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KICKSTARTER is an American public-benefit corporation based in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
, New York , that maintains a global crowdfunding platform focused on creativity. The company's stated mission is to "help bring creative projects to life". Kickstarter
Kickstarter
has reportedly received more than $1.9 billion in pledges from 9.4 million backers to fund 257,000 creative projects, such as films, music, stage shows, comics, journalism, video games, technology and food-related projects.

People who back Kickstarter
Kickstarter
projects are offered tangible rewards and/or experiences in exchange for their pledges. This model traces its roots to subscription model of arts patronage, where artists would go directly to their audiences to fund their work.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Model

* 2.1 Projects * 2.2 Categories * 2.3 Guidelines

* 3 Notable projects and creators

* 3.1 Top projects by funds raised * 3.2 Project cancellations

* 4 Controversies * 5 Patent disputes * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links

HISTORY

Kickstarter
Kickstarter
HQ library, Brooklyn
Brooklyn

Kickstarter
Kickstarter
launched on April 28, 2009, by Perry Chen , Yancey Strickler, and Charles Adler. _ The New York Times _ called Kickstarter
Kickstarter
"the people's NEA ". _Time _ named it one of the "Best Inventions of 2010" and "Best Websites of 2011". Kickstarter reportedly raised $10 million funding from backers including NYC-based venture firm Union Square Ventures and angel investors such as Jack Dorsey , Zach Klein and Caterina Fake . The company is based in Greenpoint, Brooklyn
Brooklyn
.

Andy Baio served as the site's CTO until November 2010, when he joined Expert Labs . Lance Ivy has been Lead Developer since the website launched. On February 14, 2013, Kickstarter
Kickstarter
released an iOS app called Kickstarter
Kickstarter
for the iPhone . The app is aimed at users who create and back projects and is the first time Kickstarter
Kickstarter
has had an official mobile presence.

On October 31, 2012, Kickstarter
Kickstarter
opened projects based in the United Kingdom , followed by projects based in Canada
Canada
on September 9, 2013, Australia and New Zealand on November 13, 2013, Denmark
Denmark
, Ireland
Ireland
, Norway
Norway
, and Sweden
Sweden
on September 15, 2014, Spain
Spain
on May 19, 2015, and Singapore
Singapore
and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
on August 30, 2016. In July 2017, Strickler announced his resigniation.

MODEL

Kickstarter
Kickstarter
is one of a number of crowdfunding platforms for gathering money from the public, which circumvents traditional avenues of investment. Project creators choose a deadline and a minimum funding goal. If the goal is not met by the deadline, no funds are collected (a kind of assurance contract ). The platform is open to backers from anywhere in the world and to creators from the US, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, The Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Spain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland and Mexico.

Kickstarter
Kickstarter
applies a 5% fee on the total amount of the funds raised. Their payments processor applies an additional 3–5% fee. Unlike many forums for fundraising or investment , Kickstarter
Kickstarter
claims no ownership over the projects and the work they produce. The web pages of projects launched on the site are permanently archived and accessible to the public. After funding is completed, projects and uploaded media cannot be edited or removed from the site.

There is no guarantee that people who post projects on Kickstarter will deliver on their projects, use the money to implement their projects, or that the completed projects will meet backers' expectations. Kickstarter
Kickstarter
advises backers to use their own judgment on supporting a project. They also warn project leaders that they could be liable for legal damages from backers for failure to deliver on promises. Projects might also fail even after a successful fundraising campaign when creators underestimate the total costs required or technical difficulties to be overcome.

Asked what made Kickstarter
Kickstarter
different from other crowdfunding platforms, co-founder Perry Chen said: "I wonder if people really know what the definition of crowdfunding is. Or, if there’s even an agreed upon definition of what it is. We haven’t actively supported the use of the term because it can provoke more confusion. In our case, we focus on a middle ground between patronage and commerce. People are offering cool stuff and experiences in exchange for the support of their ideas. People are creating these mini-economies around their project ideas. So, you aren’t coming to the site to get something for nothing; you are trying to create value for the people who support you. We focus on creative projects—music, film, technology, art, design, food and publishing—and within the category of crowdfunding of the arts, we are probably ten times the size of all of the others combined."

PROJECTS

On June 21, 2012, Kickstarter
Kickstarter
began publishing statistics on its projects. As of February 13, 2015, there were 207,135 launched projects (7,802 in progress), with a success rate of 40%. The total amount pledged was $1,523,718,656.

The business grew quickly in its early years. In 2010 Kickstarter
Kickstarter
had 3,910 successful projects and $27,638,318 pledged. The corresponding figures for 2011 were 11,836 successfully funded projects and $99,344,381 pledged; and there were 18,109 successfully funded projects, $319,786,629 pledged in 2012.

