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Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
or Kim Il Sung (/ˈkɪm ˈɪlˈsʌŋ, ˈsʊŋ/;[1] Chosŏn'gŭl: 김일성, Korean: [kimils͈ʌŋ]; born Kim Sŏng-ju (김성주); 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of North Korea
North Korea
from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.[2] He held the posts of Premier from 1948 to 1972 and President from 1972 to 1994. He was also the leader of the Workers' Party of Korea
Korea
(WPK) from 1949 to 1994 (titled chairman from 1949 to 1966 and general secretary after 1966). Coming to power after the end of Japanese rule in 1945, he authorized the invasion of South Korea
South Korea
in 1950, triggering a defense of South Korea
South Korea
by the United Nations
United Nations
led by the United States. Following the military stalemate in the Korean War, a cease-fire was signed on 27 July 1953. He was the second longest-serving non-royal head of state/government in the 20th century, in office for more than 45 years. Under his leadership, North Korea
North Korea
became a workers' state with a publicly owned and planned economy. It had close political and economic relations with the Soviet Union. By the 1960s, North Korea enjoyed a relatively high standard of living, outperforming the South, which was affected by political instability and economic crises.[3][4][5] The situation reversed in the 1980s, as a stable South Korea
South Korea
became an economic powerhouse fueled by Japanese and American investment, military aid and internal economic development while North Korea
North Korea
stagnated.[6] Differences emerged between North Korea
Korea
and the Soviet Union, central among them Kim Il-sung's philosophy of Juche, which focused on Korean patriotism and self-reliance. Despite this, the country received funds, subsidies, and aid from the USSR (and the Eastern Bloc) until the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. The resulting loss of economic aid adversely affected the North's economy. During this period, North Korea
North Korea
also remained critical of the United States
United States
defense force's presence in the region, which it considered imperialism, seizing the American ship USS Pueblo (AGER-2) in 1968. Kim's cult of personality dominated domestic politics in North Korea. At the 6th WPK Congress in 1980, his son Kim Jong-il, was elected as a Presidium member and chosen as his heir apparent to the supreme leadership. Kim Il-sung's birthday is a public holiday in North Korea and it is called the "Day of the Sun". In 1998, Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
was given the title "Eternal President of the Republic". North Korea
North Korea
under his reign was characterized, by Freedom House
Freedom House
and others, as a totalitarian state with widespread human rights abuses, including mass executions and prison camps.[7][8]

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Controversy about origins 1.2 Family background 1.3 Communist and guerrilla activities 1.4 Return to Korea

2 Leader of North Korea

2.1 Early years 2.2 Korean War 2.3 Consolidating power 2.4 Later rule

3 Personal life

3.1 Death

4 Legacy 5 Works 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Early life[edit] Controversy about origins[edit] Controversy surrounds Kim's life before the founding of North Korea, with some labeling him an impostor. Several sources indicate that the name "Kim Il-sung" had previously been used by a prominent early leader of the Korean resistance, Kim Kyung-cheon.[9]:44 The Soviet officer Grigory Mekler, who worked with Kim during the Soviet occupation, said that Kim assumed this name from a former commander who had died.[10] However, historian Andrei Lankov
Andrei Lankov
has argued that this is unlikely to be true. Several witnesses knew Kim before and after his time in the Soviet Union, including his superior, Zhou Baozhong, who dismissed the claim of a "second" Kim in his diaries.[11]:55 Historian Bruce Cumings
Bruce Cumings
pointed out that Japanese officers from the Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
have attested to his fame as a resistance figure.[12]:160–161 Historians generally accept the view that, while Kim's exploits were exaggerated by the personality cult which was built around him, he was a significant guerrilla leader.[13][14][15] Family background[edit]

Around the time the song Star of Korea
Korea
was being spread, my comrades changed my name and began to call me Han Byol ... meaning "One Star". It was Pyon Tae U and other public-minded people in Wujiazi and such young communists as Choe Il Chon who proposed to change my name into Kim Il Sung. Thus I was called by three names, Song Ju, Han Byol and Il Sung. ... I did not like to be called by another name. Still less did I tolerate the people extolling me by comparing me to a star or the sun; it did not befit me, [as a] young man. But my comrades would not listen to me, no matter how sternly I rebuked them for it or argued against it.... It was in the spring of 1931 when I spent some three weeks in prison, having been arrested by the warlords in Guyushu, that the name Kim Il Sung appeared in the press for the first time. Until that time most of my acquaintances had called me by my real name, Song Ju. It was in later years when I started the armed struggle in east Manchuria
Manchuria
that I was called by one name, Kim Il Sung, by my comrades. These comrades upheld me as their leader, even giving me a new name and singing a song about me. Thus they expressed their innermost feelings.

