Demotic 7 c. BCE
Meroitic 3 c. BCE
Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE
Ugaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE
Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE
Phoenician 12 c. BCE
Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE
Samaritan 6 c. BCE
Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE
E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE
Canadian syllabics 1840
Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCE
Avestan 4 c. CE
Palmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCE
Nabataean 2 c. BCE
Arabic 4 c. CE
N'Ko 1949 CE
Sogdian 2 c. BCE
Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE
Old Hungarian c. 650 CE
Mongolian 1204 CE
Mandaic 2 c. CE
Greek 8 c. BCE
Etruscan 8 c. BCE
Latin 7 c. BCE
Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE
Runic 2 c. CE
Coptic 3 c. CE Gothic 3 c. CE Armenian 405 CE Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE Glagolitic 862 CE Cyrillic c. 940 CE
Old Permic 1372 CE
v t e
Khmer is written from left to right. Words within the same sentence or
phrase are generally run together with no spaces between them.
1.1 Variation in pronunciation 1.2 Supplementary consonants
2 Dependent vowels
2.1 Modification by diacritics 2.2 Consonants with no dependent vowel 2.3 Ligatures
3 Independent vowels 4 Diacritics 5 Dictionary order 6 Numerals 7 Spacing and punctuation 8 Styles 9 Unicode 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links
There are 35 Khmer consonant symbols, although modern Khmer only uses
33, two having become obsolete. Each consonant has an inherent vowel:
â /ɑː/ or ô /ɔː/; equivalently, each consonant is said to belong
to the a-series or o-series. A consonant's series determines the
pronunciation of the dependent vowel symbols which may be attached to
it, and in some positions the sound of the inherent vowel is itself
pronounced. The two series originally represented voiceless and voiced
consonants respectively (and are still referred to as such in Khmer);
sound changes during the
Full value (with inherent vowel)
IPA UN IPA UN
ក ្ក [kɑː] kâ [k] k
ខ ្ខ [kʰɑː] khâ [kʰ] kh
គ ្គ [kɔː] kô [k] k
ឃ ្ឃ [kʰɔː] khô [kʰ] kh
ង ្ង [ŋɔː] ngô [ŋ] ng
ច ្ច [cɑː] châ [c] ch
ឆ ្ឆ [cʰɑː] chhâ [cʰ] chh
ជ ្ជ [cɔː] chô [c] ch
ឈ ្ឈ [cʰɔː] chhô [cʰ] chh
ញ ្ញ [ɲɔː] nhô [ɲ] nh
ដ ្ដ [ɗɑː] dâ [ɗ] d
ឋ ្ឋ [tʰɑː] thâ [tʰ] th
ឌ ្ឌ [ɗɔː] dô [ɗ] d
ឍ ្ឍ [tʰɔː] thô [tʰ] th
ណ ្ណ [nɑː] nâ [n] n
ត ្ត [tɑː] tâ [t] t
ថ ្ថ [tʰɑː] thâ [tʰ] th
ទ ្ទ [tɔː] tô [t] t
ធ ្ធ [tʰɔː] thô [tʰ] th
ន ្ន [nɔː] nô [n] n
ប ្ប [ɓɑː] bâ [ɓ], [p] b, p
ផ ្ផ [pʰɑː] phâ [pʰ] ph
ព ្ព [pɔː] pô [p] p
ភ ្ភ [pʰɔː] phô [pʰ] ph
ម ្ម [mɔː] mô [m] m
យ ្យ [jɔː] yô [j] y
រ ្រ [rɔː] rô [r] r
ល ្ល [lɔː] lô [l] l
វ ្វ [ʋɔː] vô [ʋ] v
ឝ ្ឝ Obsolete; historically used for palatal s
ឞ ្ឞ Obsolete; historically used for retroflex s
ស ្ស [sɑː] sâ [s] s
ហ ្ហ [hɑː] hâ [h] h
ឡ none [lɑː] lâ [l] l
អ ្អ [ʔɑː] ’â [ʔ] ’
The letter bâ appears in somewhat modified form (e.g. បា) when
combined with certain dependent vowels (see Ligatures).