On February 9, 2012, Kickstarter
Kickstarter
hit a number of milestones. A dock made for the iPhone designed by Casey Hopkins became the first Kickstarter
Kickstarter
project to exceed one million dollars in pledges. A few hours later, a new adventure game project started by computer game developers, Double Fine Productions , reached the same figure, having been launched less than 24 hours earlier, and finished with over $3 million pledged. This was also the first time Kickstarter
Kickstarter
raised over a million dollars in pledges in a single day. On August 30, 2014, the "Coolest Cooler", an icebox created by Ryan Grepper, became the most funded Kickstarter
Kickstarter
project in history, with US$13.28 million in funding, breaking the record previously held by the Pebble smart watch.

In July 2012, Wharton professor Ethan Mollick and Jeanne Pi conducted research into what contributes to a project’s success or failure on Kickstarter. Some key findings from the analysis were that increasing goal size is negatively associated with success, projects that are featured on the Kickstarter
Kickstarter
homepage have an 89% chance of being successful, compared to 30% without, and that for an average $10,000 project, a 30-day project has a 35% chance of success, while a 60-day project has a 29% chance of success, all other things being constant.

The ten largest Kickstarter
Kickstarter
projects by funds raised are listed below. Among successful projects, most raise between $1,000 and $9,999. These dollar amounts drop to less than half in the Design, Games, and Technology categories. However, the median amount raised for the latter two categories remains in the four-figure range. There is substantial variation in the success rate of projects falling under different categories. Over two thirds of completed dance projects have been successful. In contrast, fewer than 30% of completed fashion projects have reached their goal. Most failing projects fail to achieve 20% of their goals and this trend applies across all categories. Indeed, over 80% of projects that pass the 20% mark reach their goal.

CATEGORIES

Creators categorize their projects into one of 13 categories and 36 subcategories. They are: Art, Comics, Dance, Design, Fashion, Film and Video, Food, Games, Music, Photography, Publishing, Technology and Theater. Of these categories, Film projects must fit within one of the site's 13 creative categories; and creators must abide by the site's prohibited uses, which include charity and awareness campaigns. Kickstarter
Kickstarter
has additional requirements for hardware and product design projects. These include

* Banning the use of photorealistic renderings and simulations demonstrating a product * Banning projects for genetically modified organisms . * Limiting awards to single items or a "sensible set" of items relevant to the project (e.g., multiple light bulbs for a house) * Requiring a physical prototype * Requiring a manufacturing plan

The guidelines are designed to reinforce Kickstarter’s position that people are backing projects, not placing orders for a product. To underscore the notion that Kickstarter
Kickstarter
is a place in which creators and audiences make things together, creators across all categories are asked to describe the risks and challenges a project faces in producing it. This educates the public about the project goals and encourages contributions to the community.

NOTABLE PROJECTS AND CREATORS

At $8.5 million, the Ouya
Ouya
is the 8th largest successful Kickstarter
Kickstarter
campaign.

Several creative works have gone on to receive critical acclaim and accolades after being funded on Kickstarter. The documentary short "Sun Come Up" and documentary short "Incident in New Baghdad" were each nominated for an Academy Award; contemporary art projects "EyeWriter" and "Hip-Hop Word Count" were both chosen to exhibit in the Museum of Modern Art in 2011; filmmaker Matt Porterfield was selected to screen his film _ Putty Hill _ at the Whitney Biennial In 2012; author Rob Walker's Hypothetical Futures project exhibited at the 13th International Venice Architecture Biennale; musician Amanda Palmer's album "Theatre is Evil" debuted at No. 10 on the Billboard 200; designer Scott Wilson won a National Design Award from Smithsonian’s Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum following the success of his TikTok + LunaTik project; the Kickstarter
Kickstarter
funded GoldieBlox toy gained nationwide distribution in 2013; and approximately 10% of the films accepted into the Sundance, SXSW and Tribeca Film Festivals are projects funded on Kickstarter.

Numerous well-known creators have used Kickstarter
Kickstarter
to produce their work, including: musicians Jennifer Paige , Paula Cole , TLC , Amanda McBroom , De La Soul
De La Soul
, Amanda Palmer , Daniel Johnston , Stuart Murdoch and Tom Rush ; filmmakers and actors Kevin Sorbo , Alyson Hannigan , Zach Braff , Bret Easton Ellis , Colin Hanks , Ed Begley, Jr. , Gary Hustwit , Hal Hartley , Jennie Livingston , Mark Duplass , Matthew Modine , Paul Schrader , Ricki Lake , Whoopi Goldberg
Whoopi Goldberg
, Kristen Bell , John de Lancie and Zana Briski ; authors and writers Dan Harmon , Kevin Kelly , Neal Stephenson , Steve Altes , and Seth Godin ; photographers Spencer Tunick , Shane Lavalette , and Gerd Ludwig ; game developers Tim Schafer , Keiji Inafune , Brian Fargo
Brian Fargo
, and Rand Miller ; designer Stefan Sagmeister ; animator John Kricfalusi ; comedian Eugene Mirman ; animators Don Bluth and Gary Goldman ; entrepreneurs Tim Ferriss , Samuel Agboola and Craig Mod; and custom guitar maker Moniker .