— Kim Il-sung, With the Century[16]:110–111

He was born to Kim Hyŏng-jik
Kim Hyŏng-jik
and Kang Pan-sŏk, who gave him the name Kim Sŏng-ju; Kim also had two younger brothers, Ch’ŏl-chu (or Kim Chul Joo) and Kim Yŏng-ju.[17][better source needed]:15 Kim's family is said to have originated from Jeonju, North Jeolla Province. His great-grandfather, Kim Ung-u, settled in Mangyong-dae in 1860. Kim is reported to have been born in the small village of Mangyungbong (then called Namni) near Pyongyang
Pyongyang
on 15 April 1912.[18][17]:12 According to Kim, his family was not very poor, but was always a step away from poverty. Kim said that he was raised in a Presbyterian family, that his maternal grandfather was a Protestant minister, that his father had gone to a missionary school and was an elder in the Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church, and that his parents were very active in the religious community.[19][20][21] According to the official version, Kim’s family participated in anti-Japanese activities and in 1920 they fled to Manchuria. Like most Korean families, they resented the Japanese occupation of the Korean peninsula, which began on 29 August 1910.[17]:12 Another view seems to be that his family settled in Manchuria, as many Koreans had at the time to escape famine. Nonetheless, Kim's parents, especially Kim's mother Kang Ban Suk, played a role in the anti-Japanese struggle that was sweeping the peninsula.[17]:16 Their exact involvement—whether their cause was missionary, nationalist, or both—is unclear nevertheless.[11]:53 Still, Japanese repression of opposition was brutal, resulting in the arrest and detention of more than 52,000 Korean citizens in 1912 alone.[17]:13 This repression forced many Korean families to flee Korea
Korea
and settle in Manchuria. Communist and guerrilla activities[edit] In October 1926 Kim founded the Down-with- Imperialism
Imperialism
Union.[22] Kim attended Whasung Military Academy in 1926, but finding the academy's training methods outdated, he quit in 1927. From that time, he attended Yuwen Middle School
Yuwen Middle School
in Jilin
Jilin
up to 1930,[23] where he rejected the feudal traditions of older-generation Koreans and became interested in Communist ideologies; his formal education ended when the police arrested and jailed him for his subversive activities. At seventeen Kim had become the youngest member of an underground Marxist organization with fewer than twenty members, led by Hŏ So, who belonged to the South Manchurian Communist Youth Association. The police discovered the group three weeks after it formed in 1929, and jailed Kim for several months.[11]:52[24] In 1931 Kim joined the Communist Party of China—the Communist Party of Korea
Korea
had been founded in 1925, but had been thrown out of the Comintern
Comintern
in the early 1930s for being too nationalist. He joined various anti-Japanese guerrilla groups in northern China. Feelings against the Japanese ran high in Manchuria, but as of May 1930 the Japanese had not yet occupied Manchuria. On 30 May 1930 a spontaneous violent uprising in eastern Manchuria
Manchuria
arose in which peasants attacked some local villages in the name of resisting "Japanese aggression."[25] The authorities easily suppressed this unplanned, reckless and unfocused uprising. Because of the attack, the Japanese began to plan an occupation of Manchuria.[26] In a speech before a meeting of Young Communist League delegates on 20 May 1931 in Yenchi County in Manchuria, Kim warned the delegates against such unplanned uprisings as the 30 May 1930 uprising in eastern Manchuria.[27] Four months later, on 18 September 1931, the "Mukden Incident" occurred, in which a relatively weak dynamite explosive charge went off near a Japanese railroad in the town of Mukden in Manchuria. Although no damage occurred, the Japanese used the incident as an excuse to send armed forces into Manchuria
Manchuria
and to appoint a new puppet government.[28] In 1935, Kim became a member of the Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army, a guerrilla group led by the Communist Party of China. Kim was appointed[by whom?] the same year to serve as political commissar for the 3rd detachment of the second division, consisting of around 160 soldiers.[11]:53 Here Kim met the man who would become his mentor as a Communist, Wei Zhengmin, Kim's immediate superior officer, who served at the time as chairman of the Political Committee of the Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army. Wei reported directly to Kang Sheng, a high-ranking party member close to Mao Zedong in Yan'an, until Wei's death on 8 March 1941.[29] In 1935 Kim took the name Kim Il-sung, meaning "Kim become the sun".[30]:30 Kim was appointed commander of the 6th division in 1937, at the age of 24, controlling a few hundred men in a group that came to be known as "Kim Il-sung's division". While commanding this division he executed a raid on Poch’onbo, on 4 June 1937. Although Kim's division only captured the small Japanese-held town just within the Korean border for a few hours, it was nonetheless considered[by whom?] a military success at this time, when the guerrilla units had experienced difficulty in capturing any enemy territory. This accomplishment would grant Kim some measure of fame among Chinese guerrillas, and North Korean biographies would later exploit it as a great victory for Korea. For their part the Japanese regarded Kim as one of the most effective and popular Korean guerrilla leaders.[12]:160–161[31] He appeared on Japanese wanted lists as the "Tiger".[32] The Japanese "Maeda Unit" was sent to hunt him in February 1940, but he was able to destroy it.[32] Kim was appointed commander of the 2nd operational region for the 1st Army, but by the end of 1940 he was the only 1st Army leader still alive. Pursued by Japanese troops, Kim and what remained of his army escaped by crossing the Amur River
Amur River
into the Soviet Union.[11]:53–54 Kim was sent to a camp at Vyatskoye near Khabarovsk, where the Soviets retrained the Korean Communist guerrillas. Kim became a Major in the Soviet Red Army and served in it until the end of World War II
World War II
in 1945. Return to Korea[edit]

Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
(centre) and Kim Tu-bong
Kim Tu-bong
(second from right) at the joint meeting of the New People's Party and the Workers' Party of North Korea
Korea
in Pyongyang, 28th August 1946.

