The Info List - Kharoṣṭhī

Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE

32 c. BCE

Demotic 7 c. BCE

Meroitic 3 c. BCE

Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE

Ugaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE

Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE

Phoenician 12 c. BCE

Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE

Samaritan 6 c. BCE

3 c. BCE


Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE

4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE

Brahmic family
Brahmic family

E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
13 c. CE

Canadian syllabics 1840

Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCE

Avestan 4 c. CE

Palmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCE

Nabataean 2 c. BCE

Arabic 4 c. CE

N'Ko 1949 CE

Sogdian 2 c. BCE

Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE

Old Hungarian c. 650 CE

Old Uyghur

Mongolian 1204 CE

Mandaic 2 c. CE

Greek 8 c. BCE

Etruscan 8 c. BCE

Latin 7 c. BCE

Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE

Runic 2 c. CE Ogham
(origin uncertain) 4 c. CE

Coptic 3 c. CE Gothic 3 c. CE Armenian 405 CE Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE Glagolitic 862 CE Cyrillic c. 940 CE

Old Permic 1372 CE

1443 (probably influenced by Tibetan) Thaana
18 c. CE (derived from Brahmi numerals)

v t e

Numeral systems

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Positional systems by base

2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 60

Non-standard positional numeral systems

Bijective numeration
Bijective numeration
(1) Signed-digit representation
Signed-digit representation
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(2i) Non-integer representation
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(φ) mixed Asymmetric numeral systems

List of numeral systems

v t e

The Kharosthi
script, also spelled Kharoshthi or Kharoṣṭhī, is an ancient script used in ancient Gandhara
and ancient India[1] (primarily modern-day Afghanistan
and Pakistan) to write the Gandhari Prakrit
and Sanskrit. It was popular in Central Asia as well.[1] An abugida, it was in use from the middle of the 3rd century BCE until it died out in its homeland around the 3rd century CE.[1] It was also in use in Bactria, the Kushan Empire, Sogdia
and along the Silk Road, where there is some evidence it may have survived until the 7th century in the remote way stations of Khotan
and Niya. Kharosthi
is encoded in the Unicode range
Unicode range
U+10A00–U+10A5F, from version 4.1.


1 Form 2 Vowels 3 Consonants 4 Additional marks 5 Punctuation 6 Numerals 7 History 8 Unicode 9 Gallery 10 See also 11 Further reading 12 References 13 External links

Form[edit] Kharosthi
is mostly written right to left (type A), but some inscriptions (type B) already show the left to right direction that was to become universal for the later South Asian scripts. Each syllable includes the short /a/ sound by default, with other vowels being indicated by diacritic marks. Recent epigraphical evidence highlighted by Professor Richard Salomon of the University of Washington has shown that the order of letters in the Kharosthi
script follows what has become known as the Arapacana alphabet. As preserved in Sanskrit
documents, the alphabet runs:

a ra pa ca na la da ba ḍa ṣa va ta ya ṣṭa ka sa ma ga stha ja śva dha śa kha kṣa sta jñā rtha (or ha) bha cha sma hva tsa gha ṭha ṇa pha ska ysa śca ṭa ḍha

Some variations in both the number and order of syllables occur in extant texts. Kharosthi
includes only one standalone vowel which is used for initial vowels in words. Other initial vowels use the a character modified by diacritics. Using epigraphic evidence, Salomon has established that the vowel order is /a e i o u/, rather than the usual vowel order for Indic scripts /a i u e o/. That is the same as the Semitic vowel order. Also, there is no differentiation between long and short vowels in Kharosthi. Both are marked using the same vowel markers. The alphabet was used in Gandharan Buddhism
Gandharan Buddhism
as a mnemonic for remembering a series of verses on the nature of phenomena. In Tantric Buddhism, the list was incorporated into ritual practices and later became enshrined in mantras. Vowels[edit]


Initial Diacritic

Image Text Trans. IPA Image Text With 'k'

Unrounded low central

𐨀 a /ə/ — — 𐨐 ka

high front

𐨀𐨁 i /i/

𐨁 𐨐𐨁 ki

Rounded high back

𐨀𐨂 u /u/

𐨂 𐨐𐨂 ku

Syllabic vibrant

𐨃 𐨐𐨃 kr̥

Mid front unrounded

𐨀𐨅 e /e/

𐨅 𐨐𐨅 ke

back rounded

𐨀𐨆 o /o/

𐨆 𐨐𐨆 ko

diacritic placement[3]

