HOME
The Info List - Khartoum


--- Advertisement ---



Khartoum
Khartoum
(/kɑːrˈtuːm/ kar-TOOM)[4][5] is the capital and largest city of Sudan
Sudan
and the state of Khartoum. It is located at the confluence of the White Nile, flowing north from Lake Victoria, and the Blue Nile, flowing west from Ethiopia. The location where the two Niles meet is known as "al-Mogran" (المقرنthe confluence). The main Nile
Nile
continues to flow north towards Egypt
Egypt
and the Mediterranean Sea. Divided by the two Rivers Nile, Khartoum
Khartoum
is a tripartite metropolis with an estimated overall population of over five million people, consisting of Khartoum
Khartoum
proper, and linked by bridges to Khartoum
Khartoum
North (الخرطوم بحري al-Kharṭūm Baḥrī) and Omdurman
Omdurman
(أم درمان Umm Durmān) to the west.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Etymology 1.2 Founding (1821–1899) 1.3 Modern history (20th–21st centuries)

2 Geography

2.1 Location

3 Climate 4 Demographics 5 Economy

5.1 Retailing

6 Education

6.1 High schools 6.2 The higher institutes in Khartoum

7 Transportation

7.1 Air 7.2 Bridges 7.3 Rail

8 Architecture 9 Culture

9.1 Museums 9.2 Botanical gardens 9.3 Clubs

10 Twin cities 11 See also 12 References 13 Bibliography 14 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Khartoum Etymology[edit] The origin of the word, "Khartoum", is uncertain. One theory argues that khartoum is derived from Arabic
Arabic
khurṭūm (خرطوم trunk or hose), probably referring to the narrow strip of land extending between the Blue and White Niles.[6] Dinka scholars argue that the name derives from the Dinka words "Khier-tuom" which translates to a "place where rivers meet". This is supported by historical accounts which place the Dinka homeland in central Sudan
Sudan
as late as the 13th-15th centuries A.D.[7] Captain J.A. Grant, who reached Khartoum in 1863 with Captain Speke's expedition, thought the name was most probably from the Arabic
Arabic
qurtum (قرطم safflower, i.e., Carthamus tinctorius), which was cultivated extensively in Egypt
Egypt
for its oil to be used as fuel.[8] Some scholars speculate that the word derives from the Nubian word, Agartum ("the abode of Atum"), the Nubian and Egyptian god of creation. Other Beja scholars suggest "Khartoum" is derived from the Beja word, Hartoom ("meeting").[9][10] Additionally, the dream-interpreting magicians in Genesis 41:8 are referred to as חַרְטֻמֵּ֥י מצרים("Khartoumei Mitzrayim" - Magicians of Egypt). There is some speculation that they learned their craft at an academy in the south of Egypt
Egypt
from which the city takes its name.[citation needed] Founding (1821–1899)[edit]

Khartoum
Khartoum
at the Bend of the Nile

Muhammad Ahmad
Muhammad Ahmad
al- Mahdi
Mahdi
religious leader of the Mahdist War

In 1821, Khartoum
Khartoum
was established 24 kilometres (15 mi) north of the ancient city of Soba, by Ibrahim Pasha, the son of Egypt's ruler, Muhammad Ali Pasha, who had just incorporated Sudan
Sudan
into his realm. Originally, Khartoum
Khartoum
served as an outpost for the Egyptian Army, but the settlement quickly grew into a regional centre of trade. It also became a focal point for the slave trade. Later, it became the administrative center of Sudan
Sudan
and official capital. On 13 March 1884, troops loyal to the Mahdi
Mahdi
Muhammad Ahmad
Muhammad Ahmad
started a siege of Khartoum, against defenders led by British General Charles George Gordon. The siege ended in a massacre of the Anglo-Egyptian garrison when on 26 January 1885 the heavily-damaged city fell to the Mahdists.[11] On 2 September 1898, Omdurman
Omdurman
was the scene of the bloody Battle of Omdurman, during which British forces under Herbert Kitchener defeated the Mahdist forces defending the city. Modern history (20th–21st centuries)[edit]