The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
declared war on Japan on 8 August 1945, and the Red Army entered Pyongyang
Pyongyang
on 24 August 1945. Stalin had instructed Lavrentiy Beria
Lavrentiy Beria
to recommend a Communist leader for the Soviet-occupied territories and Beria met Kim several times before recommending him to Stalin.[18][33][34] Kim arrived in the Korean port of Wonsan on 19 September 1945 after 26 years in exile.[30]:51 According to Leonid Vassin, an officer with the Soviet MVD, Kim was essentially "created from zero". For one, his Korean was marginal at best; he had only had eight years of formal education, all of it in Chinese. He needed considerable coaching to read a speech (which the MVD prepared for him) at a Communist Party congress three days after he arrived.[9]:50 In December 1945, the Soviets installed Kim as chairman of the North Korean branch of the Korean Communist Party.[30]:56 Originally, the Soviets preferred Cho Man-sik
Cho Man-sik
to lead a popular front government, but Cho refused to support a UN-backed trusteeship and clashed with Kim.[35] General Terentii Shtykov
Terentii Shtykov
who led the Soviet occupation of northern Korea, supported Kim over Pak Hon-yong
Pak Hon-yong
to lead the Provisional People's Committee for North Korea
North Korea
on 8 February 1946.[36] As chairman of the committee, Kim was "the top Korean administrative leader in the North," though he was still de facto subordinate to General Shtykov until the Chinese intervention in the Korean War.[34][30]:56[36] To solidify his control, Kim established the Korean People's Army (KPA), aligned with the Communist Party, and he recruited a cadre of guerrillas and former soldiers who had gained combat experience in battles against the Japanese and later against Nationalist Chinese troops.[37] Using Soviet advisers and equipment, Kim constructed a large army skilled in infiltration tactics and guerrilla warfare. Prior to Kim's invasion of the South in 1950, which triggered the Korean War, Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
equipped the KPA with modern, Soviet-built medium tanks, trucks, artillery, and small arms. Kim also formed an air force, equipped at first with Soviet-built propeller-driven fighters and attack aircraft. Later, North Korean pilot candidates were sent to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and China
China
to train in MiG-15 jet aircraft at secret bases.[38] Leader of North Korea[edit] Early years[edit] Despite United Nations
United Nations
plans to conduct all-Korean elections, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Korea
was proclaimed on 9 September 1948, with Kim as the Soviet-designated premier. In August 1948, the south had declared statehood as the Republic of Korea. On 12 October, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
recognized Kim's government as the sovereign government of the entire peninsula, including the south.[39] The Communist Party merged with the New People's Party of Korea to form the Workers' Party of North Korea
North Korea
(of which Kim was vice-chairman). In 1949, the Workers' Party of North Korea
North Korea
merged with its southern counterpart to become the Workers' Party of Korea
Workers' Party of Korea
(WPK) with Kim as party chairman.[40] By 1949, Kim and the communists had consolidated their rule in North Korea.[9]:53 Around this time, Kim's cult of personality was starting to be promoted by the people, the first statues of Kim appeared, and the people began calling him the "Great Leader".[9]:53 In February 1946 Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
decided to introduce a number of reforms. Over 50% of the arable land was redistributed, an 8-hour work day was proclaimed and all heavy industry was to be nationalised.[41] There were improvements in the health of the population after he nationalised healthcare and made it available to all citizens.[42] Korean War[edit] Main article: Korean War Archival material suggests[43][44][45] that North Korea's decision to invade South Korea
South Korea
was Kim's initiative, not a Soviet one. Evidence suggests that Soviet intelligence, through its espionage sources in the US government and British SIS, had obtained information on the limitations of US atomic bomb stockpiles as well as defense program cuts, leading Stalin to conclude that the Truman administration would not intervene in Korea.[46] China
China
acquiesced only reluctantly to the idea of Korean reunification after being told by Kim that Stalin had approved the action.[43][44][45] The Chinese did not provide North Korea
North Korea
with direct military support (other than logistics channels) until United Nations troops, largely US forces, had nearly reached the Yalu River late in 1950. At the outset of the war in June and July, North Korean forces captured Seoul and occupied most of the South, save for a small section of territory in the southeast region of the South that was called the Pusan Perimeter. But in September, the North Koreans were driven back by the US-led counterattack that started with the UN landing in Incheon, followed by a combined South Korean-US-UN offensive from the Pusan Perimeter. The North Korean regime's version of events is that the United States
United States
had previously invaded and occupied the South, allegedly with the intention to push further north and into the Asian continent. Based on these assumptions, it portrays the KPA invasion of the South as a counter-attack.[47] However, the US was operating, along with many other countries, under the auspices of a UN resolution that responded to the North's invasion of the South. By October, UN forces had retaken Seoul and invaded the North to reunify the country under the South. On 19 October, US and South Korean troops captured P’yŏngyang, forcing Kim and his government to flee north, first to Sinuiju
Sinuiju
and eventually into Kanggye.[48][49] On 25 October 1950, after sending various warnings of their intent to intervene if UN forces did not halt their advance,[50]:23 Chinese troops in the thousands crossed the Yalu River
Yalu River
and entered the war as allies of the KPA. There were nevertheless tensions between Kim and the Chinese government. Kim had been warned of the likelihood of an amphibious landing at Incheon, which was ignored. There was also a sense that the North Koreans had paid little in war compared to the Chinese who had fought for their country for decades against foes with better technology.[50]:335–336 The UN troops were forced to withdraw and Chinese troops retook P’yŏngyang in December and Seoul in January 1951. In March, UN forces began a new offensive, retaking Seoul and advanced north once again halting at a point just north of the 38th Parallel. After a series of offensives and counter-offensives by both sides, followed by a grueling period of largely static trench warfare that lasted from the summer of 1951 to July 1953, the front was stabilized along what eventually became the permanent "Armistice Line" of 27 July 1953. Over 2.5 million people died during the Korean war.[51] Chinese and Russian documents from that time reveal that Kim became increasingly desperate to establish a truce, since the likelihood that further fighting would successfully unify Korea
Korea
under his rule became more remote with the UN and US presence. Kim also resented the Chinese taking over the majority of the fighting in his country, with Chinese forces stationed at the center of the front line, and the Korean People's Army being mostly restricted to the coastal flanks of the front.[52] Consolidating power[edit]

Kim on a 1956 visit to East Germany, chatting with painter Otto Nagel and Prime Minister Otto Grotewohl.

From left to right: Pak Chang-ok, Li Jishen, Kim Tu-bong, Zhu De, Kim Il-sung, Averky Aristov, Pak Chŏng Ae
Pak Chŏng Ae
and Choe Yong-gon in 1955.