Vowel Position Example Applies to

-i horizontal 𐨀 + 𐨁 → ‎𐨀𐨁 a, n, h

diagonal 𐨐 + 𐨁 → ‎𐨐𐨁 k, ḱ, kh, g, gh, c, ch, j, ñ, ṭ, ṭh, ṭ́h, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ, t, d, dh, b, bh, y, r, v, ṣ, s, z

vertical 𐨠 + 𐨁 → ‎𐨠𐨁 th, p, ph, m, l, ś

-u attached 𐨀 + 𐨂 → ‎𐨀𐨂 a, k, ḱ, kh, g, gh, c, ch, j, ñ, ṭ, ṭh, ṭ́h, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ, t, th, d, dh, n, p, ph, b, bh, y, r, l, v, ś, ṣ, s, z

independent 𐨱 + 𐨂 → ‎𐨱𐨂 ṭ, h

ligatured 𐨨 + 𐨂 → ‎𐨨𐨂 m

-r̥ attached 𐨀 + 𐨃 → ‎𐨀𐨃 a, k, ḱ, kh, g, gh, c, ch, j, t, d, dh, n, p, ph, b, bh, v, ś, s

independent 𐨨 + 𐨃 → ‎𐨨𐨃 m, h

-e horizontal 𐨀 + 𐨅 → ‎𐨀𐨅 a, n, h

diagonal 𐨐 + 𐨅 → ‎𐨐𐨅 k, ḱ, kh, g, gh, c, ch, j, ñ, ṭ, ṭh, ṭ́h, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ, t, dh, b, bh, y, r, v, ṣ, s, z

vertical 𐨠 + 𐨅 → ‎𐨠𐨅 th, p, ph, l, ś

ligatured 𐨡 + 𐨅 → ‎𐨡𐨅 d, m

-o horizontal 𐨀 + 𐨆 → ‎𐨀𐨆 a, k, ḱ, kh, g, gh, c, ch, j, ñ, ṭ, ṭh, ṭ́h, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ, t, th, d, dh, n, b, bh, m, r, l, v, ṣ, s, z, h

diagonal 𐨤 + 𐨆 → ‎𐨤𐨆 p, ph, y, ś




Unaspirated Aspirated Unaspirated Aspirated

Image Text Trans. IPA Image Text Trans. Image Text Trans. IPA Image Text Trans. Image Text Trans. IPA


𐨐 k /k/

𐨑 kh

𐨒 g /ɡ/

𐨓 gh


𐨕 c /c/

𐨖 ch

𐨗 j /ɟ/

𐨙 ñ /ɲ/


𐨚 ṭ /ʈ/

𐨛 ṭh

𐨜 ḍ /ɖ/

𐨝 ḍh

𐨞 ṇ /ɳ/


𐨟 t /t/

𐨠 th

𐨡 d /d/

𐨢 dh

𐨣 n /n/


𐨤 p /p/

𐨥 ph

𐨦 b /b/

𐨧 bh

𐨨 m /m/

There are two special modified forms of these consonants:[3]

Image Text Trans. Image Text Trans.

Modified form

𐨲 ḱ

𐨳 ṭ́h

Original form

𐨐 k

𐨛 ṭh

Sonorants and fricatives[2]

Palatal Retroflex Dental Labial

Image Text Trans. IPA Image Text Trans. IPA Image Text Trans. IPA Image Text Trans. IPA


𐨩 y /j/

𐨪 r /r/

𐨫 l /l/

𐨬 v /ʋ/


𐨭 ś /ɕ/

𐨮 ṣ /ȿ/

𐨯 s /s/


𐨰 z ?

𐨱 h /h/

Additional marks[edit] Various additional marks are used to modify vowels and consonants:[3]

Mark Trans. Example Description

𐨌 ◌̄ 𐨨 + 𐨌 → ‎𐨨𐨌 The vowel length mark may be used with -a, -i, -u, and -r̥ to indicate the equivalent long vowel (-ā, -ī, -ū, and r̥̄ respectively). When used with -e it indicates the diphthong -ai. When used with -o it indicates the diphthong -au.

𐨍 ◌͚ 𐨯 + 𐨍 → ‎𐨯𐨍 The vowel modifier double ring below appears in some Central Asian documents with vowels -a and -u.[4] Its precise phonetic function is unknown.

𐨎 ṃ 𐨀 + 𐨎 → ‎𐨀𐨎 An anusvara indicates nasalization of the vowel or a nasal segment following the vowel. It can be used with -a, -i, -u, -r̥, -e, and -o.