Corinthia Hotel Khartoum

In 1973, the city was the site of an anomalous hostage crisis in which members of Black September held 10 hostages at the Saudi Arabian embassy, five of them diplomats. The US ambassador, the US deputy ambassador, and the Belgian chargé d'affaires were murdered. The remaining hostages were released. A 1973 United States
United States
Department of State document, declassified in 2006, concluded: "The Khartoum operation was planned and carried out with the full knowledge and personal approval of Yasser Arafat."[12] In 1977, the first oil pipeline between Khartoum
Khartoum
and the Port of Sudan was completed. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Khartoum
Khartoum
was the destination for hundreds of thousands refugees fleeing conflicts in neighboring nations such as Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Uganda. Many Eritrean and Ethiopian refugees assimilated into society, while others settled in large slums at the outskirts of the city. Since the mid-1980s, large numbers of refugees from South Sudan
Sudan
and Darfur
Darfur
fleeing the violence of the Second Sudanese Civil War
Second Sudanese Civil War
and Darfur
Darfur
conflict have settled around Khartoum. In 1991, Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
purchased a house in the affluent al-Riyadh neighborhood of the city and another in Soba. He lived there until 1996, when he was banished from the country. Following the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings, the United States
United States
accused bin Laden's al-Qaeda group and, on 20 August, launched cruise missile attacks on the al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in northern Khartoum. The destruction of the factory produced diplomatic tension between the U.S. and Sudan. The factory ruins are now a tourist attraction.[citation needed] The sudden death of SPLA head and vice-president of Sudan, John Garang, at the end of July 2005, was followed by three days of violent riots in the capital. The riots finally died down after Southern Sudanese politicians and tribal leaders sent strong messages to the rioters. The situation could have been much more dire; even so, the death toll was at least 24, as youths from southern Sudan
Sudan
attacked northern Sudanese and clashed with security forces.[13] The Organisation of African Unity
Organisation of African Unity
summit of 18–22 July 1978 was held in Khartoum, during which Sudan
Sudan
was awarded the OAU presidency. The African Union
African Union
summit of 16–24 January 2006 was held in Khartoum. The Arab League
Arab League
summit of 28–29 March 2006 was held in Khartoum, during which the Arab League
Arab League
awarded Sudan
Sudan
the Arab League
Arab League
presidency. On 10 May 2008, the Darfur
Darfur
rebel group, Justice and Equality Movement, moved into the city, where they engaged in heavy fighting with Sudanese government forces. Their soldiers included minors, and their goal was to topple Omar al-Bashir's government, though the Sudanese government succeeded in beating back the assault.[14][15][16] On 23 October 2012, an explosion at the Yarmouk munitions factory killed two people and injured another person. The Sudanese government has claimed that the explosion was the result of an Israeli airstrike.[17]

Panorama of Khartoum

Geography[edit]

Khartoum
Khartoum
(center) is near middle of the Nile
Nile
river system.

Location[edit] Khartoum
Khartoum
is located in northeast Africa, near the center of Sudan, which measures about one quarter the size of the United States. Its neighbors are Chad
Chad
and the Central African Republic
Central African Republic
to the west, Egypt and Libya
Libya
to the north, the Red Sea
Red Sea
to the northeast, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Eritrea
Eritrea
to the east, and South Sudan, to the south. The Red Sea
Red Sea
washes about 500 miles (800 km) of its northeast coast, and it is traversed from south to north by the Nile, all of whose great tributaries are partly or entirely within its borders. Khartoum
Khartoum
is located in the middle of the populated areas in Sudan, at almost the northeast center of the country between 15 and 16 degrees latitude north, and between 31 and 32 degrees longitude east.[18] Khartoum
Khartoum
marks the convergence of the White Nile
White Nile
and the Blue Nile, where they join to form the bottom of the leaning-S shape of the main Nile
Nile
(see map, upper right) as it zigzags through northern Sudan
Sudan
into Egypt
Egypt
at Lake Nasser. Khartoum
Khartoum
is relatively flat, at elevation 385 m (1,263 ft),[18] as the Nile
Nile
flows northeast past Omdurman
Omdurman
to Shendi, at elevation 364 m (1,194 ft)[19] about 101 miles (163 km) away.

