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Related ethnic groups

Mongols, Daur

The Khitan people
Khitan people
(Chinese: 契丹; pinyin: Qìdān), were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia
who from the 4th century inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China
Northeast China
and the Russian Far East. They spoke the Khitan language, which is related to the Mongolic languages. As the Liao dynasty, they dominated a vast area north of and including parts of China. After the fall of the Liao dynasty in 1125 following the Jurchen invasion, many Khitans followed Yelü Dashi's group westward to establish the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
or Western Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
in Central Asia, which lasted several decades before falling to the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
in 1218.

Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
in 1025

Contents

1 Etymology

1.1 China

2 History

2.1 Origin myth 2.2 Pre-dynastic 2.3 Liao dynasty

3 Language and writing systems 4 Economy 5 Religion 6 Women 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

9.1 Other webpages

Etymology[edit] There is no consensus on the etymology of the name of Khitan. There are basically three speculations. Feng Jiasheng argues that it comes from the Yuwen
Yuwen
chieftains' names.[1] Zhao Zhenji thinks that the term originated from Xianbei
Xianbei
and means "a place where Xianbei
Xianbei
had resided". Japanese scholar Otagi Matsuo believes that Khitan's original name was "Xidan", which means "the people who are similar to the Xi people" or "the people who inhabit among the Xi people".[2] China[edit] The term "Khitai" came to mean "China" in Turkic. It was introduced to medieval Europe by Islamic and Russian sources becoming "Cathay". In the modern era, the word is still used by the Uyghurs
Uyghurs
who from China's Xinjiang
Xinjiang
region. The Han Chinese
Han Chinese
consider its use to be pejorative and the Chinese government has tried to ban its use.[3] History[edit] Main article: History of the Khitans See also: Timeline of the Khitans

Part of a series on the

History of Manchuria

Ancient period

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Xianbei
state Cao Wei Buyeo Goguryeo Sima Jin dynasty Yuwen Former Yan Former Qin Later Yan Northern Yan Kumo Xi Khitan Northern Wei Mohe Shiwei

Medieval period

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Modern period

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(Northeast China) Russia
Russia
(Outer Manchuria)

v t e

Origin myth[edit] According to an official history compiled in the 14th century, a "sacred man" (shen-ren) on a white horse had eight sons with a "heavenly woman" (tiannü) who rode in a cart pulled by a grey ox. The man came from the T'u River (Lao Ha river in modern day Jilin, Manchuria) and the woman from the Huang River (modern day Xar Moron river in Inner Mongolia). The pair met where the two rivers join, and the eight sons born of their union became eight tribes.[4] Pre-dynastic[edit] The earliest written reference to the Khitan is from an official history of the Xianbei
Xianbei
Northern Wei
Northern Wei
Dynasty dating to the period the Six Dynasties. Most scholars believe the Khitan tribe splintered from the Xianbei, and some scholars believe they may have been a mixed group who also included former members of the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
tribal confederation.[5][6] During their early history the Khitan were composed of eight tribes. Their territory was located between the present day Xar Moron River and Chaoyang, Liaoning.[7] The Khitan's territory bordered Koguryo, China
China
and the lands of the Eastern Turks.[8] Between the 6th and 9th centuries, they were successively dominated by the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the Uyghur Khaganate, and the Chinese Tang dynasty.[9] The Khitan were less politically united than the Turkic tribes, but often found themselves involved in the power games between the Turks and the Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang. It is estimated the Khitan had only around 43,000 soldiers—a fraction of the Turkic Khaganates.[8] In 605, the Khitan raided China, but the Emperor Yangdi of the Sui Dynasty was able to convince the Turks to send 20,000 horsemen to aid China
China
against the Khitan.[10] In 628, under the leadership of tribal chief Dahe Moui, the Khitan submitted to the Tang dynasty, as they had earlier submitted to the Eastern Turks. The Khagan
Khagan
of the Eastern Turks, Jiali Khan, offered to exchange the Chinese rebel Liang Shi Du
Liang Shi Du
for the Khitan, but Emperor Taizong would not agree to the exchange.[7] During the reign of Empress Wu, nearly one century later, the Second Turkic Khaganate raided along the Northern China's borderlands. The Tang Empress, in what scholars consider a major strategic error, formed an ill-fated alliance with the Turkic leader Qapaghan Qaghan to punish the Khitan for raiding Hebei
Hebei
province. Khitan territory was much closer to Northern China
China
than Turkic lands, and the Turks used it to launch their own raids into Hebei.[11] Like the Tuyuhun
Tuyuhun
and Tangut, the Khitan remained an intermediate power along the borderlands through the 7th and 8th centuries.[12] The Khitans rose to prominence in a power vacuum that developed in the wake of the Kyrgyz takeover of the Uyghur Khaganate, and the collapse of the Tang Dynasty.[13] Liao dynasty[edit] Main article: Liao dynasty

