KHMER NUMERALS are the numerals used in the
CONTENTS * 1 Numerals * 2 Modern Khmer numbers * 2.1 Numbers from 0 to 5
* 2.2 Numbers from 6 to 20
* 2.3 Numbers from 30 to 90
* 2.4 Numbers from 100 to 10,000,000
* 2.5 Counting fruits
* 2.6
* 3 Angkorian numbers * 4 Proto-Khmer numbers * 4.1 Numbers from 5 to 10 * 5 References NUMERALS NUMERAL SYSTEMS HINDU–ARABIC NUMERAL SYSTEM * Western Arabic * Eastern Arabic * Bengali * Gurmukhi * Indian * Sinhala * Tamil * Balinese * Burmese * Dzongkha * Gujarati * Javanese * Khmer * Lao * Mongolian * Thai EAST ASIAN * Chinese * Suzhou *
ALPHABETIC * Abjad * Armenian * Āryabhaṭa * Cyrillic * Ge\'ez * Georgian * Greek * Hebrew * Roman FORMER * Aegean * Attic * Babylonian * Brahmi * Egyptian * Etruscan * Inuit * Kharosthi *
Mayan * Muisca
*
* Prehistoric POSITIONAL SYSTEMS BY BASE * 2 * 3 * 4 * 5 * 6 * 8 * 10 * 12 * 16 * 20 * 60 NON-STANDARD POSITIONAL NUMERAL SYSTEMS *
* v * t * e The
Having been derived from the Hindu numerals , modern Khmer numerals
also represent a decimal positional notation system. It is the script
with the first extant material evidence of zero as a numerical figure
, dating its use back to the seventh century, two centuries before its
certain use in
As both Thai and Lao scripts are derived from Old Khmer, their modern forms still bear many resemblances to the latter, demonstrated in the following table: VALUE KHMER THAI LAO 0 ០ ๐ ໐ 1 ១ ๑ ໑ 2 ២ ๒ ໒ 3 ៣ ๓ ໓ 4 ៤ ๔ ໔ 5 ៥ ๕ ໕ 6 ៦ ๖ ໖ 7 ៧ ๗ ໗ 8 ៨ ๘ ໘ 9 ៩ ๙ ໙ MODERN KHMER NUMBERS The spoken names of modern Khmer numbers represent a biquinary system, with both base 5 and base 10 in use. For example, 6 (ប្រាំមួយ) is formed from 5 (ប្រាំ) plus 1 (មួយ). NUMBERS FROM 0 TO 5 With the exception of the number 0, which stems from Sanskrit, the etymology of the Khmer numbers from 1 to 5 is of proto-Mon–Khmer origin. VALUE KHMER WORD FORM IPA UNGEGN ALA-LC OTHER NOTES 0
០
សូន្យ
soun
sony
sūny
soun
From
1 ១ មួយ muəj muŏy muay mouy Before a classifier, /muəj/ is reduced to /mə/ in regular speech. 2 ២ ពីរ piː (pɨl) pir bīr pii Also /pir/ 3 ៣ បី ɓəj bei pī bei 4 ៤ បួន ɓuən buŏn puan buon 5 ៥ ប្រាំ pram prăm prâṃ pram * For details of the various alternative romanization systems, see
NUMBERS FROM 6 TO 20 As mentioned above, the numbers from 6 to 9 may be constructed by adding any number between 1 and 4 to the base number 5 (ប្រាំ), so that 7 is literally constructed as 5 plus 2. Beyond that, Khmer uses a decimal base, so that 14 is constructed as 10 plus 4, rather than 2 times 5 plus 4; and 16 is constructed as 10+5+1. Colloquially, compound numbers from eleven to nineteen may be formed using the word ដណ្ដប់ preceded by any number from one to nine, so that 15 is constructed as ប្រាំដណ្ដប់ , instead of the standard ដប់ប្រាំ . VALUE KHMER WORD FORM IPA UNGEGN ALA-LC OTHER NOTES 6 ៦ ប្រាំមួយ pram muəj prăm muŏy prâṃ muay pram muoy 7 ៧ ប្រាំពីរ pram piː (pram pɨl) prăm pir prâṃ bīr pram pii 8 ៨ ប្រាំបី pram ɓəj prăm bey prâṃ pī pram bei 9 ៩ ប្រាំបួន pram ɓuən prăm buŏn prâṃ puan pram buon 10
១០
ដប់
ɗɑp
dáb
ṭáp
dap
11 ១១ ដប់មួយ ɗɑp muəj dáb muŏy ṭáp muay dap muoy Colloquially មួយដណ្ដប់ . 20 ២០ ម្ភៃ mpʰej (məpʰɨj, mpʰɨj) mphey mbhai mpei Contraction of /muəj/ + /pʰej/ (i.e. one + twenty) * In constructions from 6 to 9 that use 5 as a base, /pram/ may alternatively be pronounced ; giving , , , and . This is especially true in dialects which elide /r/, but not necessarily restricted to them, as the pattern also follows Khmer's minor syllable pattern. NUMBERS FROM 30 TO 90 The numbers from thirty to ninety in Khmer bear many resemblances to
both the modern Thai and