Places adjacent to Khartoum

Omdurman, Northern State Khartoum
Khartoum
Bahri, Shendi, River Nile
Nile
State Blue Nile, Khartoum
Khartoum
North

White Nile, Omdurman, North Kordofan

Khartoum

Kassala, Kassala
Kassala
State, Port Sudan, Red Sea
Red Sea
State

Ed Dueim, White Nile
White Nile
State Wad Madani, Al Jazirah (state) Al Qadarif, Al Qadarif
Al Qadarif
State

[20] Climate[edit] Under Köppen's climate classification system, Khartoum
Khartoum
features a hot arid climate, with only the summer months seeing noticeable precipitation.[21] The city averages a little over 155 millimetres (6.1 in) of precipitation per year. Based on annual mean temperatures, the city is one of the hottest major cities in the world. Temperatures routinely exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in mid-summer. Its average annual high temperature is 37.1 °C (99 °F), with six months of the year seeing an average monthly high temperature of at least 38 °C (100 °F). Furthermore, throughout the year, none of its monthly average high temperatures falls below 30 °C (86 °F). During the months of January and February, while daytime temperatures are generally very warm, nights are relatively cool, with average low temperatures just above 15 °C (59 °F).

Climate data for Khartoum
Khartoum
(1971–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 39.7 (103.5) 42.5 (108.5) 45.2 (113.4) 46.2 (115.2) 46.8 (116.2) 46.3 (115.3) 44.5 (112.1) 43.5 (110.3) 44.0 (111.2) 43.0 (109.4) 41.0 (105.8) 39.0 (102.2) 46.8 (116.2)

Average high °C (°F) 30.7 (87.3) 32.6 (90.7) 36.5 (97.7) 40.4 (104.7) 41.9 (107.4) 41.3 (106.3) 38.5 (101.3) 37.6 (99.7) 38.7 (101.7) 39.3 (102.7) 35.2 (95.4) 31.7 (89.1) 37.0 (98.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) 23.2 (73.8) 25.0 (77) 28.7 (83.7) 31.9 (89.4) 34.5 (94.1) 34.3 (93.7) 32.1 (89.8) 31.5 (88.7) 32.5 (90.5) 32.4 (90.3) 28.1 (82.6) 24.5 (76.1) 29.9 (85.8)

Average low °C (°F) 15.6 (60.1) 16.8 (62.2) 20.3 (68.5) 24.1 (75.4) 27.3 (81.1) 27.6 (81.7) 26.2 (79.2) 25.6 (78.1) 26.3 (79.3) 25.9 (78.6) 21.0 (69.8) 17.0 (62.6) 22.8 (73)

Record low °C (°F) 8.0 (46.4) 8.6 (47.5) 12.6 (54.7) 12.7 (54.9) 18.5 (65.3) 20.2 (68.4) 17.8 (64) 18.0 (64.4) 17.7 (63.9) 17.5 (63.5) 11.0 (51.8) 6.2 (43.2) 6.2 (43.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.1 (0.004) 0.0 (0) 3.9 (0.154) 4.2 (0.165) 29.6 (1.165) 48.3 (1.902) 26.7 (1.051) 7.8 (0.307) 0.7 (0.028) 0.0 (0) 121.3 (4.776)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.9 0.9 4.0 4.2 3.4 1.2 0.0 0.0 14.7

Average relative humidity (%) 27 22 17 16 19 28 43 49 40 28 27 30 29

Mean monthly sunshine hours 316.2 296.6 316.2 318.0 310.0 279.0 269.7 272.8 273.0 306.9 303.0 319.3 3,580.7

Mean daily sunshine hours 10.2 10.5 10.2 10.6 10.0 9.3 8.7 8.8 8.1 9.9 10.1 10.3 9.8

Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation,[22] NOAA (extremes and humidity 1961–1990)[23]

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
(sun, 1961–1990)[24]

Demographics[edit]

Year Population

City Metropolitan area

1907[25] 69,349 n.a.

