KHMER NUMERALS are the numerals used in the
Khmer language
CONTENTS * 1 Numerals * 2 Modern Khmer numbers * 2.1 Numbers from 0 to 5
* 2.2 Numbers from 6 to 20
* 2.3 Numbers from 30 to 90
* 2.4 Numbers from 100 to 10,000,000
* 2.5 Counting fruits
* 2.6
Sanskrit
* 3 Angkorian numbers * 4 ProtoKhmer numbers * 4.1 Numbers from 5 to 10 * 5 References NUMERALS NUMERAL SYSTEMS HINDU–ARABIC NUMERAL SYSTEM * Western Arabic * Eastern Arabic * Bengali * Gurmukhi * Indian * Sinhala * Tamil * Balinese * Burmese * Dzongkha * Gujarati * Javanese * Khmer * Lao * Mongolian * Thai EAST ASIAN * Chinese * Suzhou *
Hokkien
ALPHABETIC * Abjad * Armenian * Āryabhaṭa * Cyrillic * Ge\'ez * Georgian * Greek * Hebrew * Roman FORMER * Aegean * Attic * Babylonian * Brahmi * Egyptian * Etruscan * Inuit * Kharosthi * Mayan * Muisca * Quipu * Prehistoric POSITIONAL SYSTEMS BY BASE * 2 * 3 * 4 * 5 * 6 * 8 * 10 * 12 * 16 * 20 * 60 NONSTANDARD POSITIONAL NUMERAL SYSTEMS *
Bijective numeration (1 )
*
Signeddigit representation
* v * t * e The
Khmer numerals
Having been derived from the Hindu numerals , modern Khmer numerals
also represent a decimal positional notation system. It is the script
with the first extant material evidence of zero as a numerical figure
, dating its use back to the seventh century, two centuries before its
certain use in
India
As both Thai and Lao scripts are derived from Old Khmer, their modern forms still bear many resemblances to the latter, demonstrated in the following table: VALUE KHMER THAI LAO 0 ០ ๐ ໐ 1 ១ ๑ ໑ 2 ២ ๒ ໒ 3 ៣ ๓ ໓ 4 ៤ ๔ ໔ 5 ៥ ๕ ໕ 6 ៦ ๖ ໖ 7 ៧ ๗ ໗ 8 ៨ ๘ ໘ 9 ៩ ๙ ໙ MODERN KHMER NUMBERS The spoken names of modern Khmer numbers represent a biquinary system, with both base 5 and base 10 in use. For example, 6 (ប្រាំមួយ) is formed from 5 (ប្រាំ) plus 1 (មួយ). NUMBERS FROM 0 TO 5 With the exception of the number 0, which stems from Sanskrit, the etymology of the Khmer numbers from 1 to 5 is of protoMon–Khmer origin. VALUE KHMER WORD FORM IPA UNGEGN ALALC OTHER NOTES 0
០
សូន្យ
soun
sony
sūny
soun
From
Sanskrit
1 ១ មួយ muəj muŏy muay mouy Before a classifier, /muəj/ is reduced to /mə/ in regular speech. 2 ២ ពីរ piː (pɨl) pir bīr pii Also /pir/ 3 ៣ បី ɓəj bei pī bei 4 ៤ បួន ɓuən buŏn puan buon 5 ៥ ប្រាំ pram prăm prâṃ pram * For details of the various alternative romanization systems, see
Romanization of Khmer .
* Some authors may alternatively mark as the pronunciation for the
word two, and either or for the word three.