With the end of the Korean War, despite the failure to unify Korea under his rule, Kim il-sung proclaimed the war a victory. However, the three-year war left North Korea
North Korea
devastated, and Kim immediately embarked on a large reconstruction effort. He launched a five-year national economic plan to establish a command economy, with all industry owned by the state and all agriculture collectivised. The economy was focused on heavy industry and arms production. Both South and North Korea
North Korea
retained huge armed forces to defend the 1953 Demilitarized Zone, and US forces remained in the South. In the ensuing years, Kim established himself as an independent leader of international communism. In 1956, he joined Mao in the "anti-revisionist" camp, which did not accept Nikita Khrushchev's program of de-Stalinization, yet he did not become a Maoist himself. At the same time, he consolidated his power over the Korean communist movement. Rival leaders were eliminated. Pak Hon-yong, leader of the Korean Communist Party, was purged and executed in 1955. Choe Chang-ik appears to have been purged as well.[53][54] The 1955 Juche
Juche
speech, which stressed Korean independence, debuted in the context of Kim's power struggle against leaders such as Pak, who had Soviet backing. This was little noticed at the time until state media started talking about it in 1963.[55][56] During the 1956 August Faction Incident, Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
successfully resisted efforts by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and China
China
to depose him in favor of Soviet Koreans or the pro-Chinese Yanan faction.[57][58] The last Chinese troops withdrew from the country in October 1958, which is the consensus as the latest date when North Korea
North Korea
became effectively independent, though some scholars believe that the 1956 August incident demonstrated North Korea's independence.[57][58] Later rule[edit]

Kim greets visiting Romanian President Nicolae Ceaușescu
Nicolae Ceaușescu
in Pyongyang, 1971.

Despite his opposition to de-Stalinization, Kim never officially severed relations with the Soviet Union. He did not take part in the Sino-Soviet Split. After Khrushchev was replaced by Leonid Brezhnev, Kim's relations with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
became closer. At the same time, Kim was increasingly alienated by Mao's unstable style of leadership, especially during the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
in the late 1960s. Kim in turn was denounced by Mao's Red Guards.[59] At the same time, Kim reinstated relations with most of Eastern Europe's communist countries, primarily Erich Honecker's East Germany
East Germany
and Nicolae Ceauşescu's Romania. Ceauşescu, in particular, was heavily influenced by Kim's ideology, and the personality cult that grew around him in Romania was very similar to that of Kim.[citation needed] Albania's Enver Hoxha
Enver Hoxha
(another independent-minded Communist leader) was a fierce enemy of the country, writing in June 1977 that " genuine Marxist-Leninists" will understand that the "ideology is guiding the Korean Workers' Party and the Communist Party of China...is revisionist" and adding later that month that "in Pyongyang, I believe that even Tito will be astonished at the proportions of the cult of his host [Kim Il Sung], which has reached a level unheard of anywhere else, either in past or present times, let alone in a country which calls itself socialist.[60][61] He further claimed that "the leadership of the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
has betrayed [the working people]. In Korea, too, we can say that the leadership of the Korean Workers' Party is wallowing in the same waters" and claimed that Kim Il Sung was begging for aid from other countries, especially among the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
and non-aligned countries like Yugoslavia. As a result, relations between North Korea
North Korea
and Albania would remain cold and tense right up until Hoxha's death in 1985. Although a resolute anti-communist, Zaire's Mobutu Sese Seko
Mobutu Sese Seko
was also heavily influenced by Kim's style of rule.[62] At the same time, Kim was establishing an extensive personality cult. North Koreans were taught that Kim was the "Sun of the Nation" and could do no wrong. Kim developed the policy and ideology of Juche
Juche
in opposition to the idea of North Korea
North Korea
as either a Soviet or a Chinese satellite state. In the 1960s, Kim became impressed with the efforts of North Vietnamese Leader Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
to reunify Vietnam
Vietnam
through guerilla warfare and thought something similar might be possible in Korea.[63]:30–31 Infiltration and subversion efforts were thus greatly stepped up against US forces and the leadership in South Korea.[63]:32–33 These efforts culminated in an attempt to storm the Blue House and assassinate President Park Chung-hee.[63]:32 North Korean troops thus took a much more aggressive stance toward US forces in and around South Korea, engaging US Army troops in fire-fights along the Demilitarized Zone. The 1968 capture of the crew of the spy ship USS Pueblo was a part of this campaign.[63]:33 A new constitution was proclaimed in December 1972, under which Kim surrendered the premiership and became President of North Korea. On 14 April 1975, North Korea
North Korea
discontinued most formal use of its traditional units and adopted the metric system.[64] In 1980, he decided that his son Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
would succeed him, and increasingly delegated the running of the government to him. The Kim family was supported by the army, due to Kim Il-sung’s revolutionary record and the support of the veteran defense minister, O Chin-u. At the Sixth Party Congress in October 1980, Kim publicly designated his son as his successor. In 1986, a rumor spread that Kim had been assassinated, making the concern for Jong-il's ability to succeed his father actual. Kim dispelled the rumors, however, by making a series of public appearances. It has been argued, however, that the incident helped establish the order of succession—the first patrifilial in a Communist state—which eventually would occur upon Kim Il-Sung's death in 1994.[65] From about this time, North Korea
North Korea
encountered increasing economic difficulties. The practical effect of Juche
Juche
was to cut the country off from virtually all foreign trade in order to make it entirely self-reliant. The economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
in China
China
from 1979 onward meant that trade with the moribund economy of North Korea
North Korea
held decreasing interest for China. The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, from 1989–1991, completed North Korea's virtual isolation. These events led to mounting economic difficulties because Kim refused to issue any economic or democratic reforms.[66]

Kim Il-sung's 80th birthday ceremony with international guests, in 1992.