1956 93,100 245,800

1973 333,906 748,300

1983 476,218 1,340,646

1993 947,483 2,919,773

2008 Census Preliminary 3,639,598 5,274,321

Economy[edit]

Development in Khartoum

After the signing of the historic Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the government of Sudan
Sudan
and the Sudan
Sudan
People's Liberation Movement (SPLA), the Government of Sudan
Sudan
began a massive development project.[26][27] In 2007, the biggest projects in Khartoum
Khartoum
were the Al-Mogran Development Project, two five-star hotels, a new airport, Mac Nimir Bridge (finished in October 2007) and the Tuti Bridge
Tuti Bridge
that links Khartoum
Khartoum
to Tuti Island. In the 21st century, Khartoum
Khartoum
developed based on Sudan's oil wealth (although the independence of South Sudan
Sudan
in 2011 affected the economy of Sudan
Sudan
negatively[28]). The center of the city has tree-lined streets. Khartoum
Khartoum
has the highest concentration of economic activity in the country. This has changed as major economic developments take place in other parts of the country, like oil exploration in the South, the Giad Industrial Complex in Al Jazirah state and White Nile Sugar Project in Central Sudan, and the Merowe Dam
Merowe Dam
in the North.[citation needed] Among the city's industries are printing, glass manufacturing, food processing, and textiles. Petroleum products are now produced in the far north of Khartoum
Khartoum
state, providing fuel and jobs for the city. One of Sudan's largest refineries is located in northern Khartoum.[28] Retailing[edit] The Souq
Souq
Al Arabi is Khartoum's largest open air market. The "souq" is spread over several blocks in the center of Khartoum
Khartoum
proper just south of the Great Mosque (Mesjid al-Kabir) and the minibus station. It is divided into separate sections, including one focused entirely on gold.[29] Al Qasr Street and Al Jamhoriyah Street are considered the most famous high streets in Khartoum
Khartoum
State. Afra Mall is located in the southern suburb Arkeweet. The Afra Mall has a supermarket, retail outlets, coffee shops, a bowling alley, movie theaters, and a children's playground. In 2011, Sudan
Sudan
opened the Hotel Section and part of the food court of the new, Corinthia hotel Tower. The Mall/Shopping section is still under construction. Education[edit]

The University of Khartoum

Khartoum
Khartoum
is the main location for most of Sudan's top educational bodies. In Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, there are four main levels of education. First: kindergarten and day-care. It begins in the age of 3-4, consists of 1-2 grades, (depending on the parents). Second: elementary school. the first grade pupils enter at the age of 6-7 .and It consists of 8 grades, each year there is more academic efforts and main subjects added plus more school methods improvements. By the 8th grade a student is 13–14 years old ready to take the certificate exams and entering high school. Third: upper second school and high school. At this level the school methods add some main academic subjects such as chemistry, biology, physics, geography, etc... there are three grades in this level. The students ages are about 14-15 to 17-18. Higher Education: there are many universities in Sudan
Sudan
such as the university of Khartoum. Some foreigners attend universities there, as the reputation of the universities are very good and the living expenses are low compared to other countries. The education system in Sudan
Sudan
went through many changes in the late 1980s and early 1990s.[30][31][32] High schools[edit]

Al-Mawahib Schools - Khartoum
Khartoum
Bahry

Khartoum
Khartoum
Old High Secondary School for Boys Khartoum
Khartoum
Old High Secondary School for Girls The British Educational Schools (BES)[33] Khartoum
Khartoum
American School, KAS, established in 1957. Khartoum
Khartoum
International Community School, KICS, established in 2004. Unity High School.[34] Suliman Hussein Academy Comboni and St. Francis, Khartoum
Khartoum
new high secondary school for boys Khartoum
Khartoum
International preparatory school (KIPS)Khartoum International preparatory school, established in 1928. Qabbas Private International Schools Riad English School, established 1987 Nile
Nile
Valley School, founded 2012 [35]

The higher institutes in Khartoum[edit]

The great higher institutes in Khartoum

Educational institution Type The website

University of Khartoum Founded as Gordon Memorial College in 1902, it was later renamed to share the name of the city in the 1930s. Public university http://www.uofk.edu

Academy of Engineering Sciences founded as Academy of Electrical Engineering in 2002, private university http://www.aes.edu.sd

Al-Neelain University, Public university http://www.neelain.edu.sd

Al Zaiem Alazhari University, Public university http://www.aau.edu.sd

Bahri University, formally Juba
Juba
University before the separation and Juba
Juba
University returned to the South. Public university

Omdurman
Omdurman
Islamic University, Public university

International University of Africa, Public university http://www.iua.edu.sd

Nile
Nile
Valley University, Public university

Open University of Sudan, Public university http://www.ous.edu.sd

Public Health Institute, a post-graduate institution operated by the Ministry of Health Public university http://www.phi.edu.sd

