KIEV (/ˈkiːɛf, -ɛv/ ) or KYIV (Ukrainian : Київ, _Kyjiv_
(_ listen );
Old East Slavic
Old East Slavic : Кыѥвъ, Kyjev_; Russian : Киев,
_Kijev_ ) is the capital and largest city of
Ukraine , located in the
north central part of the country on the
Dnieper River . The
population in July 2015 was 2,887,974 (though higher estimated
numbers have been cited in the press), making
Kiev the 7th most
populous city in Europe .
Kiev is an important industrial, scientific , educational, and
cultural centre of Eastern Europe. It is home to many high-tech
industries, higher education institutions and world-famous historical
landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and highly
developed system of public transport, including the
Kiev Metro .
The city's name is said to derive from the name of Kyi , one of its
four legendary founders (see Name , below). During its history , Kiev,
one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several
stages of great prominence and relative obscurity. The city probably
existed as a commercial centre as early as the 5th century. A Slavic
settlement on the great trade route between
Kiev was a tributary of the
Khazars , until seized
Vikings ) in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian
rule, the city became a capital of the Kievan Rus\' , the first East
Slavic state. Completely destroyed during the Mongol invasion in 1240,
the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was
a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the
territories controlled by its powerful neighbours; first the Grand
Lithuania , followed by
The city prospered again during the
Russian Empire 's Industrial
Revolution in the late 19th century. In 1917, after the Ukrainian
National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, Kiev
became its capital. From 1919
Kiev was an important center of the
Armed Forces of South Russia and was controlled by the
White Army .
From 1921 onwards
Kiev was a city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist
Republic , which was proclaimed by the
Red Army , and, from 1934, Kiev
was its capital. During World War II , the city again suffered
significant damage, but quickly recovered in the post-war years,
remaining the third largest city of the
Soviet Union .
Following the collapse of the
Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence
Kiev remained the capital of
Ukraine and experienced a steady
migration influx of ethnic
Ukrainians from other regions of the
country. During the country's transformation to a market economy and
electoral democracy ,
Kiev has continued to be Ukraine's largest and
richest city. Kiev's armament-dependent industrial output fell after
the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology. But
new sectors of the economy such as services and finance facilitated
Kiev's growth in salaries and investment, as well as providing
continuous funding for the development of housing and urban
Kiev emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine
where parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union
dominate during elections .
* 1 Name
* 2 History
* 3 Environment
* 3.1 Geography
* 4 Legal status, local government and politics
* 4.1 Legal status and local government
* 4.2 Politics
* 4.3 Subdivisions
* 4.3.1 Traditional subdivision
* 4.3.2 Formal subdivision
* 5 Demographics
* 5.1 Historical population
* 5.2 Ethnic composition
* 5.3 Jewish community
* 6 Cityscape
* 7.1 Attractions
* 7.2 Museums and galleries
* 7.3 Sports
* 7.4 Tourism
* 8 Economy
* 8.2 Manufacture
* 9 Education and science
* 9.1 Scientific research
* 9.2 University education
* 9.3 Secondary education
* 9.4 Public libraries
* 10 Transportation
* 10.1 Local public transport
* 10.2 Roads and bridges
* 10.3 Air transport
* 10.4 Railways
* 11 International relations
Twin towns and sister cities
* 11.2 Other cooperation agreements
* 12 Honour
* 13 References
* 14 External links
_ A fragment of Russiae, Moscoviae et Tartariae_ map by Anthony
London 1562) published by Ortelius in 1570.
Currently, _Kiev_ is the traditional and most commonly used English
name for the city, but in 1995 the Ukrainian government adopted
_Kyiv_ as the mandatory romanization for use in legislative and
As a prominent city with a long history, its English name was subject
to gradual evolution. The early English spelling was derived from Old
East Slavic form _Kyjev_ (Cyrillic : Къıєвъ ). The name is
associated with that of Kyi (Кий), the legendary eponymous founder
of the city.
Early English sources use various names, including _Kiou_, _Kiow_,
_Kiew_, _Kiovia_. On one of the oldest English maps of the region,
_Russiae, Moscoviae et Tartariae_ published by Ortelius (London, 1570)
the name of the city is spelled _Kiou_. On the 1650 map by Guillaume
de Beauplan , the name of the city is _Kiiow_, and the region was
named _Kÿowia_. In the book _Travels_, by Joseph Marshall (London,
1772), the city is referred to as _Kiovia_. The name _Kiev_ that
started to take hold at later times is based on Russian orthography
and pronunciation , during a time when
Kiev was in the Russian Empire
(from 1708, a seat of a governorate ). A fragment from an 1804
John Cary 's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities"
published in "Cary's new universal atlas", London, 1808
In English, _Kiev_ was used in print as early as in 1804 in the John
Cary 's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities" in "Cary's
new universal atlas" published in London. The English travelogue
titled _New Russia: Journey from
Riga to the
Crimea by way of Kiev_,
by Mary Holderness was published in 1823. By 1883, the Oxford English
Dictionary included _Kiev_ in a quotation.
Kiev City State
Administration official request for
Wikimedia Foundation to switch to
proper use of the city's name KYIV, not
_Kyiv_ () is the romanized version of the name of the city used in
modern Ukrainian . Following independence in 1991, the Ukrainian
government introduced the national rules for transliteration of
geographic names from Ukrainian into English. According to the rules,
the Ukrainian Київ transliterates into _Kyiv_. This has
established the use of the spelling _Kyiv_ in all official documents
issued by the governmental authorities since October 1995. The
spelling is used by the United Nations, all English-speaking foreign
diplomatic missions , several international organizations, Encarta
encyclopedia , and by some media in Ukraine. In October 2006, the
United States federal government changed its official spelling of the
city name to _Kyiv_, upon the recommendation of the US Board of
Geographic Names. The British government has also started using Kyiv.
The alternate romanizations _Kyyiv_ (BGN/PCGN transliteration) and
_Kyjiv_ (scholarly) are also in use in English-language atlases. Most
major English-language news sources like the
The Economist ,
New York Times
New York Times continue to prefer _Kiev_.
History of Kiev ,
Timeline of Kiev , Principality of
Kiev , and
Grand Prince of Kiev Map sketch of the Upper
Paleolithic Art in Europe Kyi, Shchek, Khoryv and Lybid in the
Kiev is one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe and has played a
pivotal role in the development of the medieval East Slavic
civilization as well as in the modern Ukrainian nation .