As he aged, starting in the late 1970s, Kim developed a calcium deposit growth on the right side of the back of his neck. Its close proximity to his brain and spinal cord made it inoperable. Because of its unappealing nature, North Korean reporters and photographers, from then on, always filmed Kim while standing from his same slight-left angle to hide the growth from official photographs and newsreels, which became an increasingly difficult task as the growth reached the size of a baseball by the late 1980s.[67] To ensure a full succession of leadership to his son and designated successor Kim Jong-il, Kim turned over his chairmanship of North Korea's National Defense Commission—the body mainly responsible for control of the armed forces as well as the supreme commandership of the country's now million-man strong military force, the Korean People's Army—to his son in 1991 and 1993. So far, the elder Kim—even though he is dead—has remained the country's president, the general-secretary of its ruling Worker's Party of Korea, and the chairman of the Party's Central Military Commission, the party's organization that has supreme supervision and authority over military matters. In early 1994, Kim began investing in nuclear power to offset energy shortages brought on by economic problems. This was the first of many "nuclear crises". On 19 May 1994, Kim ordered spent fuel to be unloaded from the already disputed nuclear research facility in Yongbyon. Despite repeated chiding from Western nations, Kim continued to conduct nuclear research and carry on with the uranium enrichment program. In June 1994, former U.S. President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
travelled to Pyongyang
Pyongyang
for talks with Kim. To the astonishment of the United States and the International Atomic Energy Agency, Kim agreed to halt his nuclear research program and seemed to be embarking upon a new opening to the West.[68] Personal life[edit] See also: Kim dynasty (North Korea)

Kim's first wife, Kim Jŏng Suk, and son, Kim Jong-il

Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
married twice. His first wife, Kim Jong-suk
Kim Jong-suk
(1919–1949), gave birth to two sons before her death in childbirth during the delivery of a stillborn girl. Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
was his oldest son. The other son (Kim Man-il, or Shura Kim) of this marriage died in 1947 in a swimming accident. Kim married Kim Sung-ae in 1952, and it is believed he had three children with her: Kim Yŏng-il (not to be confused with the former Premier of North Korea
North Korea
of the same name), Kim Kyŏng-il and Kim Pyong-il. Kim Pyong-il
Kim Pyong-il
was prominent in Korean politics until he became ambassador to Hungary. Since 2015 Kim Pyong-il has been ambassador to the Czech Republic. Kim was reported to have other illegitimate children.[69] They included Kim Hyŏn-nam (born 1972, head of the Propaganda and Agitation Department of the Workers' Party since 2002).[70] On his death in 1994, his eldest son Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
succeeded him as supreme leader of North Korea. Death[edit] Main article: Death and state funeral of Kim Il-sung On 8 July 1994, Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
collapsed from a sudden heart attack at the age of 82. After the heart attack, Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
ordered the team of doctors who were constantly at his father's side to leave, and arranged for the country's best doctors to be flown in from Pyongyang. After several hours, the doctors from Pyongyang
Pyongyang
arrived, but despite their efforts to save him, Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
died. After the traditional Confucian Mourning period, his death was declared thirty hours later.[71] Kim Il-sung's death resulted in nationwide mourning and a ten-day mourning period was declared by Kim Jong-il. His funeral in Pyongyang was attended by hundreds of thousands of people who were flown into the city from all over North Korea. Kim Il-sung's body was placed in a public mausoleum at the Kumsusan Palace of the Sun, where his preserved and embalmed body lies under a glass coffin for viewing purposes. His head rests on a traditional Korean pillow and he is covered by the flag of the Workers' Party of Korea. Newsreel video of the funeral at Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was broadcast on several networks, and can now be found on various websites.[72] Legacy[edit] Further information: North Korean cult of personality

A mural of Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
giving a speech in Pyongyang

The Mansudae Grand Monuments, depicting large bronze statues of Kim Il-sung and his son Kim Jong-il.

There are over 500 statues of Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
in North Korea, similar to the many statues and monuments put up by East Bloc
East Bloc
leaders to themselves.[73] The most prominent are at Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
University, Kim Il-sung Stadium, Mansudae Hill, Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
Bridge and the Immortal Statue of Kim Il-sung. Some statues have reportedly been destroyed by explosions or damaged with graffiti by North Korean dissidents.[9]:201[74] Yŏng Saeng ("eternal life") monuments have been erected throughout the country, each dedicated to the departed "Eternal Leader".[75] Kim Il-sung's image is prominent in places associated with public transportation, hanging at every North Korean train station and airport.[73] It is also placed prominently at the border crossings between China
China
and North Korea. Thousands of gifts to Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
from foreign leaders are housed in the International Friendship Exhibition. Kim Il-sung's birthday, "Day of the Sun", is celebrated every year as a public holiday in North Korea.[76] The associated April Spring Friendship Art Festival gathers hundreds of artists from all over the world.[77] Works[edit] Main article: Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
bibliography Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
was the author of many works. According to North Korean sources these amount to approximately 10,800 speeches, reports, books, treatises and others.[78] Some, such as the 100-volume Complete Collection of Kim Il Sung's Works (김일성전집), are published by the Workers' Party of Korea
Workers' Party of Korea
Publishing House.[79] Shortly before his death, he published an eight volume autobiography With the Century.[35]:26 According to official North Korean sources, Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
was the original writer of The Flower Girl, a revolutionary theatrical opera, which was adapted into a locally produced feature film in 1972.[80][81][16]:178 See also[edit]

Biography portal North Korea
North Korea
portal Cold War
Cold War
portal Socialism portal

Kimilsungia Kim Tu-bong Residences of North Korean leaders "Song of General Kim Il-sung" List of things named after Kim Il-sung

References[edit]

