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The Khalji or Khilji[a] dynasty was a Muslim
Muslim
dynasty which ruled large parts of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
between 1290 and 1320.[2][3][4] It was founded by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji
Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji
and became the second dynasty to rule the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
of India. The dynasty is known for their faithlessness and ferocity, conquests into the Hindu south,[2] and for successfully fending off the repeated Mongol invasions of India.[5][6]

Contents

1 Origins 2 History

2.1 Jalal-ud-din Khalji 2.2 Alauddin Khalji 2.3 The last Khalji sultans

3 Economic policy and administration

3.1 Historical impact

4 Slavery 5 Architecture 6 Disputed historical sources 7 List of rulers of Delhi
Delhi
(1290–1320) 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References

10.1 Bibliography

11 External links

Origins

Copper coin of Alauddin Khalji

The Khaljis were of Turko-Afghan origin:[7] they were a Turkic people, who had long been settled in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
before moving to Delhi.[8] The ancestors of Jalaluddin Khalji had lived in the Helmand and Lamghan
Lamghan
regions for over 200 years.[9] The Khilji dynasty was named after a small village in Afghanistan.[10] The early Muslim
Muslim
geographers and historians describe the Khalaj people as Turkic, but the accounts describing the Khaljis' rise to power in India
India
indicate that they were regarded as a race quite distinct from the Turks in the late 13th century Delhi.[11] The Khiljis were looked down as non Turks by Turks, the Khaljis were wrongly[12][13] considered as ethnic Afghans by the older Turkish nobles of India
India
as they had intermarried with local Afghans and adopted their manners, culture, customs and practices. They were treated as Afghans in the Delhi
Delhi
Court.[9][14][15] History

Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate

Ruling dynasties

Mamluk dynasty

Qutb al-Din Aibak 1206–1210

Aram Shah 1210–1211

Iltutmish 1211–1236

Rukn ud din Firuz 1236

Razia Sultana 1236-1240

Muiz ud din Bahram 1240–1242

Ala ud din Masud 1242–1246

Nasir ud din Mahmud 1246–1266

Ghiyas ud din Balban 1266–1287

Muiz ud din Qaiqabad 1287–1290

Shamsuddin Kayumars 1290

Khalji dynasty

Jalaluddin 1290–1296

Alauddin 1296–1316

Shihabuddin Omar 1316

Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah 1316–1320

Khusro Khan 1320

Tughlaq dynasty

Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq 1320–1325

Muhammad bin Tughluq 1325–1351

Firuz Shah Tughlaq 1351–1388

Tughluq Khan 1388–1389

Abu Bakr Shah 1389–1390

Nasir ud din Muhammad Shah III 1390–1393

Ala ud-din Sikandar Shah 1393

Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq 1394–1412/1413

Nasir-ud-din Nusrat Shah Tughluq 1394–1398

Sayyid dynasty

Khizr Khan 1414–1421

Mubarak Shah 1421–1434

Muhammad Shah 1434–1445

Alam Shah 1445–1451

Lodi dynasty

Bahlul Khan Lodi 1451–1489

Sikandar Lodi 1489–1517

Ibrahim Lodi 1517–1526

v t e

Jalal-ud-din Khalji Main article: Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji Khaljis were vassals of the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi
Delhi
and served the Sultan
Sultan
of Delhi, Ghiyas ud din Balban. Balban's successors were murdered over 1289-1290, and the Mamluk dynasty succumbed to the factional conflicts within the Mamluk dynasty and the Muslim
Muslim
nobility. As the struggle between the factions razed, Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji led a coup and murdered the 17-year-old Mamluk successor Muiz ud din Qaiqabad - the last ruler of Mamluk dynasty[16] Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji, who was around 70 years old at the time of his ascension, was known as a mild-mannered, humble and kind monarch to the general public.[17][18] Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji
Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji
was accepted as sultan by a faction of Muslim
Muslim
amirs of Turkic, Persian, Arabic factions and Indian- Muslim
Muslim
aristocrats. However, Jalal-ud-din in his old age was unpopular and not universally accepted. During his six-year reign (1290–96), some of Balban's officers revolted due to his assumption of power and the subsequent sidelining of nobility and commanders serving the Mamluk dynasty.[19] Jalal-ud-din suppressed the revolt and executed some commanders, then led an unsuccessful expedition against Ranthambhor and repelled a Mongol force on the banks of the Sind River in central India
India
with the help of his nephew Juna Khan.[20] Alauddin Khalji Main article: Alauddin Khalji Alauddin Khalji
Alauddin Khalji
was the nephew and son-in-law of Jalal-ud-din, raided the Hindu Deccan peninsula and Deogiri
Deogiri
- then the capital of the Hindu state of Maharashtra, looting their treasure.[16][21] He returned to Delhi
Delhi
in 1296, murdered his uncle who was also his father-in-law, then assumed power as Sultan.[22] Ala al-din Khalji continued expanding Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
into South India, with the help of generals such as Malik Kafur
Malik Kafur
and Khusraw Khan, collecting large war booty (Anwatan) from those they defeated.[23] His commanders collected war spoils from Hindu kingdoms, paid khums (one fifth) on Ghanima (الْغَنيمَة, booty collected during war) to Sultan's treasury, which helped strengthen the Khalji rule.[24]