The letter ញ nhô is written without the lower curve when a
subscript is added. When it is subscripted to itself, the subscript is
a smaller form of the entire letter: ញ្ញ -nhnh-.
Note that ដ dâ and ត tâ have the same subscript form. In initial
clusters this subscript is always pronounced [d], but in medial
positions it is [d] in some words and [t] in others.
The series ដ dâ, ឋ thâ, ឌ dô, ឍ thô, ណ nâ originally
represented retroflex consonants in the Indic parent scripts. The
second, third and fourth of these are rare, and occur only for
etymological reasons in a few
Full value (with inherent vowel)
IPA UN IPA UN
ហ្គ hâ + kô [ɡɑː] gâ [ɡ] g Example: ហ្គាស, [ɡas] ('gas')
ហ្គ៊ hâ + kô + diacritic [ɡɔː] gô [ɡ] g
ហ្ន hâ + nô [nɑː] nâ [n] n Example: ហ្នាំង or ហ្ន័ង, [naŋ] ('shadow play' from Thai: หนัง)
ប៉ bâ + diacritic [pɑː] pâ [p] p Example: ប៉ាក់, [pak] (to 'embroider'), ប៉័ង, [paŋ] ('bread')
ហ្ម hâ + mô [mɑː] mâ [m] m Example: គ្រូហ្ម, [kruː mɑː] ('shaman', from Thai: หมอ)
ហ្ល hâ + lô [lɑː] lâ [l] l Example: ហ្លួង, [luəŋ] ('king', from Thai: หลวง)
ហ្វ hâ + vô [fɑː], [ʋɑː] fâ, vâ [f], [ʋ] f, v Pronounced [ʋ] in ហ្វង់, [ʋɑŋ] ('clear') and [f] in កាហ្វេ, [kaafeɛ] ('coffee')
ហ្វ៊ hâ + vô + diacritic [fɔː], [ʋɔː] fô, vô [f], [ʋ] f, v Example: ហ្វ៊ីល, [fiːl] ('film')
ហ្ស hâ + sâ [ʒɑː], [zɑː] žâ, zâ [ʒ], [z] ž, z Example: ហ្សាស, [ʒas] ('jazz')
ហ្ស៊ hâ + sâ + diacritic [ʒɔː], [zɔː] žô, zô [ʒ], [z] ž, z Example: ហ្ស៊ីប, [ʒiːp] ('jeep')
Dependent vowels Most Khmer vowel sounds are written using dependent, or diacritical, vowel symbols, known in Khmer as ស្រៈនិស្ស័យ srăk nissăy or ស្រៈផ្សំ srăk phsâm ("connecting vowel"). These can only be written in combination with a consonant (or consonant cluster). The vowel is pronounced after the consonant (or cluster), even though some of the symbols have graphical elements which appear above, below or to the left of the consonant character. Most of the vowel symbols have two possible pronunciations, depending on the inherent vowel of the consonant to which it is added. Their pronunciations may also be different in weak syllables, and when they are shortened (e.g. by means of a diacritic). Absence of a dependent vowel (or diacritic) often implies that a syllable-initial consonant is followed by the sound of its inherent vowel. In determining the inherent vowel of a consonant cluster (i.e. how a following dependent vowel will be pronounced), stops and fricatives are dominant over sonorants. For any consonant cluster including a combination of these sounds, a following dependent vowel is pronounced according to the dominant consonant, regardless of its position in the cluster. When both members of a cluster are dominant, the subscript consonant determines the pronunciation of a following dependent vowel. A non-dominant consonant (and in some words also ហ្ hâ) will also have its inherent vowel changed by a preceding dominant consonant in the same word, even when there is a vowel between them, although some words (especially among those with more than two syllables) do not obey this rule. The dependent vowels are listed below, in conventional form with an ellipse as a dummy consonant symbol, and in combination with the a-series letter អ ’â. The IPA values given are representative of dialects from the northwest and central plains regions, specifically from the Battambang area, upon which Standard Khmer is based. Vowel pronunciation varies widely in other dialects such as Northern Khmer, where diphthongs are leveled, and Western Khmer, in which breathy voice and modal voice phonations are still contrastive.