Sudan
Sudan
University of Science and Technology, one of the leading engineering and technology schools in Sudan, founded in 1932 as Khartoum
Khartoum
Technical Institute and has been given its present name in 1991. Public university http://www.sustech.edu [36]

AlMughtaribeen University, Private universities http://www.mu.edu.sd

Bayan College for Science & Technology, Private universities https://web.archive.org/web/20110920215435/http://www.bayantech.edu/

Canadian Sudanese College, Private universities http://www.ccs.edu.sd

Comboni College for Science and Technology Private universities http://www.combonikhartoum.com

Future University of Sudan, the first specialized university for ICT inter-related studies in Sudan, founded by Dr. Abubaker Mustafa. Private universities http://www.futureu.edu.sd

National College for Medical & Technical Studies, Private universities https://web.archive.org/web/20131203001023/http://www.nc.edu.sd/

National Ribat University, Private universities http://www.ribat.edu.sd

University of Medical Sciences and Technology, better known as UMST, it was founded in 1996 by Prof. Mamoun Humaida as Academy of Medical Science & Technology. Private universities

[37]

Transportation[edit] Air[edit] Khartoum
Khartoum
is home to the largest airport in Sudan, Khartoum International Airport. It is the main hub for Sudan
Sudan
Airways, Sudan's main carrier. The airport was built at the southern edge of the city; but with Khartoum's rapid growth and consequent urban sprawl, the airport is currently located in the heart of the city. A new international airport is currently being built about 40 km (25 mi) south of the city center. There have been delays to start construction because lack of funding of the project but it is expected that the airport will be completed sometime in 2018. It will replace the current airport in Khartoum
Khartoum
as Sudan's main airport. Bridges[edit]

White Nile
White Nile
Bridge, Omdurman
Omdurman
to Khartoum, Sudan

The following bridges cross the Blue Nile
Blue Nile
and connect Khartoum
Khartoum
to Khartoum
Khartoum
North:

Mac Nimir Bridge Blue Nile
Blue Nile
Road & Railway Bridge Elmansheya Bridge

Rail[edit] See also: Sudan
Sudan
Military Railroad Khartoum
Khartoum
has rail lines from Wadi Halfa, Port Sudan
Sudan
on the Red Sea, and El Obeid. All are operated by Sudan
Sudan
Railways. Some lines also extended to some parts of south Sudan

Some roads and streets of Khartoum

Ebeid Khatim Road, one of the largest streets of Khartoum
Khartoum
starts from the end of the armed forces Bridge and ends at the International University of Africa
Africa
going from north to south and vice versa.

Amarat District 15th Street junction with Mohamed Naguib Street, one of the largest street intersections in Khartoum.

Algaba Street Khartoum

Algaser Street Khartoum

Architecture[edit]

University of Khartoum

Government House (1936); now the Presidential Palace

Architecture of Khartoum
Khartoum
cannot be identified by one style or even two styles; it is as diverse as its culture, where 597 different cultural groups meet. In this article are 10 buildings of Khartoum
Khartoum
to showcase this diversity in buildings’ shapes, materials, treatments. Sudan was home to numerous ancient civilizations, such as the Kingdom of Kush, Kerma, Nobatia, Alodia, Makuria, Meroë and others, most of which flourished along the Nile. During the pre-dynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt
Egypt
were identical, simultaneously evolved systems of Pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC. In response to the worldwide deterioration of the environment and the increase in pollution levels, there has been a strong movement towards sustainable architecture across the globe. This movement has received attention and concern from governments as well as private sectors. In the past decades, Sudan
Sudan
has seen a huge surge in infrastructure and technology, which has led to many new and innovative building concepts, ideas and construction techniques. There is now a constant flow of new projects arising, thus leading to a new, transformed, modernised form of architecture. [38]

Squares and public gardens

Masjids and Places of worship

The Great Masjid

Masjid Shahid

Faruq Mosque,Khartum

Siadah Sanhory mosque in Manshiya

Shahid mosque Algomah prayers in Ramadan

[39] Culture[edit]

A statue, claimed to depict Natakamani, at the front of the National Museum of Sudan

