Kim Hyŏng-jik (10 July 1894 – 5 June 1926) was a Korean
independence activist. He was the father of North Korean founder Kim
Il-sung, grandfather of Kim Jong-il, and great-grandfather of the
current leader of North Korea, Kim Jong-un.
Little is known about Kim. Born on 10 July 1894, in the small
village of Mangyungdai, situated atop a peak called "Mungyungbong"
("All-Seeing Peak") just 12 kilometers downstream on the Diadong River
from Pyongyang, Kim was the son of Kim Bo-hyon (金輔鉉,
1871–1955). Kim attended Sungshil School, which was run by
American missionaries, and became a teacher and later an herbal
pharmacist. He died as a result of numerous medical problems,
including third-degree frostbite.
Kim and his wife attended
Christian churches, and Kim even served
as a part-time
Protestant missionary. It was reported that his son,
Kim Il-sung, attended church services during his teenage years before
becoming an atheist later in life.
Kim Il-sung often spoke of his father's idea of chiwŏn (righteous
Kim Jong-il's official government biography states that his
grandfather was "the leader of the anti-Japanese national liberation
movement and was a pioneer in shifting the direction from the
nationalist movement to the communist movement in Korea".[citation
needed] This is widely disputed among foreign academics and
independent sources, who claim that Kim's opposition was little more
than general grievances with life under Japanese occupation.[citation
Kim Il-sung claimed his ancestors, including his grandfather
Kim Bo-hyon and great-grandfather Kim Ung-u (1848–1878), were
involved in the General Sherman incident, but this is also disputed
and believed to be a fabrication.
Select[α] family tree of North Korea's ruling[β] Kim
^ To keep the tree of manageable size, it omits some members, e. g.,
brothers and sisters of Kim Jong-il.
^ Names of Supreme Leaders of the DPRK (and the name of the article
being viewed, if any) are in bold font.
^ Korean names often have a variety of transliterations into English,
which can be confusing. For example, "Kim Jong-chul" may also be
written "Gim Jeong-cheol" or "Kim Jŏng-ch'ŏl" among many other
Korean romanization for more information.
^ Huss, Kan; Frost, Clay. "North Korea's First Family: Mapping the
personal and political drama of the Kim clan". msnbc.com. Retrieved 20
January 2013. (Confirms many, but not all, of the birth and
death years. See individual articles for more references.)
^ Yan, Holly (16 February 2017). "The world's most mysterious family
tree: Kim Jong Un's secretive dynasty is full of drama, death". Design
by Alberto Mier. CNN. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
^ a b c Official biographies of
Kim Jong-suk and
Kim Jong-il give
birth years of 1917 and 1942, respectively.
Kim Ju-ae may have been
born in late 2012 or early 2013.
^ Baik Bpong, Kim Il Sung, Volume I: From Birth to the Triumphant
Return to the Homeland (Dar al-Talia Publishers: Beirut Lebanon, 1973)
^ Hyung-chan Kim (2003). "Kim Jong Il's North
Korea and Its
Korea and World Affairs. Korea: Pʻyŏnghwa Tʻongil
Yŏnʼguso. 27: 251. ISSN 0251-3072. OCLC 3860590. One also
has to accept the existence of Kim Bo-hyeon (1871–1955), Kim
Il-sung's grandfather, who participated in anti-Japanese
^ Gourevitch, Philip (September 8, 2003). "Alone in the dark". The New
Yorker. Archived from the original on December 30, 2013.
^ a b "Kim Il Sung killer file". Moreorless : Heroes and killers
of the 20th century. Archived from the original on 2005-12-05.
^ Lankov, Andrei (2011-08-17). "Kim Il-sung: disastrous founder of
communist N. Korea".
Korea Times. Retrieved 2016-08-02.
April 15th Writing Staff, Central Committee of Korean Writers' Union.
Dawn of a New Age: A Novel. 1. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing
House. OCLC 154676863.
The Party History Institute of the C. C. Of the Workers' Party of
Korea (1973). Kim Hyong Jik: Indomitable Anti-Japanese Revolutionary
Fighter. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House.
Ponghwa Revolutionary Site. The Korean Preparatory Committee for the
13th WFTYS. 1988. KPEA 2JB070.
Kim dynasty of North Korea
Kim Il-sung (1912–1994)
Kim Jong-il (1941–2011)
Kim Jong-un (1984–)
Kim Hyong-jik (Kim Il-sung's father)
Kang Pan-sok (Kim Il-sung's mother)
Kim Jong-suk (Kim Il-sung's first wife, Jong-il's mother)
Kim Yong-ju (Kim Il-sung's brother)
Kim Song-ae (Kim Il-sung's second wife)
Hong Il-chon (Kim Jong-il's first wife, divorced)
Song Hye-rim (Kim Jong-il's first mistress)
Kim Man-il (Kim Jong-il's brother)
Jang Song-thaek (Kim Jong-il's brother-in-law)
Kim Kyong-hui (Kim Jong-il's sister)
Kim Young-sook (Kim Jong-il's wife)
Ko Yong-hui (Kim Jong-il's second mistress, Jong-un's mother)
Kim Pyong-il (Kim Jong-il's half-brother)
Kim Ok (Kim Jong-il's third mistress)
Kim Yo-jong (Kim Jong-un's sister)
Kim Jong-chul (Kim Jong-un's brother)
Kim Sul-song (Kim Jong-un's half-sister)
Kim Jong-nam (Kim Jong-un's half-brother)
Ri Sol-ju (Kim Jong-un's wife)
Kim Ju-ae (Kim Jong-un's daughter)
Kim Han-sol (Kim Jong-nam's son)