The Koh-i-noor
Koh-i-noor
diamond was seized by Alauddin Khalji's army in 1310, from the Kakatiya dynasty
Kakatiya dynasty
in Warangal.[24]

Alauddin Khalji
Alauddin Khalji
reigned for 20 years. He attacked and seized Hindu states of Ranthambhor (1301 AD), Chittorgarh (1303), Māndu (1305) and plundered the wealthy state of Devagiri,[25] also withstood two Mongol raids.[26] Ala al-din is also known for his cruelty against attacked kingdoms after wars. Historians note him as a tyrant and that anyone Ala al-din Khalji suspected of being a threat to this power was killed along with the women and children of that family. In 1298, between 15,000 and 30,000 people near Delhi, who had recently converted to Islam, were slaughtered in a single day, due to fears of an uprising.[27] He also killed his own family members and nephews, in 1299-1300, after he suspected them of rebellion, by first gouging out their eyes and then beheading them.[21] In 1308, Alauddin's lieutenant, Malik Kafur
Malik Kafur
captured Warangal, overthrew the Hoysala Empire
Hoysala Empire
south of the Krishna River
Krishna River
and raided Madurai
Madurai
in Tamil Nadu.[25] He then looted the treasury in capitals and from the temples of south India. Among these loots was the Warangal loot that included one of the largest known diamond in human history, the Koh-i-noor.[24] Malik Kafur
Malik Kafur
returned to Delhi
Delhi
in 1311, laden with loot and war booty from Deccan peninsula which he submitted to Aladdin Khalji. This made Malik Kafur, born in a Hindu family and who had converted to Islam before becoming Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate's army commander, a favorite of Alauddin Khalji.[20] In 1311, Alauddin ordered a massacre of between 15,000 and 30,000 Mongol settlers, who had recently converted to Islam, after suspecting them of plotting an uprising against him.[27][28] The last Khalji sultans Main articles: Shihabuddin Omar, Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah, and Khusro Khan Aladdin Khalji died in December 1315. Thereafter, the sultanate witnessed chaos, coup and succession of assassinations.[16] Malik Kafur became the sultan but lacked support from Muslim
Muslim
amirs and was killed within a few months. Within the next three years, three more Khalji successors violently assumed power but were in turn, all violently put to death in coups. After Malik Kafur's death, the Muslim amirs installed Shihab-ud-din Omar - a six-year-old as Sultan, with his elder teenage brother Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah
Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah
as regent. Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah killed his younger brother and then appointed himself as the Sultan. To win over the loyalty of the amirs and the Malik clan in the Sultanate, Mubarak Shah offered Ghazi Malik the command of Punjab and others various offices or death. The amirs chose the office. Mubarak Shah ruled for less than 4 years, then was murdered in 1320 by his army general Khusraw Khan. The Muslim
Muslim
amirs in Delhi reached out and invited Ghazi Malik, then Muslim
Muslim
army commander in Punjab to lead a coup against Khusraw Khan. Ghazi Malik attacked Khusraw Khan in Delhi, beheaded him, and rechristened himself as Sultan
Sultan
Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, the first ruler of the Tughluq dynasty.[21] Economic policy and administration Main articles: Revenue reforms of Alauddin Khalji
Alauddin Khalji
and Market reforms of Alauddin Khalji Alauddin Khalji
Alauddin Khalji
changed the tax policies to strengthen his treasury to help pay the keep of his growing army and fund his wars of expansion.[29][30] He raised agriculture taxes from 20% to 50% – payable in grain and agricultural produce (or cash),[31] eliminating payments and commissions on taxes collected by local chiefs, banned socialization among his officials as well as inter-marriage between noble families to help prevent any opposition forming against him; he cut salaries of officials, poets and scholars in his kingdom.[29][30] Alauddin Khalji