There is debate when the city was founded, some believe that
founded in the late 9th century, other historians have preferred a
date of 482 AD. In 1982, the city celebrated its 1,500th
anniversary. The first humans on the territory of
Kiev can be traced
to the late paleolithic period (
Stone Age ). Population of Kiev
Bronze Age was part of so-called
Tripillian culture to that
point out selected objects found in the area. During period of early
Iron Age around
Kiev lived settled tribes practicing land cultivation,
husbandry and trading with
Scythians and ancient states of the
Black Sea coast. Trade relations with the eastern provinces
Roman Empire are ascertained with findings of Roman coins of
the 2-4th centuries. Direct ancestors of ancient
Slavs that later
Kiev are considered the carriers of
Zarubintsy culture .
Among notable archaeologists of area around
Vikentiy Khvoyka .
The origin of the city is obscured by legends, one of which tells
about a founding-family consisting of a Slavic tribe (Polans ) leader
Kyi, the eldest, his brothers Shchek and Khoryv, and also their sister
Lybid, who founded the city (The
Primary Chronicle ). According to it
the name Kyiv/
Kiev means to "belong to Kyi". According to
archaeological data, the foundation of
Kiev dates to the second half
of the 5th century and the first half of the 6th century. Some claim
to find reference to the city in Ptolemy’s work as the Metropolity
(the 2nd century). Another legend states that
Saint Andrew passed
through the area and where he erected a cross, a church was built.
Also since the
Middle Ages an image of Saint Michael represented the
city as well as the duchy. The
Kiev in 830 (by Pál
Vágó); also see: Rus\' Khaganate .
There is little historical evidence pertaining to the period when the
city was founded. Scattered Slavic settlements existed in the area
from the 6th century, but it is unclear whether any of them later
developed into the city. 8th-century fortifications were built upon a
Slavic settlement apparently abandoned some decades before. It is
still unclear whether these fortifications were built by the
Khazars . If it was the
Slavic peoples then it is also uncertain
Kiev fell under the rule of the Khazar empire or whether the city
was, in fact, founded by the Khazars. The
Primary Chronicle (a main
source of information about the early history of the area) mentions
Slavic Kievans telling
Askold and Dir
Askold and Dir that they live without a local
ruler and pay a tribute to the
Khazars in an event attributed to the
9th century. At least during the 8th and 9th centuries
as an outpost of the Khazar empire. A hill-fortress, called Sambat
(Old Turkic for "High Place") was built to defend the area. At some
point during the late 9th or early 10th century
Kiev fell under the
Askold and Dir
Askold and Dir , and
Oleg of Novgorod ) and
became the nucleus of the Rus' polity. The date given for Oleg's
conquest of the town in the
Primary Chronicle is 882, but some
historians, such as
Omeljan Pritsak and
Constantine Zuckerman ,
dispute this and maintain that Khazar rule continued as late as the
920s (documentary evidence exists to support this assertion – see
Kievian Letter and
Schechter Letter .) Other historians suggest
that the Magyar tribes ruled the city between 840 and 878, before
migrating with some Khazar tribes to
Hungary . According to these the
building of the fortress of
Kiev was finished in 840 by the lead of
Keő (Keve), Csák and Geréb, the three brothers, possibly members of
the Tarján tribe (the three names are mentioned in the
as Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv, none of them are Slavic names and it has
been always a hard problem to solve their meaning/origin by Russian
historians. Their names were put into the
Kiev Chronicle in the 12th
century and they were identified as old-Russian mythological heroes).
_ The Baptism of Kievans_, a painting by
During the 8th and 9th centuries,
Kiev was an outpost of the Khazar
empire. However, being located on the historical trade route from the
Varangians to the Greeks and starting in the late 9th century or early
Kiev was ruled by the Varangian nobility and became the
nucleus of the Rus\' polity, whose 'Golden Age' (11th to early 12th
centuries) has from the 19th century become referred to as Kievan
Rus\' . In 968, the nomadic
Pechenegs attacked and then besieged the
city . In 1000 AD the city had a population of 45,000. During 1169,
Andrey Bogolyubsky sacked
Kiev taking many pieces of
religious artwork including the _
Theotokos of Vladimir _ icon from
Vyshhorod . In 1203
Kiev was captured and burned by Prince Rurik
Rostislavich and his Kipchak allies. In the 1230s the city was
besieged and ravaged by different Rus' princes several times. In 1240
the Mongol invasion of Rus\' led by
Batu Khan completely destroyed
Kiev , an event that had a profound effect on the future of the city
and the East Slavic civilization . At the time of the Mongol
Kiev was reputed as one of the largest cities in the
world, with a population exceeding 100,000 in the beginning of the
early 12th century. _
Bolesław I of Poland and Sviatopolk the
Accursed at Kiev, in a legendary moment of hitting the Golden Gate
Szczerbiec _ sword. Painting by
Jan Matejko _ Bohdan
Khmelnytsky Entering Kiev_ by Mykola Ivasiuk German language
sketch of Kiovia, 1686
In the early 1320s, a Lithuanian army led by
Gediminas defeated a
Slavic army led by Stanislav of
Kiev at the Battle on the Irpen\'
River , and conquered the city. The Tatars, who also claimed Kiev,
retaliated in 1324–1325, so while
Kiev was ruled by a Lithuanian
prince, it had to pay a tribute to the
Golden Horde . Finally, as a
result of the
Battle of Blue Waters in 1362,
Kiev and surrounding
areas were incorporated into the
Grand Duchy of Lithuania by Algirdas
, Grand Duke of Lithuania. In 1482, the Crimean
Tatars sacked and
burned much of Kiev. In 1569 (
Union of Lublin ), when the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was established, the
Lithuanian-controlled lands of the
Kiev region, Podolia, Volhynia, and
Podlachia, were transferred from the
Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the
Crown of the Kingdom of Poland , and
Kiev became the capital of Kiev
Voivodeship . In 1658 (
Treaty of Hadiach ),
Kiev was supposed to
become the capital of the Duchy of Rus\' within the
Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth , but the treaty was
never ratified to this extent. Kept by the Russian troops since 1654
Treaty of Pereyaslav ), it became a part of the Tsardom of Russia
from 1667 on (
Truce of Andrusovo ) and enjoyed a degree of autonomy.