Informally, a speaker may choose to omit the final and the number is still understood. For example, it is possible to say (ប៉ែតមួយ) instead of the full (ប៉ែតសិបមួយ). VALUE KHMER WORD FORM IPA UNGEGN ALA-LC OTHER NOTES 30 ៣០ សាមសិប saːm səp sam sĕb sām sip sam sep 40 ៤០ សែសិប sae sǝp sê sĕb sae sip sae sep 50 ៥០ ហាសិប haː səp ha sĕb hā sip ha sep 60 ៦០ ហុកសិប hok səp hŏk sĕb huk sip hok sep 70 ៧០ ចិតសិប cət səp chĕt sĕb cit sip chet sep 80 ៨០ ប៉ែតសិប paet səp pêt sĕb p″ait sip paet sep 90 ៩០ កៅសិប kaw səp kau sĕb kau sip kao sep Language Comparisons: VALUE KHMER THAI ARCHAIC THAI LAO CANTONESE TEOCHEW HOKKIEN MANDARIN 3 ‒ *saːm sam sǎam sãam saam1 sã1 sa1 (sam1) sān 4 ‒ *sɐe si sài sii sei3 si3 si3 (su3) sì 5 ‒ *haː ha ngùa hàa ng5 ŋou6 go2 (ngo2) wǔ 6 ‒ *hok hok lòk hók luk6 lak8 lak2 (liok8) liù 7 ‒ *cət chet jèd jét cat1 tsʰik4 chit2 qī 8 ‒ *pɐət paet pàed pàet baat3 poiʔ4 pueh4 (pat4) bā 9 ‒ *kaw kao jao kâo gau2 kao2 kau4 (kiu2) jiǔ 10 ‒ *səp sip jǒng síp sap6 tsap8 tzhap2 (sip8) shí * Words in parenthesis indicate literary pronunciations, while words preceded with an asterisk mark are non-productive (i.e. only occur in specific constructions, but cannot be decomposed to form basic numbers). NUMBERS FROM 100 TO 10,000,000 The standard Khmer numbers starting from one hundred are as follows: VALUE KHMER WORD FORM IPA UNGEGN ALA-LC OTHER NOTES 100 ១០០ មួយរយ muəj rɔːj (rɔːj, mərɔːj) muŏy rôy muay ray muoy roy Borrowed from Thai ร้อย roi. 1 000 ១០០០ មួយពាន់ muəj poan muŏy poăn muay bân muoy poan From Thai พัน phan. 10 000 ១០០០០ មួយម៉ឺន muəj məɨn muŏy mœŭn muay muȳn muoy muen From Thai หมื่น muen. 100 000 ១០០០០០ មួយសែន muəj saen muŏy sên muay s″ain muoy saen From Thai แสน saen. 1 000 000 ១០០០០០០ មួយលាន muəj lien muŏy leăn muay lân muoy lean From Thai ล้าน lan. 10 000 000
១០០០០០០០
មួយកោដិ
muəj kaot
muŏy kaôdĕ
muay koṭi
muoy kaot
From
Although មួយកោដិ is most commonly used to mean ten million, in some areas this is also colloquially used to refer to one billion (which is more properly មួយរយកោដិ). In order to avoid confusion, sometimes ដប់លាន is used to mean ten million, along with មួយរយលាន for one hundred million, and មួយពាន់លាន ("one thousand million") to mean one billion. Different Cambodian dialects may also employ different base number constructions to form greater numbers above one thousand. A few of the such can be observed in the following table: VALUE KHMER WORD FORM IPA UNGEGN ALA-LC NOTES 10 000 ១០០០០ ដប់ពាន់ ɗɑp poan dáb poăn ṭáp bân Literally "ten thousand" 100 000 ១០០០០០ ដប់ម៉ឺន ɗɑp məɨn dáb mœŭn ṭáp muȳn Literally "ten ten-thousand" 100 000 ១០០០០០ មួយរយពាន់ muəj rɔj poan muŏy rôy poăn muay ray bân Literally "one hundred thousand" 1 000 000 ១០០០០០០ មួយរយម៉ឺន muəj rɔj məɨn muŏy rôy mœŭn muay ray muȳn Literally "one hundred ten-thousand" 10 000 000 ១០០០០០០០ ដប់លាន ɗɑp lien dáb leăn ṭáp lân Literally "ten million" 100 000 000 ១០០០០០០០០ មួយរយលាន muəj rɔj lien muŏy rôy leăn muay ray lân Literally "one hundred million" 1 000 000 000 ១០០០០០០០០០ មួយពាន់លាន muəj poan lien muŏy poăn leăn muay ray bân Literally "one thousand million" COUNTING FRUITS Reminiscent of the standard 20-base Angkorian Khmer numbers, the
modern
VALUE KHMER WORD FORM IPA UNGEGN ALA-LC NOTES 4 ៤ ដំប dɑmbɑː dâmbâ ṭaṃpa Also written ដំបរ (dâmbâr or ṭaṃpar) 40 ៤០ ផ្លូន ploːn phlon phlūn From (pre-)Angkorian *plon "40" 80 ៨០ ពីរផ្លូន piː~pɨl ploːn pir phlon bir phlūn Literally "two forty" 400 ៤០០ ស្លឹក slək slœ̆k slẏk From (pre-)Angkorian *slik "400" SANSKRIT AND PALI INFLUENCE As a result of prolonged literary influence from both the Sanskrit
and
VALUE KHMER WORD FORM IPA UNGEGN ALA-LC NOTES 10
១០
ទស
tʊəh
tôs