𐨏 ḥ 𐨐 + 𐨏 → ‎𐨐𐨏 A visarga indicates the unvoiced syllable-final /h/. It can also be used as a vowel length marker. Visarga is used with -a, -i, -u, -r̥, -e, and -o.

𐨸 ◌̄ 𐨗 + 𐨸 → ‎𐨗𐨸 A bar above a consonant can be used to indicate various modified pronunciations depending on the consonant, such as nasalization or aspiration. It is used with k, ṣ, g, c, j, n, m, ś, ṣ, s, and h.

𐨹 ◌́ or ◌̱ 𐨒 + 𐨹 → ‎𐨒𐨹 The cauda changes how consonants are pronounced in various ways, particularly fricativization. It is used with g, j, ḍ, t, d, p, y, v, ś, and s.

𐨺 ◌̣ 𐨨 + 𐨺 → ‎𐨨𐨺 The precise phonetic function of the dot below is unknown. It is used with m and h.

𐨿 (n/a) ‎𐨢 + ‎𐨁 + ‎𐨐 + ‎𐨿 → ‎𐨢𐨁𐨐𐨿 A virama is used to suppress the inherent vowel that otherwise occurs with every consonant letter. Its effect varies based on situation: When not followed by a consonant the virama causes the preceding consonant to be written as a subscript to the left of the letter before that consonant. When the virama is followed by another consonant, it will trigger a combined form consisting of two or more consonants. This may be a ligature, a special combining form, or a combining full form depending on the consonants involved. The result takes into account any other combining marks.

‎𐨐 + ‎𐨿 + ‎𐨮 → ‎𐨐𐨿𐨮

‎𐨯 + ‎𐨿 + ‎𐨩 → ‎𐨯𐨿𐨩

‎𐨐 + ‎𐨿 + ‎𐨟 → ‎𐨐𐨿𐨟

Punctuation[edit] Nine Kharosthi
punctuation marks have been identified:[3]

Sign Description Sign Description Sign Description

𐩐 dot 𐩓 crescent bar 𐩖 danda

𐩑 small circle 𐩔 mangalam 𐩗 double danda

𐩒 circle 𐩕 lotus 𐩘 lines

Numerals[edit] Kharosthi
included a set of numerals that are reminiscent of Roman numerals. The system is based on an additive and a multiplicative principle, but does not have the subtractive feature used in the Roman number system.[5]


Value 1 2 3 4 10 20 100 1000


Text 𐩀 𐩁 𐩂 𐩃 𐩄 𐩅 𐩆 𐩇

The numerals, like the letters, are written from right to left. There is no zero and no separate signs for the digits 5–9. Numbers in Kharosthi
use an additive system. For example, the number 1996 would be written as 1000 4 4 1 100 20 20 20 20 10 4 2 (image: , text: 𐩇𐩃𐩃𐩀𐩆𐩅𐩅𐩅𐩅𐩄𐩃𐩁).


Kharoshthi on a coin of Indo-Greek
king Artemidoros Aniketos, reading "Rajatirajasa Moasa Putasa cha Artemidorasa".

Routes of ancient scripts of India traveling to other parts of Asia ( Kharosthi
shown in blue)

The Kharosthi
script was deciphered by James Prinsep
James Prinsep
(1799–1840) using the bilingual coins of the Indo-Greek
Kingdom (obverse in Greek, reverse in Pali, using the Kharosthi
script). This in turn led to the reading of the Edicts of Ashoka, some of which, from the northwest of South Asia, were written in the Kharosthi
script. Scholars are not in agreement as to whether the Kharosthi
script evolved gradually, or was the deliberate work of a single inventor. An analysis of the script forms shows a clear dependency on the Aramaic alphabet but with extensive modifications to support the sounds found in Indic languages. One model is that the Aramaic script arrived with the Achaemenid Empire's conquest of the Indus River
Indus River
(modern Pakistan) in 500 BCE and evolved over the next 200+ years, reaching its final form by the 3rd century BCE where it appears in some of the Edicts of Ashoka
Edicts of Ashoka
found in northwestern part of South Asia. However, no intermediate forms have yet been found to confirm this evolutionary model, and rock and coin inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE onward show a unified and standard form. An inscription in Aramaic dating back to the 4th century BCE was found in Sirkap, testifying to the presence of the Aramaic script in northwestern India at that period. According to Sir John Marshall, this seems to confirm that Kharoshthi was later developed from Aramaic.[6] The study of the Kharosthi
script was recently invigorated by the discovery of the Gandhāran Buddhist texts, a set of birch bark manuscripts written in Kharosthi, discovered near the Afghan city of Hadda just west of the Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
in modern Pakistan. The manuscripts were donated to the British Library
British Library
in 1994. The entire set of manuscripts are dated to the 1st century CE, making them the oldest Buddhist manuscripts yet discovered. Unicode[edit] Main article: Kharoshthi ( Unicode
block) Kharosthi
was added to the Unicode
Standard in March, 2005 with the release of version 4.1. The Unicode
block for Kharosthi
is U+10A00–U+10A5F:

Kharoshthi[1][2] Official Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+10A0x 𐨀  𐨁  𐨂  𐨃

 𐨅  𐨆

 𐨌  𐨍  𐨎  𐨏

U+10A1x 𐨐 𐨑 𐨒 𐨓

𐨕 𐨖 𐨗

𐨙 𐨚 𐨛 𐨜 𐨝 𐨞 𐨟

U+10A2x 𐨠 𐨡 𐨢 𐨣 𐨤 𐨥 𐨦 𐨧 𐨨 𐨩 𐨪 𐨫 𐨬 𐨭 𐨮 𐨯

U+10A3x 𐨰 𐨱 𐨲 𐨳

 𐨸  𐨹  𐨺


U+10A4x 𐩀 𐩁 𐩂 𐩃 𐩄 𐩅 𐩆 𐩇

U+10A5x 𐩐 𐩑 𐩒 𐩓 𐩔 𐩕 𐩖 𐩗 𐩘


1.^ As of Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points


Kharoshti script on a wooden plate in the National Museum of India in New Delhi

Kharoshti script on a wooden plate in the National Museum of India in New Delhi

Kharoshti script on a wooden plate in the National Museum of India in New Delhi

Kharoshti script on wood from Niya, 3rd century CE

Double-wedged wooden tablet in Gandhari written in Kharosthi
script, 2nd to 4th century CE

Wooden tablet inscribed with Kharosthi
characters (2nd–3rd century CE). Excavated at the Niya ruins in Xinjiang, China. Collection of the Xinjiang

Wooden Kharosthi
document found at Loulan, China by Aurel Stein

Fragmentary Kharosthi
Buddhist text on birchbark (Part of a group of early manuscripts from Gandhara), first half of 1st century CE. Collection of the British Library
British Library
in London

Silver bilingual tetradrachm of Menander I
Menander I
(155-130 BCE). Obverse: Greek legend, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ (BASILEOS SOTEROS MENANDROU), literally, "Of Saviour King Menander". Reverse: Kharosthi
legend: MAHARAJA TRATARASA MENADRASA "Saviour King Menander". Athena
advancing right, with thunderbolt and shield. Taxila mint mark.

Coin of King Gurgamoya
of Khotan
(1st century CE). Obverse: Kharoshthi legend "Of the great king of kings, king of Khotan, Gurgamoya. Reverse: Chinese legend: "Twenty-four grain copper coin".

Coin of Menander II
Menander II
Dikaiou Obverse: Menander wearing a diadem. Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ "King Menander the Just". Reverse: Winged figure bearing diadem and palm, with halo, probably Nike. The Kharoshthi legend reads MAHARAJASA DHARMIKASA MENADRASA "Great King, Menander, follower of the Dharma, Menander".

The Indo-Greek
Hashtnagar Pedestal symbolizes bodhisattva and ancient Kharosthi
script. Found near Rajar in Gandhara, Pakistan. Exhibited at the British Museum
British Museum
in London.

Mathura lion capital
Mathura lion capital
with addorsed lions and Prakrit
inscriptions in Kharoshthi script

Fragments of stone well railings with a Buddhist inscription written in Kharoshthi script (late Han period to the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
era). Discovered at Luoyang, China in 1924.

Portion of Emperor Ashoka's Rock Edicts at Shahbaz Garhi

Portion of Emperor Ashoka's Rock Edicts at Shahbaz Garhi

See also[edit]

Brahmi History of Afghanistan History of Pakistan Pre-Islamic scripts in Afghanistan

Further reading[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kharoshthi.