None of the Polish-Russian treaties concerning
Kiev have ever been
ratified. In the
Kiev was a primary Christian centre,
attracting pilgrims , and the cradle of many of the empire's most
important religious figures, but until the 19th century the city's
commercial importance remained marginal.
In 1834, the Saint Vladimir University was established; it is now
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev after the
Taras Shevchenko . Shevchenko was a field researcher
and editor for the geography department.The medical faculty of the
Saint Vladimir University has been separated into an independent
institution during the Soviet period and is called now Bogomolets
National Medical University .
During the 18th and 19th centuries city life was dominated by the
Russian military and ecclesiastical authorities; the Russian Orthodox
Church formed a significant part of Kiev's infrastructure and business
activity. In the late 1840s, the historian, Mykola Kostomarov
_(Russian : Nikolay Kostomarov)_, founded a secret political society,
the Brotherhood of Saint Cyril and Methodius , whose members put
forward the idea of a federation of free Slavic people with Ukrainians
as a distinct and separate group rather than a subordinate part of the
Russian nation; the society was quickly suppressed by the authorities.
Following the gradual loss of Ukraine's autonomy,
growing Russification in the 19th century by means of Russian
migration, administrative actions and social modernization. At the
beginning of the 20th century, the city centre was dominated by the
Russian-speaking part of the population, while the lower classes
living on the outskirts retained Ukrainian folk culture to a
significant extent. However, enthusiasts among ethnic Ukrainian
nobles, military and merchants made recurrent attempts to preserve
native culture in
Kiev (by clandestine book-printing, amateur theatre,
folk studies etc.)
Kiev in the late 19th century
During the Russian industrial revolution in the late 19th century,
Kiev became an important trade and transportation centre of the
Russian Empire , specialising in sugar and grain export by railway and
Dnieper river. By 1900, the city had also become a significant
industrial centre, having a population of 250,000. Landmarks of that
period include the railway infrastructure, the foundation of numerous
educational and cultural facilities as well as notable architectural
monuments (mostly merchant-oriented). The first electric tram line of
Russian Empire was established in
Kiev (arguably, the first in the
Kiev prospered during the late 19th century
Industrial Revolution in
Russian Empire , when it became the third most important city of
the Empire and the major centre of commerce of its southwest. In the
turbulent period following the 1917 Russian Revolution ,
the capital of several short-lived Ukrainian states and was caught in
the middle of several conflicts:
World War I
World War I , during which it was
occupied by German soldiers from 2 March 1918 to November 1918, the
Russian Civil War , and the
Polish–Soviet War .
Kiev changed hands
sixteen times from the end of 1918 to August 1920. Kiev's
council chambers in 1930
Starting in 1921, the city was a part of the Ukrainian Soviet
Socialist Republic , a founding republic of the
Soviet Union . Kiev
was greatly affected by all the major processes that took place in
Ukraine during the interwar period : the 1920s
well as the migration of the rural Ukrainophone population made the
Russophone city Ukrainian-speaking and propped up the development of
the Ukrainian cultural life in the city; the Soviet Industrialization
that started in the late 1920s turned the city, a former centre of
commerce and religion, into a major industrial, technological and
scientific centre, the 1932–1933 Great Famine devastated the part of
the migrant population not registered for the ration cards, and Joseph
Great Purge of 1937–1938 almost eliminated the city's
Kiev became the capital of Soviet Ukraine. The city boomed
again during the years of the Soviet industrialization as its
population grew rapidly and many industrial giants were created, some
of which exist to this day. Ruins of Kiev, as seen during World
In World War II , the city again suffered significant damage, and was
Nazi Germany from 19 September 1941 to 6 November 1943 .
More than 600,000 Soviet soldiers were killed or captured in the great
encirclement Battle of
Kiev in 1941. Most of those captured never
returned alive. Shortly after the city was occupied, a team of NKVD
officers that had remained hidden dynamited most of the buildings on
the Khreshchatyk, the main street of the city, most of whose buildings
were being used by German military and civil authorities; the
buildings burned for days and 25,000 people were left homeless.
Allegedly in response to the actions of the NKVD, the Germans rounded
up all the local Jews they could find, nearly 34,000, and massacred
Babi Yar over the course of 29–30 September 1941. In the
months that followed, thousands more were taken to
Babi Yar where they
were shot. It is estimated that more than 100,000 people of various
ethnic groups, mostly civilians, were murdered by the Germans there
during World War II. The Ukrainian national flag was raised
outside Kiev's City Hall for the first time on 24 July 1990
Kiev recovered economically in the post-war years, becoming once
again the third most important city of the Soviet Union. The
catastrophic accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986
occurred only 100 km (62 mi) north of the city. However, the
prevailing northward winds blew most of the radioactive debris away
from the city.
In the wake of the collapse of the
Soviet Union the Declaration of
Ukraine was proclaimed in the city by the Ukrainian
parliament on 24 August 1991. In 2004–2005, the city played host to
until then the largest post-Soviet public demonstrations, in support
Orange Revolution . From November 2013 until February 2014,
Kiev was the primary location of
Landsat 7 image of
Kiev and the
Kiev belongs to the
Polesia ecological zone (a part
of the European mixed woods). However, the city's unique landscape
distinguishes it from the surrounding region.
Kiev is completely
Kiev Oblast .
Kiev is located on both sides of the
Dnieper River , which flows
south through the city towards the
Black Sea . The older right-bank
(_western_) part of the city is represented by numerous woody hills,
ravines and small rivers. It is a part of the larger
adjoining the western bank of the
Dnieper in its mid-flow. Kiev
expanded to the Dnieper's lowland left bank (_to the east_) only in
the 20th century. Significant areas of the left-bank
were artificially sand-deposited, and are protected by dams.
Dnieper River forms a branching system of tributaries , isles,
and harbors within the city limits. The city is adjoined by the mouth
Desna River and the
Kiev Reservoir in the north, and the Kaniv
Reservoir in the south. Both the
Dnieper and Desna rivers are
navigable at Kiev, although regulated by the reservoir shipping locks
and limited by winter freeze-over.
In total, there are 448 bodies of open water within the boundaries of
Kiev, which include
Dnieper itself, its reservoirs, and several small
rivers, dozens of lakes and artificially created ponds. They occupy
7949 hectares of territory. Additionally, the city boasts of 16
developed beaches (totalling 140 hectares) and 35 near-water
recreational areas (covering more than 1000 hectares). Many are used
for pleasure and recreation, although some of the bodies of water are
not suitable for swimming.
