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Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol
(Mongolian: Хамаг монгол, lit. "Whole Mongol") was a major Mongolic tribal confederation (khanlig) on the Mongolian Plateau in the 12th century. It is sometimes also considered a predecessor state[1] to the Mongol Empire.[2] Existence of a somewhat mysterious tribal power known in Mongol tradition as Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol
Uls recorded in sources of Khitan Liao dynasty (907-1125) in North China
China
and eastern Mongolia.[3] After the fall of Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
in 1125, the Khamag Mongols
Mongols
began to play an important role on the Mongolian plains.[4] They occupied one of the most fertile lands of the country, the basins of the river Onon, Kherlen and Tuul Rivers in the Khentii Mountains. The Taichiud (Cyrillic: Тайчууд) was one of the three core tribes in the Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol
Khanate of Mongolia
Mongolia
during the 12th century and whose people lived in the southern part of Russian Zabaykalsky Krai. Zabaykalsky Krai
Zabaykalsky Krai
and the Mongolian Khentii Province
Khentii Province
were core regions of the Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol
Khanate.[5] The Khamags consisted of the four core clans Khiyad, Taichuud, Jalairs
Jalairs
and Jirukhen. The first khan of Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol
recorded in history is Khabul Khan from the Borjigin
Borjigin
clan. Khabul Khan
Khabul Khan
successfully repelled the invasions of the Jurchen Jin armies. Khabul Khan
Khabul Khan
was succeeded by Ambaghai Khagann of the Taichiud. Ambagai was captured by the Tatar confederation while delivering his daughter for marriage to their leadership. He was handed over to the Jin, who cruelly executed him. Ambaghai was succeeded by Hotula Khan, a son of Khabul Khan. Hotula Khan engaged the Tatars in 13 battles in an effort to obtain vengeance for the death of Ambagai Khan. Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol
was unable to elect a khan after Hotula died. However, Khabul's grandson Yesugei, who was a chief of the Khiyad
Khiyad
tribe, was an effective and preeminent leader of Khamag Mongol. Temujin, the future Genghis Khan, was born into Yesukhei's family as the first son in Delüün Boldog
Delüün Boldog
on the upper reaches of the Onon river in 1162. When young Tooril Khan asked for help from Yesukhei, the ruler of the Khamag Mongol,[6] to dethrone his brothers among the Keraites, the Mongols
Mongols
helped him defeat the Keraite leaders and put him on the throne in the early 12th century. Yesukhei was poisoned by the Tatars in 1170 and shortly after Yesukhei died. The Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol
began to disintegrate after Yesugei's death in 1171. Political anarchy and a power vacuum lasted until 1189 when Temujin became the Khan of the Khamag Mongol. War broke soon out between other Mongol tribes. Temujin's friend Jamukha was recognized by the rival tribes as Gur-Khan (the universal ruler) in 1201 but he was defeated by the alliance of Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol
and Keraites. When Tooril Khan refused to cement the alliance with the Khamag, Temujin's wars with the clans nearly destroyed him. Temujin united all clans on the Mongolian plateau at last in 1206, when he was given the title Genghis Khan. See also[edit]

List of medieval Mongol tribes and clans

Notes[edit]

^ Bat-Ocher Bold (2001), Mongolian nomadic society: a reconstruction of the "medieval" history of Mongolia, Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, p. 176, ISBN 0-7007-1158-9  ^ History of the Mongolian People's Republic
Mongolian People's Republic
By Akademii︠a︡ nauk SSSR, p.99 ^ Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol
Uls ^ Histoire de la Mongolie By László Lőrincz, p.43 ^ History of Mongolia, Volume II, 2003 ^ He never assumed the title the Khan of the Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol
but baghatur (hero)

References[edit]

Akademiiya nauk SSSR - History of the Mongolian People's Republic, Nauka Pub. House, Central Dept. of Oriental Literature, 1973 Bat-Ochir Bold - Mongolian Nomadic Society, St. Martin's Press, 1999. ISBN 0-312-22827-9 The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1974: Macropaedia Me-Ne ISBN 0-85229-290-2 László Lőrincz - Histoire de la Mongolie, Akadémiai Kiadó,the University of Michigan, 1984. ISBN 963-05-3381-2

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Mongolic peoples

History

Timeline Mongolian Plateau States Rulers Slab Grave culture Ordos culture Proto-Mongolic language Medieval tribes Modern clans Mongolian nobility Writing systems Languages Soyombo symbol Religion

Ethnic groups

Eastern Mongols

Darkhad Dariganga Eljigin Khalkha Khotogoyd Sartuul

Western Mongols

Altai Uriankhai Baatud Bayad Chantuu Choros Dörben Oyrad Khoyd Khoshuud Khoton Kalmyk Oyrad Myangad Ӧlӧӧd Sart Kalmak Torguud Zakhchin

Northern Mongols

Buriad Barga Hamnigan

Southern Mongols

Abaga Abaganar Aohans Asud Baarin Chahar Eastern Dorbed Gorlos Kharchin Khishigten Khorchin Khuuchid Jalaid Jaruud Muumyangan Naiman Onnigud Ordos Sunud Tumed Urad Üzemchin

Other

Bonan Daur Dongxiang Mughal Moghol Monguor Khatso
Khatso
(Yunnan Mongol) Sichuan Mongo

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