Museums[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The largest museum in all of Sudan
Sudan
is the National Museum of Sudan.[40] Founded in 1971, it contains works from different epochs of Sudanese history. Among the exhibits are two Egyptian temples of Buhen and Semna,[41] originally built by Queen Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
and Pharaoh Tuthmosis III, respectively, but relocated to Khartoum
Khartoum
upon the flooding of Lake Nasser. The Republican Palace Museum,[42] opened in 2000, is located in the former Anglican All Saints' cathedral[43] on Sharia al-Jama'a, next to the historical Presidential Palace. The Ethnographic Museum[44] is located on Sharia al-Jama'a, close to the Mac Nimir Bridge. Botanical gardens[edit] Khartoum
Khartoum
is home to a small botanical garden, in the Mogran district of the city.[45] Clubs[edit] Khartoum
Khartoum
is home to several clubs such as the Blue Nile
Blue Nile
Sailing Club,[46] the German Club, the Greek Hotel,[47] the Coptic Club, the Syrian Club and the International Club.[48] There are also two football clubs situated in Khartoum
Khartoum
– Al Khartoum
Khartoum
SC[49] and Al Ahli Khartoum.[50] Twin cities[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Istanbul, Turkey[51][52] Addis Ababa, Ethiopia[53] Ankara, Turkey[54] Brasília, Brazil[55] Cairo, Egypt[56] Djibouti
Djibouti
City, Djibouti[citation needed] Wuhan, China[57]

See also[edit]

Al-Mogran Development Project Khartoum, a 1966 film starring Charlton Heston and Laurence Olivier Al Amarat (Khartoum) St. Matthew's Cathedral, Khartoum

References[edit]