According to the UN 2011 evaluation, there were no risks of natural
Kiev and its metropolitan area
Kiev has a humid continental climate (Köppen _Dfb_). The warmest
months are June, July, and August, with mean temperatures of 13.8 to
24.8 °C (56.8 to 76.6 °F). The coldest are December, January, and
February, with mean temperatures of −4.6 to −1.1 °C (23.7 to 30.0
°F). The highest ever temperature recorded in the city was 39.4 °C
(102.9 °F) on 30 July 1936. The coldest temperature ever recorded
in the city was −32.9 °C (−27.2 °F) on 11 January 1951. Snow
cover usually lies from mid-November to the end of March, with the
frost-free period lasting 180 days on average, but surpassing 200 days
in recent years.
CLIMATE DATA FOR KIEV (1981–2010, EXTREMES 1881–PRESENT)
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net, Central Observatory for Geophysics
Danish Meteorological Institute (sun, 1931–1960)
LEGAL STATUS, LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
LEGAL STATUS AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT
Legal status and local government of Kiev
The municipality of the city of
Kiev has a special legal status
Ukraine compared to the other administrative subdivisions of
the country . The most significant difference is that the city is
considered as a region of
Ukraine (see Regions of
Ukraine ). It is the
only city that has double jurisdiction. The Head of City State
Administration — the city's governor, is appointed by the President
Ukraine , while the Head of the City Council — the Mayor of Kiev
, is elected by a local popular vote.
Mayor of Kiev
Mayor of Kiev is
Vitali Klitschko who was sworn in on 5
June 2014; after he had won the 25 May 2014
Kiev mayoral elections
with almost 57% of the votes. Since 25 June 2014 Klitschko is also
Head of Kiev City Administration .
Most important buildings of the national government (Cabinet of
Verkhovna Rada , others) are located along vulytsia Mykhaila
Hrushevskoho (Mykhailo Hrushevsky Street ) and vulytsia Instytutska
Hrushevskoho Street is named after the Ukrainian
academician, politician, historian, and statesman Mykhailo Hrushevskyi
, who wrote an academic book titled: "Bar Starostvo: Historical Notes:
XV-XVIII" about the history of Bar,
Ukraine . That portion of the
city is also unofficially known as the government quarter (Ukrainian :
урядовий квартал). The city also has a great number of
buildings for various embassies, ministerial and other important
The city state administration and council is located in the Kiev
City's council building on
Khreshchatyk Street. The oblast state
administration and council is located in the
Kiev Oblast council
building on ploshcha Lesi Ukrayinky (Lesya Ukrayinka Square). The
Sviatoshyn Raion state administration is located near Kiltseva
doroha (Ring Road) on prospekt Peremohy (Victory Parkway), while the
Raion local council is located on vulytsia Yantarna
GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS IN KIEV
The seat of the Cabinet of Ministers of
The presidential administration 's building
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The seat of
Kiev City State and City Council on Khreshchatyk
Kiev local election, 2015
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it .
The growing political and economic role of the city, combined with
its international relations, as well as extensive internet and social
network penetration , have made
Kiev the most pro-Western and
pro-democracy region of Ukraine; (so called) National Democratic
parties advocating tighter integration with the
European Union receive
most votes during elections in Kiev. In a poll conducted by the
Kiev International Institute of Sociology in the first half of
February 2014, 5.3% of those polled in
Kiev believed "
Russia must unite into a single state", nationwide this percentage was
View to left bank neighbourhoods of
Kiev See also:
Category:Neighborhoods and raions of
Kiev Main article: Subdivisions
Dnieper River naturally divides
Kiev into the Right Bank and the
Left Bank areas. Historically located on the western right bank of the
river, the city expanded into the left bank only in the 20th century.
Most of Kiev's attractions as well as the majority of business and
governmental institutions are located on the right bank. The eastern
'Left Bank' is predominantly residential. There are large industrial
and green areas in both the Right Bank and the Left Bank.
Kiev is further informally divided into historical or territorial
neighbourhoods, each housing from about 5,000 to 100,000 inhabitants.
A panoramic view of Right-Bank Kiev, where the city centre is
located (May 2011)
The ten raions (districts) of
RIGHT-BANK DISTRICTS _Г_ —
Holosiiv Raion _О_ —
Pechersk Raion _Под_ —
Podil Raion _Ш_ —
Raion _Св_ —
Sviatoshyn Raion _Сол_ — Solomianka
LEFT-BANK DISTRICTS _Дар_ —
Darnytsia Raion _Дес_ — Desna
Raion _Дн_ —
The first known formal subdivision of
Kiev dates to 1810 when the
city was subdivided into 4 parts: Pechersk , Starokyiv, and the first
and the second parts of
Podil . In 1833–1834 according to Tsar
Nicholas I 's decree,
Kiev was subdivided into 6 police raions
(districts); later being increased to 10. In 1917, there were 8 Raion
Councils (_Duma_), which were reorganised by bolsheviks into 6
During the Soviet era, as the city was expanding, the number of
raions also gradually increased. These newer districts of the city,
along with some older areas were then named in honour of prominent
communists and socialist-revolutionary figures; however, due to the
way in which many communist party members eventually, after a certain
period of time, fell out of favour and so were replaced with new,
fresher minds, so too did the names of Kiev's districts change
The last raion reform took place in 2001 when the number of raions
has been decreased from 14 to 10.
Oleksandr Omelchenko (mayor from 1999 to 2006), there were
further plans for the merger of some raions and revision of their
boundaries, and the total number of raions had been planned to be
decreased from 10 to 7. With the election of the new mayor-elect
(Leonid Chernovetsky ) in 2006, these plans were shelved.
Each raion has its own locally elected government with jurisdiction
over a limited scope of affairs.
Kiev metropolitan area
According to the official registration statistics, there were
2,847,200 residents within the city limits of
Kiev in July 2013.
at 1 January of respective year.
According to the All-Ukrainian Census , the population of
2001 was 2,611,300. The historic changes in population are shown in
the side table. According to the census men accounted for 1,219,000
persons, or 46.7%, and women for 1,393,000 persons, or 53.3%.
Comparing the results with the previous census (1989) shows the trend
of population ageing which, while prevalent throughout the country, is
partly offset in
Kiev by the inflow of working age migrants. Some
1,069,700 people had higher or completed secondary education, a
significant increase of 21.7% since 1989.