Alauddin Khalji
enforced four taxes on non-Muslims in the Sultanate
Sultanate
- jizya (poll tax), kharaj (land tax), kari (house tax) and chari (pasture tax).[32][33] He also decreed that his Delhi-based revenue officers assisted by local Muslim
Muslim
jagirdars, khuts, mukkadims, chaudharis and zamindars seize by force half of all produce any farmer generates, as a tax on standing crop, so as to fill sultanate granaries.[29][34][35] His officers enforced tax payment by beating up Hindu and Muslim
Muslim
middlemen responsible for rural tax collection.[29] Furthermore, Alauddin Khalji
Alauddin Khalji
demanded, state Kulke and Rothermund, from his "wise men in the court" to create "rules and regulations in order to grind down the Hindus, so as to reduce them to abject poverty and deprive them of wealth and any form of surplus property that could foster a rebellion;[32] the Hindu was to be so reduced as to be left unable to keep a horse to ride on, to carry arms, to wear fine clothes, or to enjoy any of the luxuries of life".[29] At the same time, he confiscated all landed property from his courtiers and officers.[32] Revenue assignments to Muslim
Muslim
jagirdars were also cancelled and the revenue was collected by the central administration.[36] Henceforth, state Kulke and Rothermund, "everybody was busy with earning a living so that nobody could even think of rebellion."[32] Alauddin Khalji
Alauddin Khalji
taxation methods and increased taxes reduced agriculture output and the Sultanate
Sultanate
witnessed massive inflation. In order to compensate for salaries that he had cut and fixed for Muslim officials and soldiers, Alauddin introduced price controls on all agriculture produce, goods, livestocks and slaves in kingdom, as well as controls on where, how and by whom these could be sold. Markets called shahana-i-mandi were created.[36][37][38] Muslim
Muslim
merchants were granted exclusive permits and monopoly in these mandi to buy and resell at official prices. No one other than these merchants could buy from farmers or sell in cities. Alauddin deployed an extensive network of Munhiyans (spies, secret police) who would monitor the mandi and had the power to seize anyone trying to buy or sell anything at a price different than the official controlled prices.[29][38][39] Those found violating these mandi rules were severely punished, such as by cutting out their flesh.[20] Taxes collected in form of seized crops and grains were stored in sultanate's granaries.[40] Over time, farmers quit farming for income and shifted to subsistence farming, the general food supply worsened in north India, shortages increased and Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
witnessed increasingly worse and extended periods of famines.[20][41] The Sultan
Sultan
banned private storage of food by anyone.[29] Rationing system was introduced by Alauddin as shortages multiplied; however, the nobility and his army were exempt from the per family quota-based food rationing system.[41] The shortages, price controls and rationing system caused starvation deaths of numerous rural people, mostly Hindus. However, during these famines, Khalji's sultanate granaries and wholesale mandi system with price controls ensured sufficient food for his army, court officials and the urban population in Delhi.[30][42] Price controls instituted by Khalji reduced prices, but also lowered wages to a point where ordinary people did not benefit from the low prices. The price control system collapsed shortly after the death of Alauddin Khalji, with prices of various agriculture products and wages doubling to quadrupling within a few years.[43] Historical impact The tax system introduced during the Khalji dynasty
Khalji dynasty
had a long term influence on Indian taxation system and state administration,