Kaschgar und die Kharoṣṭhī


^ a b c R. D. Banerji (April 1920). "The Kharosthi
Alphabet". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (2): 193–219. JSTOR 25209596.  ^ a b c Daniels, Peter T.; Bright, William, eds. (1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press, Inc. pp. 373–383. ISBN 978-0195079937.  ^ a b c d e Glass, Andrew; Baums, Stefan; Salomon, Richard (2003-09-18). "L2/03-314R2: Proposal to Encode Kharoshthi in Plane 1 of ISO/IEC 10646" (PDF).  ^ Glass, Andrew; Baums, Stefan; Salomon, Richard (2003-09-29). "L2/02-364: Proposal to add one combining diacritic to the UCS" (PDF).  ^ Graham Flegg, Numbers: Their History and Meaning, Courier Dover Publications, 2002, ISBN 978-0-486-42165-0, p. 67f. ^ A Guide to Taxila, John Marshall, 1918

Icon for links to pages in the Prakrit

Dani, Ahmad Hassan. Kharoshthi Primer, Lahore Museum Publication Series - 16, Lahore, 1979 Falk, Harry. Schrift im alten Indien: Ein Forschungsbericht mit Anmerkungen, Gunter Narr Verlag, 1993 (in German) Fussman's, Gérard. Les premiers systèmes d'écriture en Inde, in Annuaire du Collège de France 1988-1989 (in French) Hinüber, Oscar von. Der Beginn der Schrift und frühe Schriftlichkeit in Indien, Franz Steiner Verlag, 1990 (in German) Nasim Khan, M.(1997). Ashokan Inscriptions: A Palaeographical Study. Atthariyyat (Archaeology), Vol. I, pp. 131–150. Peshawar Nasim Khan, M.(1999). Two Dated Kharoshthi Inscriptions from Gandhara. Journal of Asian Civilizations (Journal of Central Asia), Vol. XXII, No.1, July 1999: 99-103. Nasim Khan, M.(2000). An Inscribed Relic-Casket from Dir. The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. V, No. 1, March 1997: 21-33. Peshawar Nasim Khan, M.(2000). Kharoshthi Inscription from Swabi - Gandhara. The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. V, No. 2. September 1997: 49-52. Peshawar. Nasim Khan, M.(2004). Kharoshthi Manuscripts from Gandhara. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol. XII, Nos. 1 & 2 (2004): 9-15. Peshawar Nasim Khan, M.(2009). Kharoshthi Manuscripts from Gandhara
(2nd ed.. First published in 2008. Norman, Kenneth R. The Development of Writing in India and its Effect upon the Pâli Canon, in Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Südasiens (36), 1993 Salomon, Richard. New evidence for a Gāndhārī origin of the arapacana syllabary. Journal of the American Oriental Society. Apr-Jun 1990, Vol.110 (2), p. 255-273. Salomon, Richard. An additional note on arapacana. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 1993, Vol.113 (2), p. 275-6. Salomon, Richard. Kharoṣṭhī
syllables used as location markers in Gāndhāran stūpa architecture. Pierfrancesco Callieri, ed., Architetti, Capomastri, Artigiani: L’organizzazione dei cantieri e della produzione artistica nell’asia ellenistica. Studi offerti a Domenico Faccenna nel suo ottantesimo compleanno. (Serie Orientale Rome 100; Rome: Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente, 2006), pp. 181–224.

External links[edit]

List of all known Kharoṣṭhī
(Gandhārī) inscriptions. A Preliminary Study of Kharoṣṭhī
Manuscript Paleography by Andrew Glass, University of Washington
University of Washington
(2000) On The Origin Of The Early Indian Scripts: A Review Article by Richard Salomon, University of Washington
University of Washington
(via archive.org)

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Hindu-Arabic Abjad Attic (Greek) Muisca Roman



Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom


Espanca Pahawh Hmong Khitan small script Southwest Paleohispanic Zhuyin fuhao


ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation


Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese

Hiragana Katakana Man'yōgana Hentaigana Sogana Jindai moji

Kikakui Kpelle Linear B Linear Elamite Lisu Loma Nüshu Nwagu Aneke script Old Persian Cuneiform Vai Woleai Yi (Modern) Yugtun

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1829 braille International uniformity ASCII braille Unicode
braille patterns


French-ordered scripts (see for more)

Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

(Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav

Reordered scripts

Algerian Braille

Frequency-based scripts

American Braille

Independent scripts

Japanese Korean Two-Cell Chinese

Eight-dot scripts

Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

Symbols in braille

music Canadian currency marks Computer Braille
Code Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) Nemeth braille code


e-book Braille
embosser Braille
translator Braille
watch Mountbatten Brailler Optical braille recognition Perforation Perkins Brailler Refreshable braille display Slate and stylus Braigo


Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait


Institute of America Braille
Without Borders Japan Braille
Library National Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
literacy RoboBraille

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Electronic writing systems

Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode

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Internet slang
Internet slang

3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
("1337") Lolspeak / LOLspeak / Kitteh Martian language (Chinese) Miguxês (Portuguese) Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon
(Russian) Translit Volapuk

See also English internet slang (at Wiktionary)