The June 2007 unofficial population estimate based on amount of
bakery products sold in the city (thus including temporary visitors
and commuters) gave a number of at least 3.5 million people.
According to the 2001 census data, more than 130 nationalities and
ethnic groups reside within the territory of Kiev. Ukrainians
constitute the largest ethnic group in Kiev, and they account for
2,110,800 people, or 82.2% of the population.
337,300 (13.1%), Jews 17,900 (0.7%),
Belarusians 16,500 (0.6%), Poles
Armenians 4,900 (0.2%), Azerbaijanis 2,600 (0.1%),
Tatars 2,500 (0.1%),
Georgians 2,400 (0.1%),
Moldovans 1,900 (0.1%).
Both Ukrainian and Russian are commonly spoken in the city;
approximately 75% of Kiev's population responded "Ukrainian" to the
2001 census question on their native language, roughly 25% responded
"Russian". According to a 2006 survey, Ukrainian is used at home by
23% of Kievans, 52% use Russian and 24% switch between both. In the
2003 sociological survey, when the question 'What language do you use
in everyday life?' was asked, 52% said 'mostly Russian', 32% 'both
Russian and Ukrainian in equal measure', 14% 'mostly Ukrainian', and
4.3% 'exclusively Ukrainian'.
According to the census of 1897, of Kiev's approximately 240,000
people approximately 56% of the population spoke the Russian language,
23% spoke the Ukrainian language, 13% spoke Yiddish, 7% spoke Polish
and 1% spoke the Belarusian language.
Most of the city's population of Muslims comprises Tatars, Caucasians
and other people from the former
Soviet Union . The Ar-Rahma Mosque
was built in 2000.
A 2015 study by the
International Republican Institute found that 94%
Kiev was ethnic Ukrainian, and 5% ethnic Russian. The languages
spoken at home were Ukrainian (27%), Russian (32%), and an equal
combination of Ukrainian and Russian (40%).
History of the Jews in Kiev
The Jews in
Kiev are first mentioned in a 10th century letter . They
experienced several pogroms, including the
Babi Yar massacre during
Holocaust . Today there are approximately 20,000 Jews in Kiev,
with two major synagogues: the
Great Choral Synagogue and the Brodsky
Choral Synagogue .
See also: Category:Buildings and structures in
panoramic view of
Podil , one of Kiev's central neighborhoods.
Kiev is a mix of the old (
Kiev preserved about 70 percent of
more than 1,000 buildings built during 1907–1914 ) and the new, seen
in everything from the architecture to the stores and to the people
themselves. When the capital of the
Ukrainian SSR was moved from
Kiev many new buildings were commissioned to give the city
"the gloss and polish of a capital". In the discussions centered on
how to create a showcase city center the current city center of
Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square) were not
the obvious choices. Some of the early, ultimately not materialised,
ideas included a part of Pechersk ,
Lypky , European Square and
Mykhailivska Square . The plans of building massive monuments (of
Vladimir Lenin and
Joseph Stalin ) were also abandoned; due to lack of
money (in the 1930s–1950s) and because of Kiev's hilly landscape.
Experiencing rapid population growth between the 1970s and the
mid-1990s, the city has continued its consistent growth after the turn
of the millennium. As a result, Kiev's central districts provide a
dotted contrast of new, modern buildings among the pale yellows, blues
and greys of older apartments. Urban sprawl has gradually reduced,
while population densities of suburbs has increased. The most
expensive properties are located in the Pechersk, and Khreshchatyk
areas. It is also prestigious to own a property in newly constructed
buildings in the Kharkivskyi
Raion or Obolon along the Dnieper. A
public concert held on
Maidan Nezalezhnosti during Kiev's 2005
Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
Ukrainian independence at the turn of the millennium has heralded
other changes. Western-style residential complexes, modern nightclubs
, classy restaurants and prestigious hotels opened in the centre. And
most importantly, with the easing of the visa rules in 2005, Ukraine
is positioning itself as a prime tourist attraction, with Kiev, among
the other large cities, looking to profit from new opportunities. The
Kiev has been cleaned up and buildings have been restored
and redecorated, especially
Khreshchatyk and Maidan Nezalezhnosti.
Many historic areas of Kiev, such as
Andriyivskyy Descent , have
become popular street vendor locations, where one can find traditional
Ukrainian art , religious items, books, game sets (most commonly chess
) as well as jewellery for sale.
At the United Nations
Climate Change Conference 2009
Kiev was the
Commonwealth of Independent States city to have been inscribed
into the TOP30 European Green City Index (placed 30th).
Kiev's most famous historical architecture complexes are the St.
Sophia Cathedral and the
Kiev Pechersk Lavra (Monastery of the Caves),
which are recognized by
UNESCO as a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site . Noteworthy
historical architectural landmarks also include the Mariyinsky Palace
(designed and constructed from 1745 to 1752, then reconstructed in
1870), several Orthodox churches such as St. Michael\'s Cathedral ,
St. Andrew\'s , St. Vladimir\'s , the reconstructed Golden Gate and
One of Kiev's widely recognized modern landmarks is the highly
visible giant Mother Motherland statue made of titanium standing at
the Museum of The History of
Ukraine in World War II on the Right bank
Dnieper River . Other notable sites is the cylindrical Salut
hotel, located across from Glory Square and the eternal flame at the
World War Two memorial
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier , and the House
with Chimaeras .
Among Kiev's best-known monuments are
Mikhail Mikeshin 's statue of
Bohdan Khmelnytsky astride his horse located near St. Sophia Cathedral
, the venerated Vladimir the Great (St. Vladimir), the baptizer of
Rus\' , overlooking the river above
Volodymyrska Hill , the
Kyi, Schek and Khoryv and Lybid, the legendary founders of
the city located at the
Dnieper embankment. On Independence Square in
the city centre, two monuments elevate two of the city protectors; the
historic protector of
Kiev Michael Archangel atop a reconstruction of
one of the old city's gates and a modern invention, the
Berehynia atop a tall column.
