K., & Germino-Hausken, E.(2000). "America's Kindergartners" Washington, DC: National Center for Educational Statistics McGill-Franzen, A. (2006). " Kindergarten
Kindergarten
literacy: Matching assessment and instruction in kindergarten." New York: Scholastic. WestEd (2005). "Full-Day Kindergarten: Expanding Learning Opportunities." San Francisco: WestEd. Schoenberg, Nara (September 4, 2010). "Kindergarten: It's the new first grade". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 26, 2012. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kindergarten.

Look up kindergarten in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Sources for kindergarten teachers in the US Friedrich Fröbel
Friedrich Fröbel
timeline Recent Research on All-Day Kindergarten
Kindergarten
in the US Kindersite Project – Researching into the use of technology within Kindergartens with Kindergarten-appropriate Internet content Watch the 1962 documentary Kindergarten Texts on Wikisource:

Monroe, Paul (1905). "Kindergarten". New International Encyclopedia.  "Kindergarten". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.  Hill, Patty S. (1920). "Kindergarten, The". Encyclopedia Americana. 

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