^ a b "Where is Khartoum, The Sudan?". worldatlas.com. 2018. Retrieved 2018-01-28.  ^ a b " Sudan
Sudan
Facts on Largest Cities, Populations, Symbols - Worldatlas.com". www.worldatlas.com. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2018.  ^ http://www.demographia.com/db-worldua.pdf ^ "Khartoum". Dictionary.reference.com.  ^ "Khartoum". TheFreeDictionary.com.  ^ Beswick, Stephanie (2013). https://books.google.com/books?id=r61i6BD0Vw0C&lpg=PA24&ots=OM_blUBJhF&dq=damadim%20ancient%20nubia&pg=PA39#v=onepage&q=damadim%20ancient%20nubia&f=false.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World (2nd ed.). McFarland. p. 194. ISBN 0-7864-2248-3.  ^ Walkley, C. E. J. (1935). "THE STORY OF KHARTOUM" [2017-01-01]. Sudan
Sudan
Notes and Records. University of Khartoum. 18 (2): 221–241. doi:10.2307/41710712. JSTOR 41710712.  ^ "Beja scholars and the creativity of powerlessness". Passages. University of Michigan Library.  ^ Hasan Shukri (August 1966). " Khartoum
Khartoum
and Tuti 'Shreen Munz Qarnan". Khartoum. 1 (11): 23.  ^ Hammond, Peter (2005). Slavery, Terrorism & Islam. Cape Town, South Africa: Christian Liberty Books.  ^ "The Seizure of the Saudi Arabian Embassy in Khartoum" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-12-16. Retrieved 2014-01-28.  ^ "World Africa
Africa
Riots after Sudan
Sudan
VP Garang dies". BBC News. 1 August 2005. Retrieved 27 June 2010.  ^ "Curfew in capital as Sudanese army clash near Khartoum
Khartoum
with Darfur rebels". Sudan
Sudan
Tribune. 10 May 2008.  ^ "Sudanese rebels 'reach Khartoum'". BBC News. 10 May 2008.  ^ "PHOTOS: Sudan
Sudan
capital after today's attack from Darfur
Darfur
JEM". Sudan Tribune. 10 May 2008.  ^ " Khartoum
Khartoum
fire blamed on Israeli bombing". Al Jazeera. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012.  ^ a b " Khartoum
Khartoum
Elevation (385m)". distancesto.com. 2018. Retrieved 2018-01-28.  ^ " Shendi
Shendi
Elevation (364m)". distancesto.com. 2018. Retrieved 2018-01-28.  ^ [1][permanent dead link] ^ Peel, M. C.; B. L. Finlayson; T. A. McMahon (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 11: 1633–1644. Bibcode:2007HESS...11.1633P. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007.  ^ "World Weather Information Service – Khartoum". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 6 May 2010.  ^ " Khartoum
Khartoum
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 16, 2014.  ^ "Klimatafel von Khartoum
Khartoum
/ Sudan" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 22 October 2016.  ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica von 1911: Band 15, Seite 773". Encyclopedia.jrank.org. Retrieved 27 June 2010.  ^ " Sudan
Sudan
and UNDP launch Millennium Goals project". Sudan
Sudan
Tribune. 5 September 2005. Retrieved 28 June 2008.  ^ Winter, Joseph (24 April 2007). " Khartoum
Khartoum
booms as Darfur
Darfur
burns". BBC. Retrieved 28 June 2008.  ^ a b "Country Analysis Brief: Sudan
Sudan
and South Sudan" (PDF). US Energy Information Administration. 2014-09-03. p. 13-14 Oil refineries. Retrieved 2010-07-14.  ^ " Sudan
Sudan
Shopping and Districts (Sudan, SD, North-East Africa)". World Guides. TravelSmart Ltd. 2016-06-07. Retrieved 2017-07-14.  ^ [2] ^ [3] ^ null (24 January 2012). The Status of the Education Sector in Sudan. The World Bank. pp. 159–189. doi:10.1596/9780821388570_ch07 – via elibrary.worldbank.org (Atypon).  ^ "britisheducationsudan.com". britisheducationsudan.com. Retrieved 2014-05-20.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 2012-08-19. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ http://www.nilevalleyschool.com/whoweare.php ^ "Sudanese higher education". Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research. Retrieved 15 September 2011.  ^ "Universities of Sudan
Sudan
Ahfad university for women". Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2011.  ^ "Archnet". archnet.org. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2016.  ^ Shumba, Ano (2015-10-28). " Sudan
Sudan
National Museum ; Bio". Music in Africa. Retrieved 2017-07-14.  ^ "The Rescue of Nubian Monuments and Sites". UNESCO. 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-14.  ^ "Palace Museum". Presidency of the Republic of Sudan. 2016. Retrieved 2017-07-14.  ^ "Designs for the Cathedral Church of All Saints, Khartoum..." RIBApix. 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-14.  ^ "Museums In Sudan". The Embassy of the Republic of Sudan. Retrieved 2017-07-13.  ^ Jibreel, T. J. O. (2010). "2 - Materials and Methods, Site of collection" (PDF). Two Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps Affecting Ficus sycamorus (L.) Fruits in Khartoum State
Khartoum State
(Thesis). Khartoum, Sudan: University of Khartoum department of Zoology. pp. 20–22.  ^ Uloth, Tony (2011-01-18). "The Blue Nile
Blue Nile
Sailing Club". The Melik Society. Retrieved 2017-07-13.  ^ "Reuters.com". Africa.reuters.com. 9 February 2009. Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2014.  ^ "Night clubs in Khartoum
Khartoum
city". Fortune of Africa. Retrieved 2017-07-13.  ^ "Former Ghana
Ghana
coach Kwesi Appiah takes over at SC Khartoum". BBC Sport. 2014-12-17. Retrieved 2017-07-14.  ^ "Al Ahli Khartoum". FIFA (International Federation of Association Football). May 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-14.  ^ "İstanbul'un Kardeş Şehir, İşbirliği Protokolleri ve Mutabakat Zaptı/İyi Niyet Mektupları" [Istanbul's Sister Cities, Cooperation Protocols and Memorandum of Understanding/Goodwill Letters] (in Turkish). İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi. Retrieved 2015-06-01.  ^ "Sister Cities of Istanbul". Istanbul. 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.  ^ "Ethiopia's Capital Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
and Khartoum
Khartoum
sign twin cities agreement". Nazret. 26 September 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2016.  ^ "Kardeş Kentleri Listesi ve 5 Mayıs Avrupa Günü Kutlaması [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Turkish). Ankara
Ankara
Büyükşehir Belediyesi – Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2013.  ^ "Brasilia Global Partners". Internacional.df.gov.br. Archived from the original on February 28, 2014. Retrieved 2017-07-13.  ^ "Brotherhood & Friendship Agreements Signed Between Cairo
Cairo
& Arab Cities". Ministry of State for Administrative Development, Cairo Governorate. 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016. Twinning document; Khartoum; Sudan; 14/2/1979  ^ "Sister Cities". Wuhan
Wuhan
University. 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 

Bibliography[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Khartoum

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Khartoum.