Dependent vowel Example IPA UN Notes
a-series o-series a-series o-series
(none) អ [ɑː] [ɔː] â ô See Modification by diacritics and Consonants with no dependent vowel.
ា អា [aː] [iə] a éa See Modification by diacritics.
ិ អិ [ə], [e] [ɨ], [i] ĕ ĭ Pronounced [e]/[i] in syllables with no written final consonant (a glottal stop is then added if the syllable is stressed; however in some words the vowel is silent when final, and in some words in which it is not word-final it is pronounced [əj]). In the o-series, combines with final យ yô to sound [iː]. (See also Modification by diacritics.)
ី អី [əj] [iː] ei i
ឹ អឹ [ə] [ɨ] œ̆
ឺ អឺ [əɨ] [ɨː] œ
ុ អុ [o] [u] ŏ ŭ See Modification by diacritics. In a stressed syllable with no written final consonant, the vowel is followed by a glottal stop [ʔ], or by [k] in the word តុ tŏk ("table") (but the vowel is silent when final in certain words).
ូ អូ [ou] [uː] o u Becomes [əw]/[ɨw] before a final វ vô.
ួ អួ [uə] uŏ
ើ អើ [aə] [əː] aeu eu See Modification by diacritics.
ឿ អឿ [ɨə] œă
ៀ អៀ [iə] iĕ
េ អេ [ei] [eː] é Becomes [ə]/[ɨ] before palatals (or in the a-series, [a] before [c] in some words). Pronounced [ae]/[ɛː] in some words. See also Modification by diacritics.
ែ អែ [ae] [ɛː] ê See Modification by diacritics.
ៃ អៃ [aj] [ɨj] ai ey
ោ អោ [ao] [oː] aô oŭ See Modification by diacritics.
ៅ អៅ [aw] [ɨw] au ŏu
The spoken name of each dependent vowel consists of the word ស្រៈ srăk [sraʔ]("vowel") followed by the vowel's a-series value preceded by a glottal stop (and also followed by a glottal stop in the case of short vowels). Modification by diacritics The addition of some of the Khmer diacritics can modify the length and value of inherent or dependent vowels. The following table shows combinations with the nĭkkôhĕt and reăhmŭkh diacritics, representing final [m] and [h]. They are shown with the a-series consonant អ ’â.
Combination IPA UN Notes
a-series o-series a-series o-series
អុំ [om] [um] om ŭm
អំ [ɑm] [um] âm um The word ធំ "big" is pronounced [tʰom] (but [tʰum] in some dialects).
អាំ [am] [ŏəm] ăm ŏâm When followed by ង ngô, becomes [aŋ]/[eəŋ] ăng/eăng.
អះ [aʰ] [ĕəʰ] ăh eăh
អិះ [eʰ] [iʰ] ĕh ĭh
អុះ [oʰ] [uʰ] ŏh ŭh
អេះ [eʰ] [iʰ] éh
អោះ [ɑʰ] [ŭəʰ] aôh ŏăh The word នោះ "that" is pronounced [nuʰ].
The first four configurations listed here are treated as dependent vowels in their own right, and have names constructed in the same way as for the other dependent vowels (described in the previous section). Other rarer configurations with the reăhmŭkh are អើះ (or អឹះ), pronounced [əh], and អែះ, pronounced [eh]. The word ចា៎ះ "yes" (used by women) is pronounced [caːh]. The bântăk (a small vertical line written over the final consonant of a syllable) has the following effects:
in a syllable with inherent â, the vowel is shortened to [ɑ], UN transcription á in a syllable with inherent ô, the vowel is modified to [u] before a final labial, otherwise usually to [ŏə]; UN transcription ó in a syllable with the a dependent vowel symbol () in the a-series, the vowel is shortened to [a], UN transcription ă in a syllable with that vowel symbol in the o-series, the vowel is modified to [ŏə], UN transcription oă, or to [ĕə] eă before k, ng, h
The sanhyoŭk sannha is equivalent to the a dependent vowel with the
bântăk. However, its o-series pronunciation becomes [ɨ] before
final y, and [ɔə] before final (silent) r.