Alauddin Khalji's taxation system was probably the one institution from his reign that lasted the longest, surviving indeed into the nineteenth or even the twentieth century. From now on, the land tax (kharaj or mal) became the principal form in which the peasant's surplus was expropriated by the ruling class. — The Cambridge Economic History of India: c.1200-c.1750, [44]

Slavery Within Sultanate's capital city of Delhi, during Alauddin Khalji's reign, at least half of the population were slaves working as servants, concubines and guards for the Muslim
Muslim
nobles, amirs, court officials and commanders.[45] Slavery in India
India
during Khalji, and later Islamic dynasties, included two groups of people - persons seized during military campaigns, and people who failed to pay tax on time. The first group were people seized during military campaigns.[46] The second group of people were revenue defaulters. If a family failed to pay the annual tax in full on time, their property was seized and even some cases all their family members seized then sold as slaves.[47] The institution of slavery and bondage labor became pervasive during the Khalji dynasty; male slaves were referred to as banda, qaid, ghulam, or burdah, while female slaves were called bandi, kaniz or laundi. Architecture Ala-ud-din Khalji is credited with the early Indo-Mohammedan architecture, a style and construction campaign that flourished during Tughlaq dynasty. Among works completed during Khalji dynasty, are Alai Darwaza - the southern gateway of Qutb complex
Qutb complex
enclosure, the Idgah at Rapri, and the Jamat Khana (Khizri) Mosque in Delhi.[48] The Alai Darwaza, completed in 1311, was included as part of Qutb Minar and its Monuments UNESCO World Heritage site in 1993.[49] Perso-Arabic inscriptions on monuments have been traced to the Khalji dynasty era.[1] Disputed historical sources Historians have questioned the reliability of historical accounts about the Khalji dynasty. Genuine primary sources and historical records from 1260 to 1349 period have not been found.[50] One exception is the short chapter on Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
from 1302-1303 AD by Wassaf in Persia, which is duplicated in Jami al-Tawarikh, and which covers the Balban rule, start of Jalal-ud-din Chili's rule and circumstances of succession of Alauddin Khalji. A semi-fictional poetry (mathnawis) by Yamin al-Din Abul Hasan, also known as Amir Khusraw Dihlawi, is full of adulation for his employer, the reigning Sultan. Abu Hasan's adulation-filled narrative poetry has been used as source of Khalji dynasty
Khalji dynasty
history, but this is a disputed source.[50][51] Three historical sources, composed 30 to 115 years after the end of Khalji dynasty, are considered more independent but also questioned given the gap in time. These are Isami's epic of 1349, Diya-yi Barani's work of 1357 and Sirhindi's account of 1434, which possibly relied on now lost text or memories of people in Khalji's court. Of these Barani's text is the most referred and cited in scholarly sources.[50][52] List of rulers of Delhi
Delhi
(1290–1320)

Titular Name Personal Name Reign[53]

Shāyista Khān (Jalal-ud-din) جلال الدین ‬

Malik Fīroz ملک فیروز خلجی‬ 1290–1296

Ala-ud-din علاءالدین ‬ Ali Gurshasp علی گرشاسپ خلجی‬ 1296–1316

Shihab-ud-din شھاب الدین ‬ Umar Khan عمر خان خلجی‬ 1316

Qutb-ud-din قطب الدین ‬ Mubarak Khan مبارک خان خلجی ‬ 1316–1320

Khusro Khan
Khusro Khan
ended the Khalji dynasty
Khalji dynasty
in 1320.

See also

Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khalji Persianate society List of Sunni Muslim
Muslim
dynasties

Notes

^ In medieval Persian manuscripts, the word can be read as either "Khalji" or "Khilji" because of the omission of short vowel signs in orthography,[54] but "Khalji" is the correct name.[55]