The Glowing Plant project was the first and only Kickstarter
Kickstarter
project to fund the development of a genetically modified organism (GMO).

TOP PROJECTS BY FUNDS RAISED

See also: List of highest funded crowdfunding projects

Ten largest successfully completed Kickstarter
Kickstarter
projects by total funds pledged (only closed fundings are listed) RANK TOTAL USD PROJECT NAME CREATOR CATEGORY % FUNDED BACKERS CLOSING DATE

1 20,338,986 Pebble Time – Awesome Smartwatch, No Compromises Pebble Technology Product design 4,067 78,471 2015-03-27

2 13,285,226 Coolest Cooler : 21st Century Cooler that's Actually Cooler Ryan Grepper Product design 26,570 62,642 2014-08-30

3 12,779,843 Pebble 2, Time 2 + All-New Pebble Core Pebble Technology Product design 1,277 66,673 2016-06-30

4 12,393,139 Kingdom Death: Monster 1.5 Kingdom Death/Adam Poots Tabletop games 12,393 19,264 2017-01-07

5 10,266,845 Pebble: E-Paper Watch for iPhone and Android Pebble Technology Product design 10,266 68,929 2012-05-18

6 9,192,055 The World's Best Travel Jacket with 15 Features BAUBAX BAUBAX LLC Product design 45,960 44,949 2015-09-03

7 8,782,571 Exploding Kittens Elan Lee Playing cards 87,825 219,382 2015-02-20

8 8,596,474 OUYA
OUYA
: A New Kind of Video Game Console Ouya
Ouya
Inc. Video games 904 63,416 2012-08-09

9 6,565,782 The Everyday Backpack, Tote, and Sling Peak Design Product design 1,313 26,359 2016-09-10

10 6,465,690 Fidget Cube: A Vinyl Desk Toy Matthew and Mark McLachlan Product design 43,105 154,926 2016-10-20

PROJECT CANCELLATIONS

Both Kickstarter
Kickstarter
and project creators have canceled projects that appeared to have been fraudulent. Questions were raised about the projects in internet communities related to the fields of the projects. The concerns raised were: apparent copying of graphics from other sources; unrealistic performance or price claims; and failure of project sponsors to deliver on prior Kickstarter
Kickstarter
projects.

A small list of canceled projects includes:

* Eye3 camera drone helicopter for unrealistic performance promises, photos copied from other commercial products, and failure of creators to deliver on an earlier Kickstarter
Kickstarter
project. * _Mythic: The Story of Gods and Men_ adventure game for copying graphics from other games and unrealistic performance promises; the creator had raised $4,739 on an $80,000 goal before canceling the project. * Tech-Sync Power System for failing to provide photos of the prototype and sudden departure of project creator. * _Tentacle Bento_, a card game intended to satirize Japanese school girl tentacle rape comics, after being criticized in the online media for having inappropriate content. * Kobe Red, a project for jerky made from Kobe beef , was canceled after raising $120,309. The project was allegedly fraudulent. * iFind claimed to be a battery-free item locating tag. Critics of the project raised serious doubts about its viability, focussing on its claimed EM harvesting capability and the lack of a working prototype. Kickstarter
Kickstarter
suspended funding after $546,852 had been raised.

CONTROVERSIES

In the Huffington Post article "Why Kickstarter
Kickstarter
is Corrupted " Nathan Resnick blames the rise of paid advertising, investor backed campaigns, and crowdfunding agencies for the decline of Kickstarter
Kickstarter
as a useful tool for small inventors and creators.

Resnick cites Nebia, backed by Tim Cook and Eric Schmidt , as an example of a well funded, investor backed, project using Kickstarter purely for publicity and thus drawing donations from smaller teams.

He goes on to note that the highest profile crowdfunding marketing agency , "Funded Today ", charges a 35% commission on all monies raised, regardless of their contribution, while reserving the right to abandon projects they've pledged to support and claims such huge fees can make it impossible for successful projects to survive even if they hit their targets. Funded Today can collect as much as 50% of the total amount a campaign raised as fees, when the four-figure up-front charges they levy are accounted for.