* In neighbouring
Thailand
NUMBERS FROM 6 TO 20 As mentioned above, the numbers from 6 to 9 may be constructed by adding any number between 1 and 4 to the base number 5 (ប្រាំ), so that 7 is literally constructed as 5 plus 2. Beyond that, Khmer uses a decimal base, so that 14 is constructed as 10 plus 4, rather than 2 times 5 plus 4; and 16 is constructed as 10+5+1. Colloquially, compound numbers from eleven to nineteen may be formed using the word ដណ្ដប់ preceded by any number from one to nine, so that 15 is constructed as ប្រាំដណ្ដប់ , instead of the standard ដប់ប្រាំ . VALUE KHMER WORD FORM IPA UNGEGN ALALC OTHER NOTES 6 ៦ ប្រាំមួយ pram muəj prăm muŏy prâṃ muay pram muoy 7 ៧ ប្រាំពីរ pram piː (pram pɨl) prăm pir prâṃ bīr pram pii 8 ៨ ប្រាំបី pram ɓəj prăm bey prâṃ pī pram bei 9 ៩ ប្រាំបួន pram ɓuən prăm buŏn prâṃ puan pram buon 10
១០
ដប់
ɗɑp
dáb
ṭáp
dap
Old Chinese
11 ១១ ដប់មួយ ɗɑp muəj dáb muŏy ṭáp muay dap muoy Colloquially មួយដណ្ដប់ . 20 ២០ ម្ភៃ mpʰej (məpʰɨj, mpʰɨj) mphey mbhai mpei Contraction of /muəj/ + /pʰej/ (i.e. one + twenty) * In constructions from 6 to 9 that use 5 as a base, /pram/ may alternatively be pronounced ; giving , , , and . This is especially true in dialects which elide /r/, but not necessarily restricted to them, as the pattern also follows Khmer's minor syllable pattern. NUMBERS FROM 30 TO 90 The numbers from thirty to ninety in Khmer bear many resemblances to
both the modern Thai and
Cantonese
Informally, a speaker may choose to omit the final and the number is still understood. For example, it is possible to say (ប៉ែតមួយ) instead of the full (ប៉ែតសិបមួយ). VALUE KHMER WORD FORM IPA UNGEGN ALALC OTHER NOTES 30 ៣០ សាមសិប saːm səp sam sĕb sām sip sam sep 40 ៤០ សែសិប sae sǝp sê sĕb sae sip sae sep 50 ៥០ ហាសិប haː səp ha sĕb hā sip ha sep 60 ៦០ ហុកសិប hok səp hŏk sĕb huk sip hok sep 70 ៧០ ចិតសិប cət səp chĕt sĕb cit sip chet sep 80 ៨០ ប៉ែតសិប paet səp pêt sĕb p″ait sip paet sep 90 ៩០ កៅសិប kaw səp kau sĕb kau sip kao sep Language Comparisons: VALUE KHMER THAI ARCHAIC THAI LAO CANTONESE TEOCHEW HOKKIEN MANDARIN 3 ‒ *saːm sam sǎam sãam saam1 sã1 sa1 (sam1) sān 4 ‒ *sɐe si sài sii sei3 si3 si3 (su3) sì 5 ‒ *haː ha ngùa hàa ng5 ŋou6 go2 (ngo2) wǔ 6 ‒ *hok hok lòk hók luk6 lak8 lak2 (liok8) liù 7 ‒ *cət chet jèd jét cat1 tsʰik4 chit2 qī 8 ‒ *pɐət paet pàed pàet baat3 poiʔ4 pueh4 (pat4) bā 9 ‒ *kaw kao jao kâo gau2 kao2 kau4 (kiu2) jiǔ 10 ‒ *səp sip jǒng síp sap6 tsap8 tzhap2 (sip8) shí * Words in parenthesis indicate literary pronunciations, while words preceded with an asterisk mark are nonproductive (i.e. only occur in specific constructions, but cannot be decomposed to form basic numbers). NUMBERS FROM 100 TO 10,000,000 The standard Khmer numbers starting from one hundred are as follows: VALUE KHMER WORD FORM IPA UNGEGN ALALC OTHER NOTES 100 ១០០ មួយរយ muəj rɔːj (rɔːj, mərɔːj) muŏy rôy muay ray muoy roy Borrowed from Thai ร้อย roi. 1 000 ១០០០ មួយពាន់ muəj poan muŏy poăn muay bân muoy poan From Thai พัน phan. 10 000 ១០០០០ មួយម៉ឺន muəj məɨn muŏy mœŭn muay muȳn muoy muen From Thai หมื่น muen. 100 000 ១០០០០០ មួយសែន muəj saen muŏy sên muay s″ain muoy saen From Thai แสน saen. 1 000 000 ១០០០០០០ មួយលាន muəj lien muŏy leăn muay lân muoy lean From Thai ล้าน lan. 10 000 000