das
12
១២
ទ្វាទស
tvietʊəh
tvieteaʔsaʔ tvéatôs(â)
dvādas(a)
13 or 30
១៣ or ៣០
ត្រីទស
trəj tʊəh
trei tôs
trǐ das
28
២៨
អស្តាពីស
ʔahsdaː piː sɑː
’asta pi sâ
qastā bǐ sa
100
១០០
សត
saʔtaʔ
sâtâ
sata
ORDINAL NUMBERS Khmer ordinal numbers are formed by placing the word ទី in front of a cardinal number. This is similar to the use of ที่ thi in Thai, and thứ (from Chinese 第) in Vietnamese. MEANING KHMER IPA UNGEGN ALA-LC OTHER NOTES First ទីមួយ tiː muəj ti muŏy dī muay ti muoy Second ទីពីរ tiː piː~pɨl ti pir dī bīr ti pii Third ទីបី tiː ɓəj ti bei dī pī ti bei ANGKORIAN NUMBERS It is generally assumed that the Angkorian and pre-Angkorian numbers
also represented a dual base (quinquavigesimal) system, with both base
5 and base 20 in use. Unlike modern Khmer, the decimal system was
highly limited, with both the numbers for ten and one hundred being
borrowed from the Chinese and
The numbers for twenty, forty, and four hundred may be followed by multiplying numbers, with additional digits added on at the end, so that 27 is constructed as twenty-one-seven, or 20×1+7. VALUE KHMER ORTHOGRAPHY NOTES 1 ១ mvay 2 ២ vyar 3 ៣ pi 4 ៤ pvan 5 ៥ pram (7 : pramvyar or pramvyal) 10
១០
tap
20 ២០ bhai 40 ៤០ plon 80 ៨០ bhai pvan Literally "four twenty" 100
១០០
çata
400 ៤០០ slik PROTO-KHMER NUMBERS Proto-Khmer is the hypothetical ancestor of the modern Khmer language bearing various reflexes of the proposed proto-Mon–Khmer language. By comparing both modern Khmer and Angkorian Khmer numbers to those of other Eastern Mon–Khmer (or Khmero-Vietic) languages such as Pearic , Proto-Viet–Muong, Katuic , and Bahnaric ; it is possible to establish the following reconstructions for Proto-Khmer. NUMBERS FROM 5 TO 10 Contrary to later forms of the Khmer numbers, Proto-Khmer possessed a
single decimal number system. The numbers from one to five correspond
to both the modern
VALUE KHMER RECONSTRUCTION NOTES 5 ៥ *pram 6 ៦ *krɔɔŋ 7 ៧ *knuul 8 ៨ *ktii Same root as the word hand, *tii. 9 ៩ *ksaar 10 ១០ *kraaj Corresponds to present-day /rɔj/ (one hundred). REFERENCES General * David Smyth (1995). Colloquial Cambodian: A Complete Language
Course. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-10006-2 .
* Huffman, Franklin E.; Charan Promchan; Chhom-Rak Thong Lambert
(2008). "Huffman, Modern Spoken Cambodian". Retrieved 2008-03-25.
* Unknown (2005). Khmer Phrase Book: Everyday Phrases
Mini-Dictionary.
* Smyth, David; Tran Kien (1998). Practical Cambodian Dictionary (2
ed.). Tuttle Language Library/Charles E. Tuttle Company. ISBN
0-8048-1954-8 .
* Southeast Asia. Lonely Planet. 2006. ISBN 1-74104-632-7 .
* "The original names for the Khmer tens: 30–90". 2008. Retrieved
2008-12-18. first1= missing last1= in Authors list (help )
* "SEAlang Library Khmer Lexicography". Retrieved 2008-12-07.
* "Veda:
Specific * ^ Diller, Anthony (1996). "New Zeros and Old Khmer" (PDF).
Australian National University. pp. 1–3. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 2009-02-20. Retrieved 2009-01-11.
* ^ A B Eugene Smith, David; Louis Charles Karpinski (2004). The
Hindu–Arabic Numerals. Courier Dover Publications. p. 39. ISBN
0-486-43913-5 .
* ^ Kumar Sharan, Mahesh (2003). Studies In
* ^ A B Gorgoniev, Yu A. (1961). Khmer language. p. 72.
* ^ Jacob (1993). Notes on the numerals and numeral coefficients in
Old, Middle, and Modern Khmer (PDF). p. 28.
* ^ A B "Khmer Numeral System". 2005-06-19. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
* ^ "Spoken Khmer Number". 2003. Retrieved 2008-12-29.
* ^ Thomas, David D. (1971). Chrau Grammar (Oceanic Linguistics
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