Media related to Khartoum
Khartoum
at Wikimedia Commons

Kidnapped, tortured and thrown in jail: my 70 days in Sudan
Sudan
The Guardian, 2017

Articles Related to Khartoum

v t e

Capitals of Africa

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

Abuja, Nigeria Accra, Ghana Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Algiers, Algeria Antananarivo, Madagascar Asmara, Eritrea Bamako, Mali Bangui, Central African Republic Banjul, Gambia Bissau, Guinea-Bissau Brazzaville, Rep. of the Congo Bujumbura, Burundi Cairo, Egypt Conakry, Guinea Dakar, Senegal Djibouti, Djibouti Dodoma, Tanzania El Aaiún(claimed)/Tifariti(factual), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1 Freetown, Sierra Leone Funchal, Madeira4 Gaborone, Botswana Harare, Zimbabwe Hargeisa, Somaliland1 Jamestown, St Helena, Ascension & Tristan da Cunha2 Juba, South Sudan Kampala, Uganda Khartoum, Sudan Kigali, Rwanda Kinshasa, D.R. Congo Libreville, Gabon Lilongwe, Malawi Lomé, Togo Luanda, Angola Lusaka, Zambia Malabo, Equatorial Guinea Mamoudzou, Mayotte3 Maputo, Mozambique Maseru, Lesotho

Mbabane
Mbabane
(executive)   Lobamba
Lobamba
(legislative), Swaziland

Mogadishu, Somalia Monrovia, Liberia Moroni, Comoros Nairobi, Kenya N'Djamena, Chad Niamey, Niger Nouakchott, Mauritania Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Port Louis, Mauritius Porto-Novo, Benin Praia, Cape Verde

Pretoria
Pretoria
(executive)   Cape Town
Cape Town
(legislative)   Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
(judicial), South Africa

Rabat, Morocco Saint-Denis, Réunion3 Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
and Las Palmas, Canary Islands5 São Tomé, São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia Victoria, Seychelles Windhoek, Namibia

Yamoussoukro
Yamoussoukro
(political)   Abidjan
Abidjan
(economic), Ivory Coast

Yaoundé, Cameroon

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation 2 British Overseas Territory 3 Overseas region
Overseas region
of France 4 Autonomous region of Portugal 5 Autonomous community of Spain

v t e

Arab Capital of Culture

Cairo
Cairo
1996 (Egypt) Tunis
Tunis
1997 (Tunisia) Sharjah
Sharjah
1998 (United Arab Emirates) Beirut
Beirut
1999 (Lebanon) Riyadh
Riyadh
2000 (Saudi Arabia) Kuwait
Kuwait
City
City
2001 (Kuwait) Amman
Amman
2002 (Jordan) Rabat
Rabat
2003 (Morocco) San'a
San'a
2004 (Yemen) Khartoum
Khartoum
2005 (Sudan) Muscat
Muscat
2006 (Oman) Algiers
Algiers
2007 (Algeria) Damascus
Damascus
2008 (Syria) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
2009 (State of Palestine) Doha
Doha
2010 (Qatar) Sirte
Sirte
2011 (Libya) Manama
Manama
2012 (Bahrain) Baghdad
Baghdad
2013 (Iraq) Tripoli
Tripoli
2014 (Libya) Constantine 2015 (Algeria) Sfax
Sfax
2016 (Tunisia)

v t e

Capitals of Arab countries

Africa Asia

Algiers, Algeria Cairo, Egypt Djibouti, Djibouti

El Aaiun
El Aaiun
(proclaimed)   Tifariti
Tifariti
(de facto), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1

Khartoum, Sudan Mogadishu, Somalia Moroni, Comoros Nouakchott, Mauritania Rabat, Morocco Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Baghdad, Iraq Beirut, Lebanon Damascus, Syria Doha, Qatar

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(proclaimed)   Ramallah
Ramallah
(de facto), Palestine1

Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain Muscat, Oman Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 138043918 LCCN: n79091927 GND: 4110249-6 SELIBR: 150240 BNF:

.