^ "Kim Il Sung". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Fifth ed.). n.d. Retrieved 6 March 2017.  ^ 김일성, 쿠바의 ‘혁명영웅’ 체게바라를 만난 날. DailyNK (in Korean). 15 April 2008. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011.  ^ Buzo, Adrian (2002). The Making of Modern Korea. London: Routledge. p. 140. ISBN 0-415-23749-1.  ^ Cumings, Bruce (2005). Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 434. ISBN 0-393-32702-7.  ^ Robinson, Michael E (2007). Korea's Twentieth-Century Odyssey. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-8248-3174-5.  ^ Bluth, Christoph (2008). Korea. Cambridge: Polity Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-07456-3357-2.  ^ Black Book of Communism, pg. 564. ^ The Worst of the Worst: The World's Most Repressive Societies Archived June 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Freedom House, 2012. ^ a b c d e Jasper Becker (1 May 2005). Rogue Regime : Kim Jong Il and the Looming Threat of North Korea. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-803810-8. Archived from the original on 18 May 2016.  ^ "Soviets groomed Kim Il Sung for leadership". Vladivostok News. 10 January 2003. Archived from the original on 10 June 2009.  ^ a b c d e Lankov, Andrei (2002). From Stalin to Kim Il Sung: The Formation of North Korea
North Korea
1945–1960. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0813531179.  ^ a b Cumings, Bruce (17 September 2005). Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History (Updated). New York: W W Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-32702-1. Archived from the original on 18 May 2016.  ^ Buzo, Adrian (2002). The Making of Modern Korea. London: Routledge. p. 56. ISBN 0-415-23749-1.  ^ Robinson, Michael E (2007). Korea's Twentieth-Century Odyssey. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-8248-3174-5.  ^ Oberdorfer, Don; Carlin, Robert (2014). The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. Basic Books. pp. 13–14. ISBN 9780465031238.  ^ a b Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
(1994). With the Century
With the Century
(PDF). 2. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. OCLC 28377167. Retrieved 17 October 2014.  ^ a b c d e Baik Bong (1973). Kim il Sung: Volume I: From Birth to Triumphant Return to Homeland. Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Al-talia.  ^ a b "Soviet Officer Reveals Secrets of Mangyongdae". Daily NK. Archived from the original on 11 February 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.  ^ Kimjongilia – The Movie – Learn More Archived 18 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "PETER HITCHENS: North Korea, the last great Marxist bastion, is a real-life Truman show". Daily Mail. London. 8 October 2007. Archived from the original on 21 February 2010.  ^ Byrnes, Sholto (7 May 2010). "The Rage Against God, By Peter Hitchens". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 12 May 2010.  ^ Smith, Lydia (2014-07-08). " Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
Death Anniversary: How the North Korea
North Korea
Founder Created a Cult of Personality". International Business Times UK. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-01.  ^ Sang-Hun, Choe; Lafraniere, Sharon (27 August 2010). "Carter Wins Release of American in North Korea". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 June 2017.  ^ Suh Dae-Sook, Kim Il Sung: The North Korean Leader, Columbia University Press (1998) p. 7. ^ Kim Il-Sung, "Let Us Repudiate the 'Left' Adventurist Line and Follow the Revolutionary Organizational Line" contained in On Juche
Juche
in Our Revolution (Foreign Languages Publishers: Pyongyang, Korea, 1973)3. ^ Yamamuro, Shin'ichi (2006). Manchuria
Manchuria
Under Japanese Dominion. Archived from the original on 18 May 2016. Retrieved February 8, 2016.  ^ Kim Il-Sung, "Let Us Repudiate the 'Left' Adventurist Line and Follow the Revolutionary Organizational Line" contained in On Juche
Juche
in Our Revolution, pp.1-15. ^ Kim Il-Sung, "On Waging Armed Struggle Against Japanese Imperialism" on 16 December 1931 contained in On Juche
Juche
in Our Revolution, pp. 17-20. ^ Suh Dae-Sook, Kim Il Sung: The North Korean Leader, Columbia University Press (1998) pp. 8–10. ^ a b c d Bradley K. Martin (2004). Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader: North Korea
North Korea
and the Kim Dynasty. Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-0-312-32322-6.  ^ Robinson, Michael E (2007). Korea's Twentieth-Century Odyssey. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 87, 155. ISBN 978-0-8248-3174-5.  ^ a b Lone, Stewart; McCormack, Gavan (1993). Korea
Korea
since 1850. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire. p. 100.  ^ Beria/ Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
Archived 28 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Mark O'Neill. "Kim Il-sung's secret history South China Morning Post". Scmp.com. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-15.  ^ a b Armstrong, Charles (2013-04-15). The North Korean Revolution, 1945–1950. Cornell University Press.  ^ a b Lankov, Andrei (2012-01-25). "Terenti Shtykov: the other ruler of nascent N. Korea". The Korea
Korea
Times. Archived from the original on 17 April 2015. Retrieved April 14, 2015.  ^ Formation of the KPA Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Blair, Clay, The Forgotten War: America in Korea, Naval Institute Press (2003). ^ DPRK Foreign Relations Archived 19 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Worker's Parties of Korea
Korea
merge Archived 5 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Kim Il Sung: The North Korean Leader page 68 ^ "Kim Jong Il's North Korea".  ^ a b Weathersby, Kathryn, "The Soviet Role in the Early Phase of the Korean War", The Journal of American-East Asian Relations 2, no. 4 (Winter 1993): 432 ^ a b Goncharov, Sergei N., Lewis, John W. and Xue Litai, Uncertain Partners: Stalin, Mao, and the Korean War
Korean War