១០០០០០០០
មួយកោដិ
muəj kaot
muŏy kaôdĕ
muay koṭi
muoy kaot
From
Sanskrit
Although មួយកោដិ is most commonly used to mean ten million, in some areas this is also colloquially used to refer to one billion (which is more properly មួយរយកោដិ). In order to avoid confusion, sometimes ដប់លាន is used to mean ten million, along with មួយរយលាន for one hundred million, and មួយពាន់លាន ("one thousand million") to mean one billion. Different Cambodian dialects may also employ different base number constructions to form greater numbers above one thousand. A few of the such can be observed in the following table: VALUE KHMER WORD FORM IPA UNGEGN ALALC NOTES 10 000 ១០០០០ ដប់ពាន់ ɗɑp poan dáb poăn ṭáp bân Literally "ten thousand" 100 000 ១០០០០០ ដប់ម៉ឺន ɗɑp məɨn dáb mœŭn ṭáp muȳn Literally "ten tenthousand" 100 000 ១០០០០០ មួយរយពាន់ muəj rɔj poan muŏy rôy poăn muay ray bân Literally "one hundred thousand" 1 000 000 ១០០០០០០ មួយរយម៉ឺន muəj rɔj məɨn muŏy rôy mœŭn muay ray muȳn Literally "one hundred tenthousand" 10 000 000 ១០០០០០០០ ដប់លាន ɗɑp lien dáb leăn ṭáp lân Literally "ten million" 100 000 000 ១០០០០០០០០ មួយរយលាន muəj rɔj lien muŏy rôy leăn muay ray lân Literally "one hundred million" 1 000 000 000 ១០០០០០០០០០ មួយពាន់លាន muəj poan lien muŏy poăn leăn muay ray bân Literally "one thousand million" COUNTING FRUITS Reminiscent of the standard 20base Angkorian Khmer numbers, the
modern
Khmer language
VALUE KHMER WORD FORM IPA UNGEGN ALALC NOTES 4 ៤ ដំប dɑmbɑː dâmbâ ṭaṃpa Also written ដំបរ (dâmbâr or ṭaṃpar) 40 ៤០ ផ្លូន ploːn phlon phlūn From (pre)Angkorian *plon "40" 80 ៨០ ពីរផ្លូន piː~pɨl ploːn pir phlon bir phlūn Literally "two forty" 400 ៤០០ ស្លឹក slək slœ̆k slẏk From (pre)Angkorian *slik "400" SANSKRIT AND PALI INFLUENCE As a result of prolonged literary influence from both the Sanskrit
and
Pali
VALUE KHMER WORD FORM IPA UNGEGN ALALC NOTES 10
១០
ទស
tʊəh
tôs
das
Sanskrit
12
១២
ទ្វាទស
tvietʊəh
tvieteaʔsaʔ tvéatôs(â)
dvādas(a)
Sanskrit
13 or 30
១៣ or ៣០
ត្រីទស
trəj tʊəh
trei tôs
trǐ das
Sanskrit
28
២៨
អស្តាពីស
ʔahsdaː piː sɑː
’asta pi sâ
qastā bǐ sa
Sanskrit
100
១០០
សត
saʔtaʔ
sâtâ
sata
Sanskrit
ORDINAL NUMBERS Khmer ordinal numbers are formed by placing the word ទី in front of a cardinal number. This is similar to the use of ที่ thi in Thai, and thứ (from Chinese 第) in Vietnamese. MEANING KHMER IPA UNGEGN ALALC OTHER NOTES First ទីមួយ tiː muəj ti muŏy dī muay ti muoy Second ទីពីរ tiː piː~pɨl ti pir dī bīr ti pii Third ទីបី tiː ɓəj ti bei dī pī ti bei ANGKORIAN NUMBERS It is generally assumed that the Angkorian and preAngkorian numbers