ARCHITECTURALLY IMPORTANT AND HISTORICALLY SIGNIFICANT SITES AND
MONUMENTS IN KIEV
Holy Dormition Cathedral
St. Sophia Cathedral
St. Volodymyr\'s Cathedral
St. Michael\'s Golden-Domed Monastery
Saint Andrew\'s Church
St. Nicholas Roman Catholic Cathedral
National Bank of
"House With Chimaeras "
Bohdan Khmelnytskyi statue
Monument of Independence
Saint Vladimir Monument
Monument to Mother, the Motherland
See also: Category:
Kiev National Opera House
Kiev was the historic cultural centre of the East Slavic civilization
and a major cradle for the Christianization of Kievan Rus'. Kiev
retained through centuries its cultural importance and even at times
of relative decay, it remained the centre of primary importance of
Eastern Orthodox Christianity . Its sacred sites, which include the
Kiev Pechersk Lavra (the Monastery of the Caves) and the Saint Sophia
Cathedral are probably the most famous, attracted pilgrims for
centuries and now recognized as a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site remain
the primary religious centres as well as the major tourist attraction.
The above-mentioned sites are also part of the Seven Wonders of
Kiev's theatres include, the
Kiev Opera House , Ivan Franko National
Academic Drama Theater , Lesya Ukrainka National Academic Theater of
Russian Drama , the
Puppet Theater , October Palace and National
Ukraine and others. In 1946
Kiev had four theatres,
one opera house and one concert hall, but most tickets then were
allocated to "privileged groups".
Other significant cultural centres include the Dovzhenko Film Studios
, and the
Kiev Circus. The most important of the city\'s many museums
Kiev State Historical Museum, Museum of The History of Ukraine
in World War II , the National Art Museum , the Museum of Western and
Oriental Art , the Pinchuk Art Centre and the National Museum of
Russian art .
Kiev hosted the 50th annual
Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest and in
2017 the 62nd annual
Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
Numerous songs and paintings were dedicated to the city. Some songs
became part of Russian, Ukrainian, and Polish folklore, less known are
German and Jewish. The most popular songs are "Without Podil,
impossible" and "How not to love you,
Kiev of mine?". Renowned
Oleksandr Bilash wrote an operetta called "Legend
It is said that one can walk from one end of
Kiev to the other in the
summertime without leaving the shade of its many trees. Most
characteristic are the horse-chestnuts (Ukrainian : каштани,
Kiev is known as a green city with two botanical gardens and numerous
large and small parks. The Museum of The History of
Ukraine in World
War II is located here, which offers both indoor and outdoor displays
of military history and equipment surrounded by verdant hills
Dnieper river. The monument to St.
Volodymyr, the Baptiser of Rus\' , overlooking from Volodymyrska Hill
the scenic panorama of the left bank of Dniepr is one of the symbols
of Kiev, often depicted in paintings and photographic works of the
Among the numerous islands, Venetsianskyi (or Hydropark ) is the most
developed. It is accessible by metro or by car, and includes an
amusement park, swimming beaches, boat rentals, and night clubs. The
Victory Park (_Park Peremohy_) located near
Darnytsia subway station
is a popular destination for strollers, joggers, and cyclists.
Boating, fishing, and water sports are popular pastimes in Kiev. The
area lakes and rivers freeze over in the winter and ice fishermen are
a frequent sight, as are children with their ice skates. However, the
peak of summer draws out a greater mass of people to the shores for
swimming or sunbathing, with daytime high temperatures sometimes
reaching 30 to 34 °C (86 to 93 °F). Lilacs in the National
Botanical Garden, with the
Vydubychi Monastery , Darnitskiy Rail
Bridge and left-bank
Kiev visible in the background.
The centre of
Kiev (Independence Square and Khreschatyk Street )
becomes a large outdoor party place at night during summer months,
with thousands of people having a good time in nearby restaurants,
clubs and outdoor cafes. The central streets are closed for auto
traffic on weekends and holidays.
Andriyivskyy Descent is one of the
best known historic streets and a major tourist attraction in Kiev.
The hill is the site of the Castle of Richard the Lionheart ; the
baroque-style St Andrew\'s Church ; the home of
Kiev born writer ,
Mikhail Bulgakov ; the _monument to Yaroslav the Wise _, the Grand
Kiev and of Novgorod ; and numerous other monuments.
A wide variety of farm produce is available in many of Kiev's farmer
markets with the
Besarabsky Market located in the very centre of the
city being most famous. Each residential region has its own market, or
_rynok_. Here one will find table after table of individuals hawking
everything imaginable: vegetables, fresh and smoked meats, fish,
cheese, honey, dairy products such as milk and home-made _smetana_
(sour cream), caviar , cut flowers, housewares, tools and hardware,
and clothing. Each of the markets has its own unique mix of products
with some markets devoted solely to specific wares such as
automobiles, car parts, pets, clothing, flowers, and other things.
At the city's southern outskirts, near the historic
there is an outdoor museum , officially called the Museum of Folk
Architecture and Life of
Ukraine It has an area of 1.5 square
kilometres (1 sq mi). This territory houses several "mini-villages"
that represent by region the traditional rural architecture of
Kiev also has numerous recreational attractions like bowling alleys,
go-cart tracks, paintball venues, billiard halls and even shooting
ranges. The 100-year-old
Kiev Zoo is located on 40 hectares and
according to CBC "the zoo has 2,600 animals from 328 species".
A panoramic view of Mykhailiv Square (central Kiev). From left to
right: the Diplomatic Academy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (behind the
monument to Princess Olga) and St. Michael\'s Golden-Domed Monastery .
MUSEUMS AND GALLERIES
Museums in Kiev The National Historical Museum of
Kiev is home to some 40 different museums. In 2009 they recorded a
total of 4.3 million visits.
The MUSEUM OF THE HISTORY OF UKRAINE IN WORLD WAR II is a memorial
complex commemorating the Eastern Front of World War II located in the
hills on the right-bank of the
Dnieper River in Pechersk . KIEV
FORTRESS is the 19th-century fortification buildings situated in
Ukrainian capital Kiev, that once belonged to western Russian
fortresses . These structures (once a united complex) were built in
the Pechersk and neighbourhoods by the Russian army. Now some of the
buildings are restored and turned into a museum called the _Kiev
Fortress_, while others are in use in various military and commercial
installations. The NATIONAL ART MUSEUM OF UKRAINE is a museum
dedicated to Ukrainian art. The GOLDEN GATE is a historic gateway in
the ancient city's walls. The name _Zoloti Vorota_ is also used for a
nearby theatre and a station of the
Kiev Metro . The small UKRAINIAN
NATIONAL CHERNOBYL MUSEUM acts as both a memorial and historical
center devoted to the events surrounding the 1986 Chernobyl disaster
and its effect on the Ukrainian people, the environment, and
subsequent attitudes toward the safety of nuclear power as a whole.