(1993) ^ a b Mansourov, Aleksandr Y., Stalin, Mao, Kim, and China’s Decision to Enter the Korean War, 16 September – 15 October 1950: New Evidence from the Russian Archives, Cold War
Cold War
International History Project Bulletin, Issues 6–7 (Winter 1995/1996): 94–107 ^ Sudoplatov, Pavel Anatoli, Schecter, Jerrold L., and Schecter, Leona P., Special
Special
Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness—A Soviet Spymaster, Little Brown, Boston (1994) ^ Ho Jong-ho et al. (1977) The US Imperialists Started the Korean War Archived 29 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Mossman, Billy (June 29, 2005). United States
United States
Army in the Korean War: Ebb and Flow November 1950-July 1951. University Press of the Pacific. p. 51.  ^ Sandler, Stanley (1999). The Korean War: No Victors, No Vanquished. The University Press of Kentucky. p. 108.  ^ a b David Halberstam. Halberstam, David (25 September 2007). The Coldest Winter: America and the Korean War. Hyperion. Kindle Edition. ^ Bethany Lacina and Nils Petter Gleditsch, Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths Archived 12 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine., European Journal of Population (2005) 21: 145–166. ^ Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
and Chinese Troops ^ Lankov, Andrei N., Crisis in North Korea: The Failure of De-Stalinization, 1956, Honolulu: Hawaii University Press (2004), ISBN 978-0-8248-2809-7 ^ Timothy Hildebrandt, "Uneasy Allies: Fifty Years of China-North Korea
Korea
Relations" Archived 24 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine., Asia Program Special
Special
Report, September 2003, Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars. ^ Chung, Chin O. Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Between Peking and Moscow: North Korea’s Involvement in the Sino-Soviet Dispute, 1958-1975. University of Alabama. 1978. ^ French, Paul. North Korea: State of Paranoia. New York: St. Martin’s Press. 2014. ^ a b Chung, Chin O. Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Between Peking and Moscow: North Korea’s Involvement in the Sino-Soviet Dispute, 1958-1975. University of Alabama, 1978, p. 45. ^ a b Kim, Young Kun and Zagoria, Donald S. “ North Korea
North Korea
and the Major Powers.” Asian Survey Vol. 15, No. 12 (Dec., 1975), pp. 1017-1035 University of California Press. Stable URL: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 November 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-04.  ^ Breznhev-Kim Il-Sung relations ^ Enver Hoxha, "Reflections on China
China
II: Extracts from the Political Diary", Institute of Marxist-Leninist Studies at the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania," Tirana, 1979, pp 516, 517, 521, 547, 548, 549. ^ CEU.hu Archived 8 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Research 17 December 1979 quoting Hoxha's Reflections on China
China
Volume II: "In Pyongyang, I believe that even Tito will be astonished at the proportions of the cult of his host, which has reached a level unheard of anywhere else, either in past or present times, let alone in a country which calls itself socialist." "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 September 2009. Retrieved 2008-10-30. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Howard W. French, With Rebel Gains and Mobutu in France, Nation Is in Effect Without a Government Archived 30 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine., The New York Times (17 March 1997). ^ a b c d Lankov, Andrei (2015). The Real North Korea: Life and Politics in the Failed Stalinist Utopia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-939003-8.  ^ "DPR Korea", Official site, Asia–Pacific Legal Metrology Forum, 2015, archived from the original on 9 February 2017 . ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 March 2017. Retrieved 2017-03-19.  ^ North Korea
North Korea
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Archived 10 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Cumings, Bruce, North Korea: Another Country, The New Press, New York, 2003, p. xii. ^ Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
halts DPRK nuclear program Archived 22 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Saxonberg, Steven (14 February 2013). Transitions and Non-Transitions from Communism: Regime Survival in China, Cuba, North Korea, and Vietnam. Cambridge University Press. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-107-02388-8. Archived from the original on 18 May 2016.  ^ Henry, Terrence (2005-05-01). "After Kim Jong Il". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2014-10-01.  ^ Demick, Barbara: Nothing to Envy: Ordinary Lives in North Korea. ^ Scenes of lamentation after Kim Il-sung’s death on YouTube ^ a b Portal, Jane; British Museum (2005). Art under control in North Korea. Reaktion Books. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-86189-236-2.  ^ "The Chosun Ilbo (English Edition): Daily News from Korea
Korea
- N.Korean Dynasty's Authority Challenged". English.chosun.com. 2012-02-13. Archived from the original on 29 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-09.  ^ "Controversy Stirs Over Kim Monument at PUST" NK Daily. Archived 12 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 24 April 2010. ^ Birthday of Kim Il-sung. Holidays, Festivals, and Celebrations of the World Dictionary (Fourth ed.). Omnigraphics. 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2015 – via TheFreeDictionary.com.  ^ Choi Song Min (16 April 2013). "Spring Art Festival Off the Schedule". DailyNK. Archived from the original on 13 March 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.  ^ "Immortal classical works written by President Kim Il Sung". Naenara. May 2008. Retrieved 2015-01-16.  ^ ""Complete Collection of Kim Il Sung's Works" Off Press". KCNA. January 18, 2012. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved January 16, 2015.  ^ 가극 작품 Archived 1 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine. – NK Chosun ^ 2008年03月26日, 金日成原创《卖花姑娘》5月上海唱响《卖花歌》 Archived 1 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. – 搜狐娱乐