also represented a dual base (quinquavigesimal) system, with both base
5 and base 20 in use. Unlike modern Khmer, the decimal system was
highly limited, with both the numbers for ten and one hundred being
borrowed from the Chinese and
Sanskrit
The numbers for twenty, forty, and four hundred may be followed by multiplying numbers, with additional digits added on at the end, so that 27 is constructed as twentyoneseven, or 20×1+7. VALUE KHMER ORTHOGRAPHY NOTES 1 ១ mvay 2 ២ vyar 3 ៣ pi 4 ៤ pvan 5 ៥ pram (7 : pramvyar or pramvyal) 10
១០
tap
Old Chinese
20 ២០ bhai 40 ៤០ plon 80 ៨០ bhai pvan Literally "four twenty" 100
១០០
çata
Sanskrit
400 ៤០០ slik PROTOKHMER NUMBERS ProtoKhmer is the hypothetical ancestor of the modern Khmer language bearing various reflexes of the proposed protoMon–Khmer language. By comparing both modern Khmer and Angkorian Khmer numbers to those of other Eastern Mon–Khmer (or KhmeroVietic) languages such as Pearic , ProtoViet–Muong, Katuic , and Bahnaric ; it is possible to establish the following reconstructions for ProtoKhmer. NUMBERS FROM 5 TO 10 Contrary to later forms of the Khmer numbers, ProtoKhmer possessed a
single decimal number system. The numbers from one to five correspond
to both the modern
Khmer language
VALUE KHMER RECONSTRUCTION NOTES 5 ៥ *pram 6 ៦ *krɔɔŋ 7 ៧ *knuul 8 ៨ *ktii Same root as the word hand, *tii. 9 ៩ *ksaar 10 ១០ *kraaj Corresponds to presentday /rɔj/ (one hundred). REFERENCES General * David Smyth (1995). Colloquial Cambodian: A Complete Language
Course. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0415100062 .
* Huffman, Franklin E.; Charan Promchan; ChhomRak Thong Lambert
(2008). "Huffman, Modern Spoken Cambodian". Retrieved 20080325.
* Unknown (2005). Khmer Phrase Book: Everyday Phrases
MiniDictionary.
* Smyth, David; Tran Kien (1998). Practical Cambodian Dictionary (2
ed.). Tuttle Language Library/Charles E. Tuttle Company. ISBN
0804819548 .
* Southeast Asia. Lonely Planet. 2006. ISBN 1741046327 .
* "The original names for the Khmer tens: 30–90". 2008. Retrieved
20081218. first1= missing last1= in Authors list (help )
* "SEAlang Library Khmer Lexicography". Retrieved 20081207.
* "Veda:
Sanskrit
Specific * ^ Diller, Anthony (1996). "New Zeros and Old Khmer" (PDF).
Australian National University. pp. 1–3. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 20090220. Retrieved 20090111.
* ^ A B Eugene Smith, David; Louis Charles Karpinski (2004). The
Hindu–Arabic Numerals. Courier Dover Publications. p. 39. ISBN
0486439135 .
* ^ Kumar Sharan, Mahesh (2003). Studies In
Sanskrit
* ^ A B Gorgoniev, Yu A. (1961). Khmer language. p. 72.
* ^ Jacob (1993). Notes on the numerals and numeral coefficients in
Old, Middle, and Modern Khmer (PDF). p. 28.
* ^ A B "Khmer Numeral System". 20050619. Retrieved 20081218.
* ^ "Spoken Khmer Number". 2003. Retrieved 20081229.
* ^ Thomas, David D. (1971). Chrau Grammar (Oceanic Linguistics
Special