References

^ a b "Arabic and Persian Epigraphical Studies - Archaeological Survey of India". Asi.nic.in. Retrieved 2010-11-14.  ^ a b "Khalji Dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2014-11-13. This dynasty, like the previous Slave dynasty, was of Turkish origin, though the Khaljī tribe had long been settled in Afghanistan. Its three kings were noted for their faithlessness, their ferocity, and their penetration of the Hindu south.  ^ Dynastic Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 368. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 80–89. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.  ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 62. ISBN 1-5988-4337-0. Retrieved 2013-06-13.  ^ Barua, Pradeep (2005). The state at war in South Asia. U of Nebraska Press. p. 437. ISBN 0-8032-1344-1. Retrieved 2010-08-23.  ^ Gijsbert Oonk (2007). Global Indian Diasporas: Exploring Trajectories of Migration and Theory. Amsterdam University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-90-5356-035-8.  ^ Burjor Avari (2013). Islamic Civilization in South Asia: A History of Muslim
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Power and Presence in the Indian Subcontinent. Routledge. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-415-58061-8. The Khaljis were a Turkic people who had long been settled in Afghanistan.  ^ a b Ashirbadi Lal Srivastava (1953). The Sultanate
Sultanate
of Delhi. S. L. Agarwala. p. 150. OCLC 555201052.  ^ The Pearson General Studies Manual 2009, Pg 63, Showick Thorpe Edgar location=isbn=81-317-2133-7 page=1900url=https://books.google.com/?id=oAo1X2eagywC accessdate=2010-08-23 quote=The Khilji dynasty was named after a small village in Afghanistan. ^ Peter Jackson 2003, p. 82. ^ Ashirbadi Lal Srivastava (1964). The History of India, 1000 A.D.-1707 A.D. Shiva Lal Agarwala. p. 98. OCLC 575452554. His ancestors, after having migrated from Turkistan, had lived for over 200 years in the Helmand valley and Lamghan, parts of Afghanistan called Garmasir or the hot region, and had adopted Afghan manners and customs. They were, therefore, wrongly looked upon as Afghans by the Turkish nobles in India
India
as they had intermarried with local Afghans and adopted their customs and manners. They were looked down as non Turks by Turks  ^ Abraham Eraly (2015). The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin Books. p. 126. ISBN 978-93-5118-658-8. The prejudice of Turks was however misplaced in this case, for Khaljis were actually ethnic Turks. But they had settled in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
long before the Turkish rule was established there, and had over the centuries adopted Afghan customs and practices, intermarried with the local people, and were therefore looked down on as non-Turks by pure-bred Turks.  ^ Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2002). History of medieval India: from 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D. Atlantic. p. 337. ISBN 81-269-0123-3. Retrieved 2010-08-23. The Khaljis were a Central Asian
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Turkic dynasty but having been long domiciled in present-day Afghanistan, and adopted some Afghan habits and customs. They were treated as Afghans in Delhi Court.  ^ Cavendish, Marshall (2006). World and Its Peoples: The Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Marshall Cavendish. p. 320. ISBN 0-7614-7571-0. Retrieved 2010-08-23. The sultans of the Slave Dynasty were Turkic Central Asians, but the members of the new dynasty, although they were also Turkic, had settled in Afghanistan and brought a new set of customs and culture to Delhi.  ^ a b c Peter Jackson 2003. ^ A. L. Srivastava (1966). The Sultanate
Sultanate
of Delhi, 711-1526 A.D. (Second ed.). Shiva Lal Agarwala. p. 141. OCLC 607636383.  ^ A. B. M. Habibullah (1992) [1970]. "The Khaljis: Jalaluddin Khalji". In Mohammad Habib; Khaliq Ahmad Nizami. A Comprehensive History of India. 5: The Delhi
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Sultanat (A.D. 1206-1526). The Indian History Congress / People's Publishing House. p. 312. OCLC 31870180.  ^ Peter Jackson 2003, pp. 81-86. ^ a b c d Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, Chapter 2, Oxford University Press ^ a b c William Wilson Hunter, The Indian Empire: Its Peoples, History, and Products, p. 334, at Google Books, WH Allen & Co., London, pp 334-336 ^ Holt et al., The Cambridge History of Islam - The Indian sub-continent, south-east Asia, Africa and the Muslim
Muslim
west, ISBN 978-0521291378, pp 8-14 ^ Frank Fanselow (1989), Muslim
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Minority Affairs, 10(1), pp 264-289 ^ a b c Hermann Kulke & Dietmar Rothermund 2004. ^ a b Sastri (1955), pp 206–208 ^ "Khalji Dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2014-11-13.  ^ a b Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 231-235, Oxford University Press ^ The Life and Works of Sultan
Sultan
Alauddin Khalji- By Ghulam Sarwar Khan Niazi ^ a b c d e f g Hermann Kulke & Dietmar Rothermund 2004, p. 171-174. ^ a b c Holt et al., The Cambridge History of Islam - The Indian sub-continent, south-east Asia, Africa and the Muslim
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1982, pp. 61-62. ^ a b c d Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund (1998), A History of India, 3rd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-15482-0, pp 161-162 ^ Peter Jackson 2003, pp. 196-202. ^ Elliot and Dowson (1871), The History of India
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as told by its own Historians, p. 182, at Google Books, Vol. 3, pp 182-188 ^ N. Jayapalan (2008), Economic History of India: Ancient to Present Day, Atlantic Publishers, pp. 81-83, ISBN 978-8-126-90697-0 ^ a b Kenneth Kehrer (1963), The Economic Policies of Ala-ud-Din Khalji, Journal of the Punjab University Historical Society, vol. 16, pp. 55-66 ^ AL Srivastava, Delhi
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Irfan Habib
(1984), The price regulations of Alauddin Khalji
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Irfan Habib
1982, pp. 87-88. ^ Irfan Habib
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1982, pp. 62-63. ^ Raychaudhuri et al (1982), The Cambridge Economic History of India: c. 1200-1750, Orient Longman, pp 89-93 ^ Irfan Habib
Irfan Habib
(1978), Economic history of the Delhi
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Bibliography

Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-32919-4.  Irfan Habib
Irfan Habib
(1982). "Northern India
India
under the Sultanate: Agrarian Economy". In Tapan Raychaudhuri; Irfan Habib. The Cambridge Economic History of India. 1, c.1200-c.1750. CUP Archive. ISBN 978-0-521-22692-9.  Kishori Saran Lal (1950). History of the Khaljis (1290-1320). Allahabad: The Indian Press. OCLC 685167335.  Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi
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External links Media related to Khalji dynasty
Khalji dynasty
at Wikimedia Commons

Khilji - A Short History of Muslim
Muslim
Rule in India
India
I. Prasad, University of Allahabad The Role of Ulema in Indo- Muslim
Muslim
History, Aziz Ahmad, Studia Islamica, No. 31 (1970), pp. 1–13

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 57416

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