Kulung (autonym: Kulu rɩŋ, [kulu rɪŋ]) is a Kiranti language spoken by an estimated 33,000 people.
1 Locations 2 Phonology
2.1 Vowels 2.2 Consonants
3 Nominal morphology
3.1 Personal pronouns 3.2 Cases
4 Verbal morphology 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External links
Kulung in some ten villages along the upper reaches of the Huṅga or
Hoṅgu river (a tributary of the Dūdhkosī), in
Hongu River valley, Solukhumbu District, Sagarmatha Zone: Bung, Pelmang, Chhemsing, Chheskam, Lucham, Chachalung, Satdi, Gudel, Namlung, Sotang, and Chekma villages Sankhuwasabha district, Kosi Zone: Mangtewa, Yaphu, and Seduwa VDC's Bhojpur District, Kosi Zone: Phedi, Limkhim, Khartanga, and Wasepla VDC's
Phonology Vowels Kulung has six short vowels and six long vowels:
Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i iː u uː
Mid e eː ə əː ɔ ɔː
Open a aː
Front and central vowels are unrounded, whereas back vowels are rounded.
Example words for consonant phonemes
/k/ /koŋ/ [kɔŋ] 'I'
/kʰ/ /kʰoŋ/ [kʰɔŋ] 'brass bowl'
/g/ /goŋ/ [gɔŋ] 'division of a clan'
/p/ /mampai/ [mampai] 'It didn't leak.'
/pʰ/ /mampʰai/ [mampʰai] 'He didn't reverse it.'
/b/ /mambai/ [mambai] 'He didn't come.'
/t/ /tite/ [tite] 'It burns.'
/tʰ/ /tʰite/ [tʰite] 'He is awake.'
/d/ /dite/ [dite] 'It lays an egg.'
/tɕ/ /tɕi/ [tɕi] 'poison'
/tɕʰ/ /tɕʰi/ [tɕʰi] 'marrow'
/dʑ/ /dʑi/ [dʑi] 'happiness'
/s/ /si/ [si] 'louse'
/m/ /ma/ [ma] 'mother'
/n/ /na/ [na] 'elder sister'
/ŋ/ /ŋa/ [ŋa] 'fish'
/ɾ/ /ɾiŋ/ [ɾiŋ] 'language, word'
/l/ /liŋ/ [liŋ] 'yeast'
/j/ /ja/ [ja] 'edge of a blade'
/w/ /wa/ [wa] 'rain'
/ɦ/ /ɦu/ [ɦu] 'arm'
/Ɂ/ /Ɂa/ [Ɂa] '(ergative case marker)'
Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasals m n
Plosives and Affricates voiceless unaspirated p t tɕ k
voiced b d dʑ g Ɂ
voiceless aspirated pʰ tʰ tɕʰ kʰ
Approximants w l j
Dialects of the
Kulung language include
Kulung personal pronouns
Singular Dual Plural
1st exclusive koŋ 'I' kaska 'we (he/she and I)' keika 'we (all of them, and I)'
1st inclusive - kas 'we (you and I)' kei 'we (all of you, and I)'
2nd an 'you' anci 'you (two)' anni 'you (guys)'
3rd ŋkə 'he/she' - ŋkəs 'they'
Cases Kulung has thirteen cases. Case endings are attached to nouns with or without the non-singular suffix. Allomorphy of case endings depends on whether the noun ends in a vowel or consonant. Below the case endings of the noun lam 'road' are presented.
Case Suffix English prep. Example Translation
absolutive - - lam road
genitive -mi of / 's lam-mi of (a) road/ road's
ergative -ʔa - lam-ʔa road
instrumental -ʔa by lam-ʔa by the road
vocative -ʔa - lam-ʔa oh, road
locative 1 -pi at, on, in lam-pi on the road
locative 2 -to at, on, in lam-to on the road (at a higher level)
locative 3 -pu at, on, in lam-pu on the road (at a lower level)
locative 4 -pa at, on, in lam-pa on the road (at same level)
comitative -lo with lam-lo with the road
ablative -ka from lam-ka from the road
elative -pika from out of lam-pika from out of the road
mediative -la via, by way of lam-la by the road
Verbal morphology The Kulung verb is characterised by a system of complex pronominalisation, in which paradigmatic stem alternation is found. Personal endings consist of morphemes expressing notions like tense, agent, patient, number, and exclusivity. Depending on the number of verbal stems and their position in the verbal paradigm, every verb in Kulung belongs to a certain conjugation type. Complete conjugations of verbs belonging to the different conjugation types are presented in the second appendix. Like in other Kiranti languages, compound verbs are found in Kulung. These compound verbs consist of a verb stem and an auxiliary that adds semantic notions to the main verb. Other verbal constructions found in Kulung are a gerund, imperative, supine and an infinitive.
The intransitive verb per-ma 'to fly'
Non-preterite Preterite Negated preterite
1s per-o: pero mam-per-ŋa
1di per-ci per-a-ci mam-per-ci
1de per-ci-ka per-a-ci-ka mam-per-s-ka
1pi per-ya per-i mam-per-i
1pe per-ya-ka per-i-ka mam-per-i-ka
2s per-e per-a mam-per-na
2d per-ci per-a-ci mam-per-nci
2p per-ni per-a-ni mam-per-ni
3 per-e per-a mam-per
^ Kulung at
Bibliography Tolsma, Gerard Jacobus (2006). A Grammar of Kulung. Languages of the Greater Himalayan Region. 5/4. Leiden, Boston. ISBN 9789004153301. External links
WALS - Kulung Himalayan Languages Project
v t e
Thulung (Pro-cü) Wambule (Raɗu/Raᶑu) Jerung (Raru) Khaling (R/Daːdu) Dumi (Roʔdu) Koi Bahing (Proː-ca) Sunwar Vayu Tilung
Kulung (Rodu) Nachhiring Sampang (Rodung) Saam Bantawa Puma Chamling (Rodong) Dungmali
Yakkha (Yakkha-ba/Rakdong) Lumba-Yakkha Lambichhong Belhare Athpare Chintang Chulung Yamphu Lohorung Mewahang Waling? L