The yŭkôleăkpĭntŭ (pair of dots) represents [a] (a-series) or
[ĕə] (o-series), followed by a glottal stop.
Consonants with no dependent vowel
There are three environments where a consonant may appear without a
dependent vowel. The rules governing the inherent vowel differ for all
three environments. Consonants may be written with no dependent vowel
as an initial consonant of a weak syllable, an initial consonant of a
strong syllable or as the final letter of a written word.
In careful speech, initial consonants without a dependent vowel in
weak initial syllables are pronounced with their inherent vowel
shortened as if modified by the bantak diacritic (see previous
section). For example the first-series letter "ច" in
"ចន្លុះ" ("torch") is pronounced with the short vowel
/ɑ/. The second-series letter "ព" in "ពន្លឺ" ("light") is
pronounced with the short diphthong /ŏə/. In casual speech, these
are most often reduced to /ə/ for both series.
Initial consonants in strong syllables without written vowels are
pronounced with their inherent vowels. The word ចង ("to tie") is
pronounced /cɑːŋ/, ជត ("weak", "to sink") is pronounced
/cɔːt/. In some words, however, the inherent vowel is pronounced in
its reduced form, as if modified by a bântăk diacritic, even though
the diacritic is not written (e.g. សព [sɑp] "corpse"). Such
reduction regularly takes place in words ending with a consonant with
a silent subscript (such as សព្វ [sɑp] "every"), although in
most such words it is the bântăk-reduced form of the vowel a that is
heard, as in សព្ទ [sap] "noise". The word អ្នក "you,
person" has the highly irregular pronunciation [nĕəʔ].
Consonants written as the final letter of word usually represent a
word-final sound and are pronounced without any following vowel and,
in the case of stops, with no audible release as in the examples
above. However, in some words adopted from
bau /ɓaw/ Another example with ប bâ, forming a similar ligature to that described above. Here the vowel is not a itself, but another vowel (au) which contains the cane-like stroke of that vowel as a graphical element.
léa /liə/ An example of the vowel a forming a connection with the serif of a consonant.
chba /cɓaː/ Subscript consonants with ascending strokes above the baseline also form ligatures with the a vowel symbol.
msau /msaw/ Another example of a subscript consonant forming a ligature, this time with the vowel au.
tra /traː/ The subscript for រ rô is written to the left of the main consonant, in this case ត tâ, which here forms a ligature with a.
Independent vowels Independent vowels are non-diacritical vowel characters that stand alone (i.e. without being attached to a consonant symbol). In Khmer they are called ស្រៈពេញតួ srăk pénhtuŏ, which means "complete vowels". They are used in some words to represent certain combinations of a vowel with an initial glottal stop or liquid. The independent vowels are used in a small number of words, mostly of Indic origin, and consequently there is some inconsistency in their use and pronunciations. However, a few words in which they occur are used quite frequently; these include: ឥឡូវ [ʔəjləw] "now", ឪពុក [ʔəwpuk] "father", ឬ [rɨː] "or", ឮ [lɨː] "hear", ឲ្យ [ʔaoj] "give, let", ឯង [ʔaeŋ] "oneself, I, you", ឯណា [ʔaenaː] "where".