Further reading[edit]

Baik Bong, "From Birth to Triumphant Return to Homeland," "From Building Democratic Korea
Korea
to Chollima Flight," and "From Independent National Economy to 10-Point Political Programme". Blair, Clay, The Forgotten War: America in Korea, Naval Institute Press (2003). Kracht, Christian, The Ministry Of Truth: Kim Jong Il's North Korea, Feral House, October 2007, 132 pages, 88 color photographs, ISBN 978-1-932595-27-7. Lee Chong-sik. "Kim Il-Song of North Korea." Asian Survey. University of California Press. Vol. 7, No. 6, June 1967. DOI 10.2307/2642612. Available at Jstor. NKIDP: Crisis and Confrontation on the Korean Peninsula: 1968–1969, A Critical Oral History Sudoplatov, Pavel Anatoli, Schecter, Jerrold L., and Schecter, Leona P., Special
Special
Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness—A Soviet Spymaster, Little Brown, Boston (1994). Szalontai, Balázs, Kim Il Sung in the Khrushchev Era: Soviet-DPRK Relations and the Roots of North Korean Despotism, 1953-1964. Stanford: Stanford University Press; Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press (2005).

External links[edit]

Find more aboutKim Il-sungat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Nicolae Ceausescu's visit to Pyongyang, North Korea, in 1971 "Conversations with Kim Il Sung" at the Wilson Center Digital Archive Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

Political offices

New title Prime Minister of North Korea 1948–1972 Succeeded by Kim Il as Premier

Preceded by Choi Yong-kun as President of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly President of North Korea ( Eternal President of the Republic
Eternal President of the Republic
since 5 September 1998) 1972–1994 Succeeded by Yang Hyong-sop as Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Supreme People's Assembly

New title Chairman of the National Defence Commission 1972–1993 Succeeded by Kim Jong-il

Party political offices

New title Chairman of the Workers’ Party of Korea 1949–1966 Himself as General Secretary

Chairman of the WPK Organization Bureau 1949–1951 Succeeded by Pak Yong-bin

Chairman of the WPK Central Military Commission 1950–1994 Vacant Title next held by Kim Jong-il

General Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea 1966–1994

Military offices

Preceded by Choi Yong-kun Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army 1950–1991 Succeeded by Kim Jong-il

v t e

Supreme Leaders of North Korea

Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
(1948–1994) Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
(1994–2011) Kim Jong-un
Kim Jong-un
(2011–)

v t e

Leaders of the Workers' Party of Korea

Kim Tu-bong
Kim Tu-bong
(1946–1949) Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
(1949–1994) vacant (1994–1997) Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
(1997–2011) vacant (2011–2012) Kim Jong-un
Kim Jong-un
(since 2012)

v t e

Heads of state of North Korea

Chairmen of the Presidium

Kim Tu-bong
Kim Tu-bong
(1948–57) Choe Yong-gon (1957–72)

President

Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
(1972–94)

Chairmen of the Presidium

Yang Hyong-sop (1994–98) Kim Yong-nam
Kim Yong-nam
(1998–2009)

Supreme leader

Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
(2009–11) Kim Jong-un
Kim Jong-un
(2012–)

After his death in 1994, Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
was proclaimed Eternal President.

v t e

Premiers of North Korea

Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
(as Prime Minister) Kim Il Pak Song-chol Ri Jong-ok Kang Song-san Ri Kun-mo Yon Hyong-muk Kang Song-san Hong Song-nam Pak Pong-ju Kim Yong-il Choe Yong-rim Pak Pong-ju

v t e

Leaders of Korea

Italics indicate an acting leader

Korean government- in-exile (1919–1948)

Syngman Rhee Yi Dong-nyeong Park Eun-sik Park Eun-sik Yi Yu-pil Yi Sang-ryong Yang Gi-tak Yi Dong-nyeong Ahn Changho Yi Dong-nyeong Hong Jin Kim Koo Yi Dong-nyeong Song Byeong-jo Yi Dong-nyeong Kim Koo Syngman Rhee

Divided Korea (since 1945)

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

Supreme Leaders

Kim Il-sung Kim Jong-il Kim Jong-un

Heads of state

Kim Tu-bong Choe Yong-gon Kim Il-sung Yang Hyong-sop Kim Yong-nam

Heads of government

Kim Il-sung Kim Il Pak Song-chol Ri Jong-ok Kang Song-san Ri Kun-mo Yon Hyong-muk Kang Song-san Hong Song-nam Hong Song-nam Pak Pong-ju Kim Yong-il Choe Yong-rim Pak Pong-ju

Republic of Korea

Heads of state and      government

Syngman Rhee Heo Jeong Kwak Sang-hoon Baek Nak-jun Yun Posun Park Chung-hee Park Chung-hee Choi Kyu-hah Choi Kyu-hah Pak Choong-hoon Chun Doo-hwan Roh Tae-woo Kim Young-sam Kim Dae-jung Roh Moo-hyun Goh Kun Roh Moo-hyun Lee Myung-bak Park Geun-hye Hwang Kyo-ahn Moon Jae-in

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla
Guerrilla
war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam
Vietnam
War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam
Vietnam
War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Kim dynasty of North Korea

Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
(1912–1994) Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
(1941–2011) Kim Jong-un
Kim Jong-un
(1984–)

1st generation

Kim Hyong-jik
Kim Hyong-jik
(Kim Il-sung's father) Kang Pan-sok
Kang Pan-sok
(Kim Il-sung's mother)

2nd generation

Kim Jong-suk
Kim Jong-suk
(Kim Il-sung's first wife, Jong-il's mother) Kim Yong-ju (Kim Il-sung's brother) Kim Song-ae (Kim Il-sung's second wife)

3rd generation

Hong Il-chon (Kim Jong-il's first wife, divorced) Song Hye-rim (Kim Jong-il's first mistress) Kim Man-il (Kim Jong-il's brother) Jang Song-thaek
Jang Song-thaek
(Kim Jong-il's brother-in-law) Kim Kyong-hui
Kim Kyong-hui
(Kim Jong-il's sister) Kim Young-sook (Kim Jong-il's wife) Ko Yong-hui
Ko Yong-hui
(Kim Jong-il's second mistress, Jong-un's mother) Kim Pyong-il
Kim Pyong-il
(Kim Jong-il's half-brother) Kim Ok
Kim Ok
(Kim Jong-il's third mistress)

4th generation

Kim Yo-jong
Kim Yo-jong
(Kim Jong-un's sister) Kim Jong-chul (Kim Jong-un's brother) Kim Sul-song (Kim Jong-un's half-sister) Kim Jong-nam
Kim Jong-nam
(Kim Jong-un's half-brother) Ri Sol-ju (Kim Jong-un's wife)

5th generation

Kim Ju-ae (Kim Jong-un's daughter) Kim Han-sol (Kim Jong-nam's son)

v t e

Works by Kim Il-sung

On the establishment of the Workers' Party of North Korea
North Korea
and the question of founding the Workers' Party of South Korea
South Korea
(1946) On eliminating dogmatism and formalism and establishing Juche
Juche
in ideological work (1955) Theses on the Socialist Rural Question in Our Country (1964) Answers to the Questions Raised by the Iraqi Journalists' Delegation (1971) For the Development of the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(1986) For a Free and a Peaceful New World (1991) 10 Point Programme for the Great Unity of the Whole Nation for the Reunification of the Country (1993) With the Century
With the Century
(1993)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 108235077 LCCN: n79032857 ISNI: 0000 0001 1557 5630 GND: 118562126 SELIBR: 193503 SUDOC: 026949563 BNF: cb11909750h (data) MusicBrainz: 7124a2d1-3b20-470c-b621-17a571aefca6 NDL: 00181025 NCL: 000605112 BNE: XX917726 SN

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