Khamag Mongol (Mongolian: Хамаг монгол, lit. "Whole
Mongol") was a major Mongolic tribal confederation (khanlig) on the
Mongolian Plateau in the 12th century. It is sometimes also considered
a predecessor state to the Mongol Empire.
Existence of a somewhat mysterious tribal power known in Mongol
Khamag Mongol Uls recorded in sources of Khitan Liao
dynasty (907-1125) in North
China and eastern Mongolia. After the
Liao dynasty in 1125, the Khamag
Mongols began to play an
important role on the Mongolian plains. They occupied one of the
most fertile lands of the country, the basins of the river Onon,
Kherlen and Tuul Rivers in the Khentii Mountains. The Taichiud
(Cyrillic: Тайчууд) was one of the three core tribes in the
Mongolia during the 12th century and whose
people lived in the southern part of Russian Zabaykalsky Krai.
Zabaykalsky Krai and the Mongolian
Khentii Province were core regions
Khamag Mongol Khanate. The Khamags consisted of the four
core clans Khiyad, Taichuud,
Jalairs and Jirukhen.
The first khan of
Khamag Mongol recorded in history is Khabul Khan
Khabul Khan successfully repelled the
invasions of the Jurchen Jin armies.
Khabul Khan was succeeded by
Ambaghai Khagann of the Taichiud. Ambagai was captured by the Tatar
confederation while delivering his daughter for marriage to their
leadership. He was handed over to the Jin, who cruelly executed him.
Ambaghai was succeeded by Hotula Khan, a son of Khabul Khan. Hotula
Khan engaged the Tatars in 13 battles in an effort to obtain vengeance
for the death of Ambagai Khan.
Khamag Mongol was unable to elect a khan after Hotula died. However,
Khabul's grandson Yesugei, who was a chief of the
Khiyad tribe, was an
effective and preeminent leader of Khamag Mongol. Temujin, the future
Genghis Khan, was born into Yesukhei's family as the first son in
Delüün Boldog on the upper reaches of the Onon river in 1162.
When young Tooril Khan asked for help from Yesukhei, the ruler of the
Khamag Mongol, to dethrone his brothers among the Keraites, the
Mongols helped him defeat the Keraite leaders and put him on the
throne in the early 12th century.
Yesukhei was poisoned by the Tatars in 1170 and shortly after Yesukhei
Khamag Mongol began to disintegrate after Yesugei's death in
1171. Political anarchy and a power vacuum lasted until 1189 when
Temujin became the Khan of the Khamag Mongol. War broke soon out
between other Mongol tribes. Temujin's friend
Jamukha was recognized
by the rival tribes as Gur-Khan (the universal ruler) in 1201 but he
was defeated by the alliance of
Khamag Mongol and Keraites.
When Tooril Khan refused to cement the alliance with the Khamag,
Temujin's wars with the clans nearly destroyed him. Temujin united all
clans on the Mongolian plateau at last in 1206, when he was given the
title Genghis Khan.
List of medieval Mongol tribes and clans
^ Bat-Ocher Bold (2001), Mongolian nomadic society: a reconstruction
of the "medieval" history of Mongolia, Richmond, Surrey: Curzon,
p. 176, ISBN 0-7007-1158-9
^ History of the
Mongolian People's Republic
Mongolian People's Republic By Akademii︠a︡ nauk
Khamag Mongol Uls
^ Histoire de la Mongolie By László Lőrincz, p.43
^ History of Mongolia, Volume II, 2003
^ He never assumed the title the Khan of the
Khamag Mongol but
Akademiiya nauk SSSR - History of the Mongolian People's Republic,
Nauka Pub. House, Central Dept. of Oriental Literature, 1973
Bat-Ochir Bold - Mongolian Nomadic Society, St. Martin's Press, 1999.
The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1974:
Macropaedia Me-Ne ISBN 0-85229-290-2
László Lőrincz - Histoire de la Mongolie, Akadémiai Kiadó,the
University of Michigan, 1984. ISBN 963-05-3381-2
Slab Grave culture
Khatso (Yunnan Mongol)