Independent vowel IPA UN
ឥ [ʔə], [ʔɨ], [ʔəj] ĕ
ឦ [ʔəj] ei
ឧ [ʔo], [ʔu], [ʔao] ŏ, ŭ
ឨ Obsolete (equivalent to the sequence ឧក)
ឩ [ʔou], [ʔuː] not given (ou in GD system)
ឪ [ʔəw] âu
ឫ [ra~ru] rœ̆
ឬ [raː~ruː] rœ
ឭ [la~lu] lœ̆
ឮ [laː~luː] lœ
ឯ [ʔae], [ʔɛː], [ʔeː] ê
ឰ [ʔaj] ai
ឱ, ឲ [ʔao] aô
ឳ [ʔaw] au
Independent vowel letters are named similarly to the dependent vowels, with the word ស្រៈ srăk [sraʔ] ("vowel") followed by the principal sound of the letter (the pronunciation or first of the pronunciations listed above), followed by an additional glottal stop after a short vowel. However the letter ឥ is called [sraʔ ʔeʔ]. Diacritics The Khmer writing system contains several diacritics, used to indicate further modifications in pronunciation.
Diacritic Khmer name Function
ះ រះមុខ reăhmŭkh "shining face" Related to the visarga. A pair of small circles written after a consonant or a following dependent vowel, it modifies and adds final aspiration /h/ to the inherent or dependent vowel. For details see Modification by diacritics.
ៈ យុគលពិន្ទុ yŭkôleăkpĭntŭ A "pair of dots", a fairly recently introduced diacritic, written after a consonant to indicate that it is to be followed by a short vowel and a glottal stop. See Modification by diacritics.
៉ មូសិកទន្ត musĕkâtônd "mouse teeth" Two short vertical lines, written above a consonant, used to convert some o-series consonants (ង ញ ម យ រ វ) to a-series. It is also used with ប bâ to convert it to a p sound (see Supplementary consonants).
៊ ត្រីសព្ទ treisâpt A wavy line, written above a consonant, used to convert some a-series consonants (ស ហ ប អ) to o-series.
ុ ក្បៀសក្រោម kbiĕh kraôm Also known as បុកជើង bŏkcheung ("collision foot"); a vertical line written under a consonant, used in place of the diacritics treisâpt and musĕkâtônd when they would be impeded by superscript vowels.
់ បន្តក់ bântăk A small vertical line written over the last consonant of a syllable, indicating shortening (and corresponding change in quality) of certain vowels. See Modification by diacritics.
This superscript diacritic occurs in
៍ ទណ្ឌឃាដ tôndâkhéat Written over a final consonant to indicate that it is unpronounced. (Such unpronounced letters are still romanized in the UN system.)
៎ កាកបាទ kakâbat Also known as a "crow's foot", used in writing to indicate the rising intonation of an exclamation or interjection; often placed on particles such as /na/, /nɑː/, /nɛː/, /ʋəːj/, and on ចា៎ះ /caːh/, a word for "yes" used by females.
៏ អស្តា âsda "number eight" Used in a few words to show that a consonant with no dependent vowel is to be pronounced with its inherent vowel, rather than as a final consonant.
សំយោគសញ្ញា sanhyoŭk sannha
Used in some
៑ វិរាម vĭréam A mostly obsolete diacritic, corresponding to the virama, which suppresses a consonant's inherent vowel.
For the purpose of dictionary ordering of words, main consonants,
subscript consonants and dependent vowels are all significant; and
when they appear in combination, they are considered in the order in
which they would be spoken (main consonant, subscript, vowel). The
order of the consonants and of the dependent vowels is the order in
which they appear in the above tables. A syllable written without any
dependent vowel is treated as if it contained a vowel character that
precedes all the visible dependent vowels.
As mentioned above, the four configurations with diacritics
exemplified in the syllables អុំ អំ អាំ អះ are
treated as dependent vowels in their own right, and come in that order
at the end of the list of dependent vowels. Other configurations with
the reăhmŭkh diacritic are ordered as if that diacritic were a final
consonant coming after all other consonants. Words with the bântăk
and sanhyoŭk sannha diacritics are ordered directly after identically
spelled words without the diacritics.
Vowels precede consonants in the ordering, so a combination of main
and subscript consonants comes after any instance in which the same
main consonant appears unsubscripted before a vowel.