* In May 2014, Kickstarter
Kickstarter
blocked fundraising for a TV film about late-term abortionist Kermit Gosnell . Producer Phelim McAleer claimed that Kickstarter
Kickstarter
was censoring the project because of its graphic content and espousing a "liberal agenda". In June 2014 the project received approval for fundraising from rival site Indiegogo , raising more than $2.3 million. * On November 6, 2013, writer/director Hal Hartley launched a Kickstarter
Kickstarter
campaign to produce his upcoming film _ Ned Rifle _, seeking a total of $384,000. On November 25, Hartley added a $9,000 reward tier offering the film's distribution rights for seven years in the United States
United States
and other countries, making his Kickstarter
Kickstarter
campaign the first to propose offering film distribution rights. Subsequently, Kickstarter
Kickstarter
notified Hartley that selling distribution rights is a form of investment, which is forbidden by Kickstarter's terms and conditions, forcing Hartley to remove the option. * In April 2013, filmmaker Zach Braff used a Kickstarter
Kickstarter
campaign to fund his upcoming film _ Wish I Was Here _ and raised $2 million in three days, citing the success of Rob Thomas ' _Veronica Mars _ Kickstarter
Kickstarter
as his inspiration. Some have criticized Braff for using the site, saying celebrity use of the site will draw attention away from filmmakers and other creatives who don't have celebrity name recognition, a criticism that had been previously made in regard to big figures in the gaming industry using Kickstarter
Kickstarter
(such as Richard Garriott , who created a successful $1+ million Kickstarter
Kickstarter
despite his large personal fortune). Kickstarter
Kickstarter
has disputed these arguments by reporting that, according to their metrics, big name projects tend to attract new visitors to the site who in turn pledge to other lesser known projects. * Since 2013, several crowdfunding campaigns have been accused of creating fake contributors in order to fool the public into thinking the campaigns were successful, and to defraud potential sources of matching funds. * In 2012, Amanda Palmer raised $1.2 million on Kickstarter. She wrote about how she used the money, however several other musicians reviewed these expenses and said they were extravagant and possibly fraudulent. She was further criticized for attempting to have musicians play with her for free on tour, after raising such a large sum. * In May 2011, a New York University
New York University
film student, Matias Shimada, raised $1,726 to make a film, but plagiarized another film instead. Later, he publicly apologized. * Znaps Magnetic Charging adapter for mobile devices fails to deliver any of the finished products to any of the 70,000 backers despite the project being a huge financial success and securing deals with retailers and subsequently providing stock to multiple retailers.

PATENT DISPUTES

* On September 30, 2011, Kickstarter
Kickstarter
filed a declaratory judgment suit against ArtistShare in an attempt to invalidate U.S. crowd-funding patent US 7885887 , "Methods and apparatuses for financing and marketing a creative work". Kickstarter
Kickstarter
asked that the patent be invalidated, or, at the very least, that the court find that Kickstarter
Kickstarter
is not liable for infringement. In February 2012, ArtistShare and Fan Funded responded to Kickstarter's complaint by filing a motion to dismiss the lawsuit. They asserted that patent infringement litigation was never threatened, that " ArtistShare merely approached Kickstarter
Kickstarter
about licensing their platform, including patent rights", and that "rather than responding to ArtistShare's request for a counter-proposal, Kickstarter
Kickstarter
filed this lawsuit." The judge ruled that the case could go forward. ArtistShare then responded by filing a counterclaim alleging that Kickstarter
Kickstarter
was indeed infringing its patent. In June 2015, Kickstarter
Kickstarter
won its lawsuit with the judge declaring ArtistShare's patent invalid. * On November 21, 2012, 3D Systems filed a patent infringement lawsuit against Formlabs and Kickstarter
Kickstarter
for infringing its 3D printer patent US 5,597,520 , ”Simultaneous multiple-layer curing in stereolithography.” Formlabs had raised $2.9 million in a Kickstarter
Kickstarter
campaign to fund its own competitive printer. The company said that Kickstarter
Kickstarter
caused "irreparable injury and damage" to its business by promoting the Form 1 printer, and taking a 5% cut of pledged funds. A six-month stay was granted by the judge for settlement talks in which Kickstarter
Kickstarter
did not participate. * On January 23, 2015, a patent infringement lawsuit was filed by Alphacap Ventures LLC against multiple crowdfunding platforms, including Indiegogo, CircleUp, GoFundMe , Kickstarter, Gust, RocketHub & Innovational Funding, for three patents — US 7848976 , US 7908208 and US 8433630 . According to Bloomberg, Alphacap Ventures is a company that provides strategic, operations, and financial advisory services in the United States
United States
along with other financial services

SEE ALSO

* Civic crowdfunding * Comparison of crowd funding services * List of video game crowdfunding projects * Open-source hardware * Tech companies in the New York City metropolitan region

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Kickstarter
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Kickstarter
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