See also: Category:Sport in
Kiev The annual 5.5-kilometre
(3.4-mile) 'Run under the Chestnuts' is a popular
Kiev public sporting
event, with hundreds taking part every year.
Kiev has many professional and amateur football clubs, including
Dynamo Kyiv , Arsenal Kyiv and
FC Obolon Kyiv which play in the
Ukrainian Premier League . Of these three, Dynamo Kyiv has had the
most success over the course of its history. For example, up until the
collapse of the
Soviet Union in 1991, the club won 13 USSR
Championships , 9
USSR Cups , and 3
USSR Super Cups , thus making
Dynamo the most successful club in the history of the Soviet Top
Other prominent non-football sport clubs in the city include: the
Sokil Kiev ice hockey club and
BC Kyiv basketball club. Both of these
teams play in the highest Ukrainian leagues for their respective
sports and whilst
BC Kyiv was founded just recently in 1999, Sokil was
founded in 1963, during the existence of the Soviet Union. Both these
teams play their home games at the
Kiev Palace of Sports .
1980 Summer Olympics held in the
Soviet Union ,
the preliminary matches and the quarter-finals of the football
tournament at its Olympic Stadium , which was reconstructed specially
for the event. From 1 December 2008 stadium the stadium underwent a
full-scale reconstruction in order to satisfy standards put in place
UEFA for hosting the Euro 2012 football tournament; the opening
ceremony took place in the presence of president
Viktor Yanukovich on
8 October 2011, with the first major event being a
which was specially planned to coincide with the stadium's re-opening
during Euro 2012. Other notable sport stadiums/sport complexes in Kiev
Lobanovsky Dynamo Stadium , the Palace of Sports , among
Most Ukrainian national teams play their home international matches
in Kiev. The
Ukraine national football team , for example, will play
matches at the re-constructed Olympic Stadium from 2011.
See also: Category:Tourist attractions in
Since introducing a visa-free regime for EU-member states and
Switzerland in 2005,
Ukraine has seen a steady increase in the number
of foreign tourists visiting the country. Prior to the 2008–2009
recession the average annual growth in the number of foreign visits in
Kiev was 23% over a three-year period. In 2009 a total of 1.6 million
tourists stayed in
Kiev hotels of which almost 259,000 (ca. 16%) were
_See also: Category:Economy of
Kiev , Economy of
Ukraine _ TsUM
department store in
An-124 , the largest aircraft ever
mass-produced, designed by the
As with most capital cities ,
Kiev is a major administrative,
cultural and scientific centre of the country. It is the largest city
Ukraine in terms of both population and area and enjoys the highest
levels of business activity. On 1 January 2010 there were around
238,000 business entities registered in Kiev.
Official figures show that between 2004 and 2008 Kiev's economy
outstripped the rest of the country's, growing by an annual average of
11.5%. Following the global financial crisis that began in 2007,
Kiev's economy suffered a severe setback in 2009 with gross regional
product contracting by 13.5% in real terms. Although a record high,
the decline in activity was 1.6 percentage points smaller than that
for the country as a whole. The economy in Kiev, as in the rest of
Ukraine, recovered somewhat in 2010 and 2011.
Kiev is a middle-income
city, with prices currently comparable to many mid-size American
cities (i.e., considerably lower than Western Europe).
Because the city boasts a large and diverse economic base and is not
dependent on any single industry and/or company, its unemployment rate
has historically been relatively low – only 3.75% over 2005–2008.
Indeed, even as the rate of joblessness jumped to 7.1% in 2009, it
remained far below the national average of 9.6%. The average monthly
net salary in
Kiev reached €300 as of 2017.
Kiev is the undisputed center of business and commerce of
home to the country's largest companies, such as
Naftogaz Ukrainy ,
Kyivstar . In 2010 the city accounted for 18% of
national retail sales and 24% of all construction activity.
Indeed, real estate is one of the major forces in Kiev's economy.
Average prices of apartments are the highest in the country and among
the highest in eastern Europe.
Kiev also ranks high in terms of
commercial real estate for it is here where the country's tallest
office buildings (such as Gulliver and Parus ) and some of Ukraine's
biggest shopping malls (such as Dream Town and
Ocean Plaza ) are
Kiev is home to many of Ukraine's largest businesses.
In May 2011
Kiev authorities presented a 15-year development strategy
which calls for attracting as much as EUR82 billion of foreign
investment by 2025 to modernize the city’s transport and utilities
infrastructure and make it more attractive for tourists.
Historical economic data
Nominal GRP (UAH bn )
Nominal GRP (USD bn)**
Nominal GRP per capita (USD)**
Monthly wage (USD)**
Unemployment rate (%)***
Retail sales (UAH bn)
Retail sales (USD bn)
Foreign direct investment (USD bn)
* – data not available; ** – calculated at annual average
official exchange rate; *** – ILO methodology (% of workforce ).
Primary industries in
Kiev include utilities – i.e. , electricity,
gas and water supply (26% of total industrial output ), manufacture of
food, beverages and tobacco products (22%), chemical (17%), mechanical
engineering (13%) and manufacture of paper and paper products,
including publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media
Institute of Oil Transportation is headquartered here.
Kuznya na Rybalskomu , naval production
Antonov Serial Production Plant (former Aviant), airplanes
Aeros , small aircraft production
Kiev Roshen Factory , confectionery
Kiev Arsenal (former arms manufacturer), specializes in production
of optic-precision instruments
* Obolon , brewery
Kiev Aircraft Repair Plant 410 , repair factory located at
EDUCATION AND SCIENCE
See also: Category:Education in
Kiev The Ukrainian Academy of
Sciences is based in Kiev. National
Taras Shevchenko University
Scientific research is conducted in many institutes of higher
education and, additionally, in many research institutes affiliated
with the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences .
Kiev is home to Ukraine\'s
ministry of education and science , and is also noted for its
contributions to medical and computer science research.