Words spelled with an independent vowel whose sound begins with a
glottal stop follow after words spelled with the equivalent
combination of អ ’â plus dependent vowel. Words spelled with an
independent vowel whose sound begins [r] or [l] follow after all words
beginning with the consonants រ rô and ល lô respectively.
Words spelled with a consonant modified by a diacritic follow words
spelled with the same consonant and dependent vowel symbol but without
the diacritic.[dubious – discuss] However, words
spelled with ប៉ (a bâ converted to a p sound by a diacritic)
follow all words with unmodified ប bâ (without diacritic and
without subscript).[dubious – discuss] Sometimes
words in which ប is pronounced p are ordered as if the letter were
Main article: Khmer numerals
The numerals of the Khmer script, similar to that used by other
civilizations in Southeast Asia, are also derived from the southern
Indian script. Western-style
Khmer numerals ០ ១ ២ ៣ ៤ ៥ ៦ ៧ ៨ ៩
Arabic numerals 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
In large numbers, groups of three digits are delimited with Western-style periods. The decimal point is represented by a comma. The Cambodian currency, the riel, is abbreviated using the symbol ៛ or simply the letter រ rô. Spacing and punctuation Spaces are not used between all words in written Khmer. Spaces are used within sentences in roughly the same places as commas might be in English, although they may also serve to set off certain items such as numbers and proper names. Western-style punctuation marks are quite commonly used in modern Khmer writing, including French-style guillemets for quotation marks. However, traditional Khmer punctuation marks are also used; some of these are described in the following table.
Mark Khmer name Function
។ ខណ្ឌ khăn Used as a period (the sign resembles an eighth rest in music writing). However, consecutive sentences on the same theme are often separated only by spaces.
៘ ល៉ៈ lăk Equivalent to etc.
ៗ លេខទោ lékhtoŭ ("figure two") Duplication sign (similar in form to the Khmer numeral for 2). It indicates that the preceding word or phrase is to be repeated (duplicated), a common feature in Khmer syntax.
៕ បរិយោសាន bâriyaôsan A period used to end an entire text or a chapter.
៚ គោមូត្រ koŭmot ("cow urine") A period used at the end of poetic or religious texts.
៙ ភ្នែកមាន់ phnêkmoăn ("cock's eye") A symbol (said to represent the elephant trunk of Ganesha) used at the start of poetic or religious texts.
៖ ចំណុចពីរគូស châmnŏch pi kus "two dots (and a) line" Used similarly to a colon. (The middle line distinguishes this sign from a diacritic.)
A hyphen (Khmer name សហសញ្ញា sâhâ sânhnha) is commonly used between components of personal names, and also as in English when a word is divided between lines of text. It can also be used, for example, between numbers to denote ranges or dates. Particular uses of Western-style periods include grouping of digits in large numbers (see Numerals hereinbefore) and denotation of abbreviations. Styles Several styles of Khmer writing are used for varying purposes. The two main styles are âksâr chriĕng (literally "slanted script") and âksâr mul ("round script").
Âksâr khâm (អក្សរខម, Aksar Khom), an antique style of
Âksâr chriĕng (អក្សរជ្រៀង) refers to oblique
letters. Entire bodies of text such as novels and other publications
may be produced in âksâr chriĕng. Unlike in written English,
oblique lettering does not represent any grammatical differences such
as emphasis or quotation. Handwritten Khmer is often written in the
Âksâr chhôr (អក្សរឈរ) or Âksâr tráng
(អក្សរត្រង់) refers to upright or 'standing'
letters, as opposed to oblique letters. Most modern Khmer typefaces
are designed in this manner instead of being oblique, as text can be
italicized by way of word processor commands and other computer
applications to represent the oblique manner of âksâr chriĕng.