Location of Liao, Song, and Western Xia
Western Xia
in 1111 AD.(in Chinese)

Abaoji, who had been successful in uniting the Khitan tribes, founded the Liao Dynasty
Liao Dynasty
in 907. The Liao territory included Manchuria, Mongolia
Mongolia
and parts of China. Although transition to an imperial social and political organization was a significant change for the Khitan, the Khitan language, origin myth, shamanic religion and nomadic lifestyle endured.[14] China
China
was in chaos after the fall of the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
in 907. Known as the Wudai Shiguo
Wudai Shiguo
period, Five Dynasties
Five Dynasties
ruled northern China
China
in rapid succession with only nominal support from the Ten Kingdoms
Ten Kingdoms
of southern China.[15] The Tang Dynasty had been supported by Shatuo Turks
Shatuo Turks
until Zhu Wen
Zhu Wen
murdered the last Tang emperor and founded the Later Liang dynasty. The Shatuo Turks, who had been allied with the Khitan since 905, defeated the Later Liang and founded the Later Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
in 923, but by 926 the former allies had grown apart.[16] In 934 Yelü Bei, Abaoji's son, wrote to his brother Emperor Taizong of Liao from the Later Tang
Later Tang
court: " Li Cong Ke has slain his liege-lord, why not attack him?"[17] In 936, the Khitan supported Shi Jing Tang's rebellion against the Later Tang
Later Tang
Emperor Li Cong Ke. Shi Jing Tang became emperor of the Later Jin dynasty and, in exchange for their support, the Khitan gained sixteen new prefectures.[18][16] The Later Jin dynasty remained a vassal of the Khitan until the death of Shi Jing Tang
Shi Jing Tang
in 942, but when the new emperor aceded, he indicated that he would not honor his predecessor's arrangement. The Khitan launched a military invasion against the Later Jin in 944. In January 947, the Emperor of the Later Jin dynasty surrended to the Khitan.[19] The Khitan emperor left the conquered city of Kaifeng
Kaifeng
and unexpectedly died from an illness while travelling in May 947.[20] Relations between Koryo and the Khitan were hostile after the Khitan's destroyed Balhae. Koryo would not recognize the Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
and supported the fledging Song dynasty, which had formed south of the Khitan's territory. Though the Khitan would have preferred to attack China, they invaded Koryo in 993. Khitan forces failed to advance beyond the Chongchon River and were persuaded to withdraw, though Khitan disastisfaction with Koryo's conquest of the Jurchen prompted a second invasion in 1010. This time the Khitan, led by their Emperor, sacked the capital city Kaesong. A third and final invasion in 1018 was repelled by Koryo's forces, bringing an end to 30 years of war between the rivals.[21] The Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
proved to be a significant power north of the Chinese plain, continuously moving south and West, gaining control over former Chinese and Turk-Uyghur's territories. In 1005 Chanyuan Treaty was signed, and peace remained between the Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
and the Song dynasty for the next 120 years. During the reign of the Emperor Daozong of Liao, corruption was a major problem and prompted dissatisfaction of many people, including the Jurchens. The Liao dynasty eventually fell to the Jin dynasty of the Jurchen in 1125, who defeated and absorbed the Khitans to their military benefit. The Khitans considered the Khamag Mongols
Mongols
as their last hope when the Liao dynasty was invaded by the Jin, Song dynasty
Song dynasty
and Western Xia
Western Xia
Empires. To defend against the Jurchens and Khitans, a Long Wall was built by Goryeo
Goryeo
in 1033–1034 along with many border forts.[22]

Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
circa 1200

Following the fall of the Liao dynasty, a number of the Khitan nobility escaped the area westwards towards Western Regions, establishing the short-lived Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
or Western Liao dynasty, and after its fall, a small part under Buraq Hajib established a local dynasty in the southern Persian province of Kirman. These Khitans were absorbed by the local Turkic and Iranian populations, Islamized
Islamized
and left no influence of themselves. As the Khitan language is still almost completely illegible, it is difficult to create a detailed history of their movements. During the 13th century, the Mongol invasions and conquests
Mongol invasions and conquests
had a large impact on shifting ethnic identities in the region. Most people of the Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe
did not retain their pre-Mongol identities after the conquests. The Khitans were scattered across Eurasia and assimilated into the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
in the early 13th century.[23] Fleeing from the Mongols, in 1216 the Khitans invaded Goryeo
Goryeo
and defeated the Goryeo
Goryeo
armies multiple times, even reaching the gates of the capital and raiding deep into the south, but were defeated by Goryeo
Goryeo
General Kim Chwi-ryeo who pushed them back north to Pyongan,[24][25] where the remaining Khitans were finished off by allied Mongol- Goryeo
Goryeo
forces in 1219.[26][27] Language and writing systems[edit] Main article: Khitan language

Khitan inscription dated 1058 (清寧四年) found in Dornogovi. Written in Khitan large script.

The Khitan language is now extinct. Some scholars believe that Khitan is Proto-Mongolic, while others have suggested that it is a Para-Mongolic
Para-Mongolic
language.[28] Khitan has many words that are borrowed from the Turkic Uyghur language.[29] There were two writing systems for the Khitan language, known as the large script and the small script. These were functionally independent and appear to have been used simultaneously in the Liao dynasty. They were in use for some time after the fall of that dynasty. Examples of the scripts appeared most often on epitaphs and monuments, although other fragments sometimes surface. The Khitan scripts have not been fully deciphered and more research and discoveries will be necessary for a proficient understanding of them.[30][31] Economy[edit] As nomadic Khitans originally engaged in stockbreeding, fishing, and hunting. Looting Chinese villages and towns as well as neighboring tribes was also a helpful source of slaves, Chinese handcraft, and food, especially in times of famine. Under the influence of China, and following the administrative need for a sedentary administration, the Khitans began to engage in farming, crop cultivation and the building of cities. Different from the Chinese and Balhae
Balhae
farmers, who cultivated wheat and sorghum millet, the Khitan farmers cultivated panicled millet. The ruling class of the Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
still undertook hunting campaigns in late summer in the tradition of their ancestors. After the fall of the Liao dynasty, the Khitans returned to a more nomadic life. Religion[edit]

The Pagoda of Fogong Temple, built in 1056.

The Khitans practiced shamanism in which animals played an important role. Hunters would offer a sacrifice to the spirit of the animal they were hunting and wore a pelt from the same animal during the hunt. There were festivals to mark the catching of the first fish and wild goose, and annual sacrifices of animals to the sky, earth, ancestors, mountains, rivers, and others. Every male member of the Khitan would sacrifice a white horse, white sheep, and white goose during the Winter solstice.[32] When a Khitan nobleman died, burnt offerings were sacrificed at the full and new moons. The body was exposed for three years in the mountains, after which the bones would be cremated. The Khitan believed that the souls of the dead rested at a place called the Black Mountain, near Rehe Province.[33] Khitan tents always faced east, and they revered the sun, but the moon did not have a large role in their religion.[34] They also practiced a form of divination where they went to war if the shoulder blade of a white sheep cracked while being heated.[32] Women[edit] Khitan women hunted, rode horses and practiced archery. They did not practice foot binding, which started becoming popular among the Han during the Song dynasty. The Khitan practiced polygamy and generally preferred marriage within the tribe, but it was not unknown for an Emperor to take wives from other groups like the Han or Koreans.[35] See also[edit]

Khitan portal History of Imperial China
China
portal

History of the Khitans List of the Khitan rulers List of Mongolian monarchs Liao dynasty Qara Khitai

Notes[edit]