Kiev hosts many universities, the major ones being
Taras Shevchenko University , the National Technical University "Kiev
Polytechnic Institute" , and the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy . Of these, the
Mohyla Academy is the oldest outright, having been founded as a
theological school in 1632, however the Shevchenko University, which
was founded in 1834, is the oldest in continuous operation. The total
number of institutions of higher education in
approaches 200, allowing young people to pursue almost any line of
study. While education traditionally remains largely in the hands of
the state there are several accredited private institutions in the
There are about 530 general secondary schools and ca. 680 nursery
schools and kindergartens in Kiev. Additionally, there are evening
schools for adults, and specialist technical schools.
There are many libraries in the city with the Vernadsky National
Library , which is Ukraine's main academic library and scientific
information centre , as well as one of the world's largest national
libraries , being the largest and most important one. The National
Library is affiliated with the Academy of Sciences in so far as it is
a deposit library and thus serves as the academy's archives' store.
Interestingly the national library is the world’s foremost
repository of Jewish folk music recorded on Edison wax cylinders .
Their Collection of Jewish Musical Folklore (1912–1947) was
inscribed on UNESCO's
Memory of the World Register
Memory of the World Register in 2005.
Transport in Kiev
LOCAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT
Kiev Metro train at
Local public transportation in
Kiev includes the Metro (underground),
buses and minibuses , trolleybuses , trams , taxi and funicular .
There is also an intra-city ring railway service .
The publicly owned and operated
Kiev Metro is the fastest, the most
convenient and affordable network that covers most, but not all, of
the city. The Metro is continuously expanding towards the city limits
to meet growing demand, currently having three lines with a total
length of 66.1 kilometres (41.1 miles) and 51 stations (some of which
are renowned architectural landmarks). The Metro carries around 1.422
million passengers daily accounting for 38% of the Kiev's public
transport load. In 2011, the total number of trips exceeded 519
Kiev tram system was the first electric tramway in the
Russian Empire and the third one in Europe after the Berlin
Straßenbahn and the
Budapest tramway. The tram system currently
consists of 139.9 km (86.9 mi) of track, including 14 km (8.7 mi) two
Tram lines, served by 21 routes with the use of 523 tram cars.
Once a well maintained and widely used method of transport, the system
is now gradually being phased out in favor of buses and trolleybuses.
Trolleybus ElektroLAZ-301 at
Sofia Square, passing by the statue
Kiev funicular was constructed during 1902–1905. It connects
the historic Uppertown , and the lower commercial neighborhood of
Podil through the steep
Volodymyrska Hill overseeing the Dnieper
River. The line consists of only two stations.
All public road transport (except for some minibuses) is operated by
Kyivpastrans municipal company. It is heavily subsidized by
Kiev public transport system, except for taxi, uses a simple flat
rate tariff system regardless of distance traveled: tickets or tokens
must be purchased each time a vehicle is boarded. Digital ticket
system is already established in
Kiev Metro, with plans for other
transport modes. Discount passes are available for grade school and
higher education students. Pensioners use public transportation free.
There are monthly passes in all combinations of public transportation.
Ticket prices are regulated by the city government, and the cost of
one ride is far lower than in Western Europe.
The taxi market in
Kiev is expansive but not regulated. In
particular, the taxi fare per kilometer is not regulated. There is a
fierce competition between private taxi companies.
ROADS AND BRIDGES
The Novo-Darnytskyi Bridge over the
Kiev represents the focal point of Ukraine's "national roads" system,
thus linked by road to all cities of the country. European routes ,
and intersect in Kiev.
There are 8 over-
Dnieper bridges and dozens of grade-separated
intersections in the city. Several new intersections are under
construction. There are plans to build a full-size, fully
grade-separated ring road around Kiev.
Kiev roads are in poor technical condition and maintained
Traffic jams and lack of parking space are growing problems for all
road transport services in Kiev.
Kiev is served by two international passenger airports: the Boryspil
Airport located 30 kilometres (19 miles) away, and the smaller,
Zhulyany Airport on the southern outskirts of the
city. There are also the Gostomel cargo airport and additional three
operating airfields facilitating the
Antonov aircraft manufacturing
company and general aviation .
Railways are Kiev’s main mode of intracity and suburban
transportation. The city has a developed railroad infrastructure
including a long-distance passenger station, 6 cargo stations, depots,
and repairing facilities. However, this system still fails to meet the
demand for passenger service. Particularly, the
Kiev Passenger Railway
Station is the city's only long-distance passenger terminal
Construction is underway for turning the large
Station on the left-bank part of
Kiev into a long-distance passenger
hub, which may ease traffic at the central station. Bridges over the
Dnieper River are another problem restricting the development of
city’s railway system. Presently, only one rail bridge out of two is
available for intense train traffic. A new combined rail-auto bridge
is under construction, as a part of
In 2011 the
Kiev city administration established a new 'Urban Train'
for Kiev. This service runs at standard 4- to 10-minute intervals
throughout the day and follows a circular route around the city
centre, which allows it to serve many of Kiev's inner suburbs.
Interchanges between the
Kiev Metro and Fast
Tram exist at many of the
urban train's station stops.
Suburban 'Elektrichka' trains are serviced by the publicly owned
Ukrainian Railways . The suburban train service is fast, and
unbeatably safe in terms of traffic accidents. But the trains are not
reliable, as they may fall significantly behind schedule, may not be
safe in terms of crime, and the _elektrichka_ cars are poorly
maintained and are overcrowded in rush hours .
There are 5 _elektrichka_ directions from Kiev:
More than a dozen of _elektrichka_ stops are located within the city
allowing residents of different neighborhoods to use the suburban
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES
Kiev is twinned with:
Turkey (since 1993)_
China (since 1993)_
Chicago , Illinois,
Moldova (since 1999)_
Edinburgh , Scotland, UK (since 1989)_
Greece (since 1998)_
Poland (since 1993)_
Germany (since 1961)_
Latvia (since 1998)_
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro ,
Tbilisi , Georgia (since 1999)_
Poland (since 1994)_
In February 2016 the
Kiev city council
Kiev city council terminated its twinned
relations with the Russian cities
Saint Petersburg ,
Makhachkala , and the
Komi Republic due to the
Russian military intervention in
OTHER COOPERATION AGREEMENTS
Toronto , Ontario,
Kiev Peninsula in
Graham Land ,
Antarctica is named after the city
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(Ukrcensus.gov.ua – Kyiv city Web address accessed on 4 August
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city (thus including temporary visitors and commuters) suggest a
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Korrespondent _, 15 June 2005(in Russian)
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Kiev Peninsula. SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica.
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