Âksâr khâm (អក្សរខម) is a style used in Pali
palm-leaf manuscripts. It is characterized by sharper serifs and
angles and retainment of some antique characteristics; notably in the
consonant kâ (ក). This style is also for yantra tattoos and yantras
on cloth, paper, or engravings on brass plates in
The basic Khmer block was added to the
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+178x ក ខ គ ឃ ង ច ឆ ជ ឈ ញ ដ ឋ ឌ ឍ ណ ត
U+179x ថ ទ ធ ន ប ផ ព ភ ម យ រ ល វ ឝ ឞ ស
U+17Ax ហ ឡ អ ឣ ឤ ឥ ឦ ឧ ឨ ឩ ឪ ឫ ឬ ឭ ឮ ឯ
U+17Bx ឰ ឱ ឲ ឳ KIV AQ KIV AA ា ិ ី ឹ ឺ ុ ូ ួ ើ ឿ
U+17Cx ៀ េ ែ ៃ ោ ៅ ំ ះ ៈ ៉ ៊ ់ ៌ ៍ ៎ ៏
U+17Dx ័ ៑ ្ ៓ ។ ៕ ៖ ៗ ៘ ៙ ៚ ៛ ៜ ៝
U+17Ex ០ ១ ២ ៣ ៤ ៥ ៦ ៧ ៨ ៩
U+17Fx ៰ ៱ ៲ ៳ ៴ ៵ ៶ ៷ ៸ ៹
The first 35 characters are the consonant letters (including two
obsolete). The symbols at U+17A3 and U+17A4 are deprecated (they were
intended for use in
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+19Ex ᧠ ᧡ ᧢ ᧣ ᧤ ᧥ ᧦ ᧧ ᧨ ᧩ ᧪ ᧫ ᧬ ᧭ ᧮ ᧯
U+19Fx ᧰ ᧱ ᧲ ᧳ ᧴ ᧵ ᧶ ᧷ ᧸ ᧹ ᧺ ᧻ ᧼ ᧽ ᧾ ᧿
1.^ As of
The symbols at U+19E0 and U+19F0 represent the first and second "eighth month" in a lunar year containing a leap-month (see Khmer calendar). The remaining symbols in this block denote the days of a lunar month: those in the U+19Ex series for waxing days, and those in the U+19Fx series for waning days. See also
Khmer Braille Romanization of Khmer
^ Herbert, Patricia; Anthony Crothers Milner (1989). South-East Asia:
languages and literatures : a select guide. University of Hawaii
Press. pp. 51–52. ISBN 0-8248-1267-0.
^ a b c Huffman, Franklin. 1970. Cambodian System of Writing and
Beginning Reader. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-01314-0.
^ Punnee Soonthornpoct: From Freedom to Hell: A History of Foreign
Interventions in Cambodian Politics And Wars. Page 29. Vantage Press.
^ Russell R. Ross: Cambodia: A Country Study. Page 112. Library of
Congress, USA, Federal Research Division, 1990.
^ Report on the Current Status of United Nations Romanization Systems
for Geographical Names – Khmer,
Dictionnaire Cambodgien, Vol I & II, 1967, L'institut Bouddhique (Khmer Language) Jacob, Judith. 1974. A Concise Cambodian-English Dictionary. London, Oxford University Press.