^ Xu 2005, p. 7. ^ Xu 2005, pp. 8-9. ^ Starr 2015, p. 43. ^ Grayson 2012, p. 124. ^ San 2014, p. 233. ^ Kim, pp. 61-62. ^ a b Hung 2013, p. 144. ^ a b Skaff 2012, p. 38. ^ Biran 2017, p. 153. ^ Cohen 2001, p. 64. ^ Spaff 2012, p. 48. ^ Skaff 2012, p. 39. ^ Kim, pp. 62. ^ Biran 2007, p. 153. ^ Kim 2013, p. 63. ^ a b Mote 2003, p. 12-13. ^ Dudbridge 2013, p. 24. ^ Hung 2013, pp. 22. ^ Hung 2013, pp. 23-27. ^ Dudbridge 2013, p. 29-30. ^ Kim 2005, pp. 57-58. ^ Seth 2010, p. 86. ^ Biran 2017, pp. 152-181. ^ "Kim Chwi-ryeo". Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 3 July 2016.  ^ Goryeosa: Volume 103. Retrieved 3 July 2016.  ^ Ebrey & Walthall 2013, p. 177. ^ Lee 1984, p. 148. ^ Janhunen 2014, p. 4. ^ Mote 2003, p. 34. ^ Daniels & Bright 1996, pp. 230-234. ^ Kara 1987, pp. 19-23. ^ a b Baldick 2012, p. 32. ^ Baldick 2012, pp. 32-33. ^ Baldick 2012, p. 34. ^ McMahon 2013, p. 272.

References[edit]

Anderson, E. N. (2014). Food and Environment in Early and Medieval China. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-9009-7.  Baldick, Julian (2012). Animal and Shaman: Ancient Religions of Central Asia. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-7165-5.  Biran, Michal (2017). "7. The Mongols
Mongols
and Nomadic Identity: The Case of the Kitans in China". Nomads as Agents of Cultural ChangeThe Mongols
Mongols
and Their Eurasian Predecessors. Berlin, Boston: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-4789-0. Retrieved 2018-02-13.  Cohen, Warren I. (2001). East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-50251-1.  Daniels, Peter T.; Bright, William (1996). The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 230–234.  Dudbridge, Glen (2013). A Portrait of Five Dynasties
Five Dynasties
China: From the Memoirs of Wang Renyu (880-956). OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-164967-7.  Ebrey, Patricia; Walthall, Anne (2013). Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning. ISBN 1-133-60651-2.  Kara, György (1987). "On the Khitan Writing Systems". Mongolian Studies: 19–23.  Hung, Hing Ming (2013). Li Shi Min, Founding the Tang Dynasty: The Strategies that Made China
China
the Greatest Empire in Asia. Algora Publishing. ISBN 978-0-87586-980-3.  Grayson, James H. (2012). Myths and Legends from Korea: An Annotated Compendium of Ancient and Modern Materials. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-60289-4.  Janhunen, Juha (2014). Mongolian. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. p. 4. ISBN 9789027238252.  Kim, Hyun Jin (2013). The Huns, Rome and the Birth of Europe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-06722-6.  Kim, Djun Kil (2005). The History of Korea. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-03853-2.  Lee, Ki-Baik (1984). A New History of Korea. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 067461576X.  Middleton, John (2015). World Monarchies and Dynasties. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-45157-0.  McMahon, Keith (2013). Women Shall Not Rule: Imperial Wives and Concubines in China
China
from Han to Liao. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4422-2290-8.  Mote, Frederick W. (2003). Imperial China
China
900-1800. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7.  San, Tan Koon (2014). Dynastic China: An Elementary History. The Other Press. ISBN 978-983-9541-88-5.  Seth, Michael J. (2010). A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7425-6717-7.  Starr, S. Frederick (2015). Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-45137-2.  Xu, Elina-Qian (2005). "Historical development of the pre-dynastic Khitan". Retrieved 2018-02-13. 

Other webpages[edit]

Khitans Khitans on scholar.google.com Exhibition of Khitan artifacts

v t e

Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
topics

History

Goryeo–Khitan War

First conflict Second conflict Third conflict

Chanyuan Treaty Northern Liao Western Liao

See also

Khitan people

Yelü clan

List of emperors

Memorial for Yelü Yanning Administrative divisions of the Liao dynasty Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
coina

.