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FAQ and Resources on Khmer in Unicode
Enabling Khmer Unicode
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Types of writing systems
History of writing Grapheme
undeciphered inventors constructed
Languages by writing system / by first written accounts
Arabic Pitman shorthand Hebrew
Ashuri Cursive Rashi Solitreo
Tifinagh Manichaean Nabataean Old North Arabian Pahlavi Pegon Phoenician
Proto-Sinaitic Psalter Punic Samaritan South Arabian
ʾEsṭrangēlā Serṭā Maḏnḥāyā
Teeline Shorthand Ugaritic
Asamiya (Ôxômiya) Bānglā Bhaikshuki Bhujinmol Brāhmī Devanāgarī Dogri Gujarati Gupta Gurmukhī Kaithi Kalinga Khojki Khotanese Khudawadi Laṇḍā Lepcha Limbu Mahajani Meitei Mayek Modi Multani Nāgarī Nandinagari Odia 'Phags-pa Newar Ranjana Sharada Saurashtra Siddhaṃ Soyombo Sylheti Nagari Takri Tibetan
Tirhuta Tocharian Zanabazar Square Zhang-Zhung
Drusha Marchen Marchung Pungs-chen Pungs-chung
Ahom Balinese Batak Baybayin Bhattiprolu Buhid Burmese Chakma Cham Grantha Goykanadi Hanunó'o Javanese Kadamba Kannada Karen Kawi Khmer Kulitan Lanna Lao Leke Lontara Malayalam Maldivian
Dhives Akuru Eveyla Akuru Thaana
Mon Old Makassarese Old Sundanese Pallava Pyu Rejang Rencong Sinhala Sundanese Tagbanwa Tai Le Tai Tham Tai Viet Tamil Telugu Thai Tigalari Vatteluttu
Boyd's syllabic shorthand Canadian syllabics
Blackfoot Déné syllabics
Fox I Ge'ez Gunjala Gondi Japanese Braille Jenticha Kayah Li Kharosthi Mandombe Masaram Gondi Meroitic Miao Mwangwego Sorang Sompeng Pahawh Hmong Thomas Natural Shorthand
Abkhaz Adlam Armenian Avestan Avoiuli Bassa Vah Borama Carian Caucasian Albanian Coorgi–Cox alphabet Coptic Cyrillic Deseret Duployan shorthand
Early Cyrillic Eclectic shorthand Elbasan Etruscan Evenki Fox II Fraser Gabelsberger shorthand Garay Georgian
Asomtavruli Nuskhuri Mkhedruli
Glagolitic Gothic Gregg shorthand Greek Greco-Iberian alphabet Hangul Hanifi IPA Kaddare Latin
Beneventan Blackletter Carolingian minuscule Fraktur Gaelic Insular Kurrent Merovingian Sigla Sütterlin Tironian notes Visigothic
Luo Lycian Lydian Manchu Mandaic Medefaidrin Molodtsov Mongolian Mru Neo-Tifinagh New Tai Lue N'Ko Ogham Oirat Ol Chiki Old Hungarian Old Italic Old Permic Orkhon Old Uyghur Osage Osmanya Pau Cin Hau Runic
Anglo-Saxon Cipher Dalecarlian Elder Futhark Younger Futhark Gothic Marcomannic Medieval Staveless
Sidetic Shavian Somali Tifinagh Vagindra Visible Speech Vithkuqi Wancho Zaghawa
Braille Maritime flags Morse code New York Point Semaphore line Flag semaphore Moon type
Adinkra Aztec Blissymbol Dongba Ersu Shaba Emoji IConji Isotype Kaidā Míkmaq Mixtec New Epoch Notation Painting Nsibidi Ojibwe Hieroglyphs Siglas poveiras Testerian Yerkish Zapotec
Chinese family of scripts
Simplified Traditional Oracle bone script Bronze Script Seal Script
large small bird-worm
Hanja Idu Kanji Chữ nôm Zhuang
Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut
Akkadian Assyrian Elamite Hittite Luwian Sumerian
Anatolian Bagam Cretan Isthmian Maya Proto-Elamite Yi (Classical)
Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs
Hindu-Arabic Abjad Attic (Greek) Muisca Roman
Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom
Espanca Pahawh Hmong Khitan small script Southwest Paleohispanic Zhuyin fuhao
ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation
Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese
Hiragana Katakana Man'yōgana Hentaigana Sogana Jindai moji
Kikakui Kpelle Linear B Linear Elamite Lisu Loma Nüshu Nwagu Aneke script Old Persian Cuneiform Vai Woleai Yi (Modern) Yugtun
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French-ordered scripts (see for more)
Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati
Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav
Japanese Korean Two-Cell Chinese
Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)
Symbols in braille
Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait
Other tactile alphabets
Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese
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Electronic writing systems
Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode
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See also English internet slang (at Wiktio