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KEVALA JñāNA means omniscience in Jainism
Jainism
and is roughly translated as absolute knowledge or supreme knowledge.

_Kevala jnana_ is believed to be an intrinsic quality of all souls. This quality is masked by karmic particles that surround the soul. Every soul has the potential to obtain omniscience by shedding off these karmic particles. Jain scriptures speak of twelve stages through which the soul achieves this goal. A soul who has attained kevala jnana is called a _kevalin_ (केवलिन्). According to the Jains, only kevalins can comprehend objects in all aspects and manifestations; others are only capable of partial knowledge.

The views of two sects of Jainism, Digambara and Śvētāmbara Jains differ on the subject of _kevalins_. According to Digambaras, a kevalin does not experience hunger or thirst, whereas according to Svetambaras, a _kevalin_ has normal human needs and he travels and preaches too. Digambara Jains believe that they do not act in the normal sense of the word, that they sit motionless in padmasana , and that their bodies emit _Divyadhvani,_ a sacred sound which is interpreted by their followers as the fundamental truth. According to both traditions, the last _kevalin_ was a disciple of one of the eleven chief disciples of the last _tirthankara _, Mahāvīra ; his name is recorded as Jambuswami . It is also believed that no one after Jambuswami will have the ability to obtain _kevala jnana_.

CONTENTS

* 1 Literary sources * 2 Jain epistemology * 3 Stages of spiritual development * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References

LITERARY SOURCES

The claim of existence of omniscience by Jains, who deny the existence of a creator god, is a unique phenomenon. The Sutrakritanga text of the Svetambara school, elaborates the concept as all-knowing and provides details of his other qualities. Another text, the Kalpa Sūtra , gives details of Mahavira's omniscience

When the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira had become a Jina and Arhat (Arihant ), he was a Kevali, omniscient and comprehending all objects; he knew and saw all conditions of the world, of gods, men, and demons: whence they come, whither they go, whether they are born as men or animals or become gods or hell-beings (_upapada_), the ideas, the thoughts of their minds, the food, doings, desires, the open and secret deeds of all the living beings in the whole world; he the Arhat (Arihant), for whom there is no secret, knew and saw all conditions of all living beings in the world.:

Immediately after the death of Mahavira, his disciple Indrabhuti Gautama became a _kevalin_. As per the tradition, the teachings of the tirthankara were memorized and preserved over many centuries.

In the second _Upanga Agama_, the _Rājapraśnīya_, there is a dialogue between Kesi, a disciple of Pārśva , and Payasi , a materialist king. In this dialogue, Kesi proves the existence of jiva and its ability to obtain kevala jñana to the king.

The Jains have a long debate with Hindus and Buddhists regarding omniscience. Bhikkhu Dhamakriti criticized the Jain notion of omniscience in his _Pramanavartika_. The Hindu philosopher Kumarila argued that only Veda had the authority to define human moral values since they were "beginningless, authorless and of self-sufficient validity". In response, the Jain monk Haribhadra
Haribhadra
(c. 8th century CE) wrote that humans already had knowledge of everything knowable. It only had to be illuminated or uncovered. Omniscience was, according to Haribhadra, inherent to living beings.

Samantabhadra was the first philosopher-monk in the history of Indian philosophy who tried to use inference as a method to establish the existence of omniscience In his famous work, _ Aptamimamsa _, Samantabhadra asserts:

Objects that are minute (like atoms), past (like Lord Rama), and distant (like Mount Meru), being the objects of inference (_anumeya_ – and, therefore, also objects of knowledge – _prameya_), must be perceivable directly by someone; like the fire on the hill is an object of inference for a distant person but is perceived directly by the one who is in its proximity. The one who perceives directly the objects of knowledge that are minute, past, and distant is the Omniscient (_sarvajña_); this way the existence of the Omniscient is truly and firmly established. — Āptamīmāṁsā (5)

Akalanka (c. 720 760 CE) put forward the concept of _suniscita-asambhavad-badhaka-pramana_ as a reason for the existence of omniscience. This concept is a well-known fact which is "we have no valid methods of knowing to deny the existence of omniscience". Hemacandra (c. 1088 1173) combined Samantabhadra and Akalanka's ideas of _sarvajña_ in his _Pramanamimasa_ to establish the existence of omniscience.

JAIN EPISTEMOLOGY

Main article: Jain epistemology

In Jain epistemology, there are two kinds of valid methods of knowledge: _pratyakṣa_ or "direct knowledge" and _parokṣa_ or "indirect knowledge". Kevala-jñana is considered _pratyaksa_. Five ways of obtaining knowledge are defined: _matijñana_ acquired through sensory perception; _srutajñana_ acquired through understanding of verbal and written sentences; _avadhijñana_, _manhaparyaya jñana_ and kevala jñana.

Jains contrast all attempts to proclaim absolute truth with _ Anekantavada _, which can be explained through the parable of the "blind men and an elephant ". In this story, each blind man felt a different part of an elephant (trunk, leg, ear, etc.). All the men claimed to understand and explain the true appearance of the elephant, but could only partly succeed, due to their limited perspectives. This principle is more formally stated by observing that objects are infinite in their qualities and modes of existence, so they cannot be completely grasped in all aspects and manifestations by finite human perception. According to the Jains, only the _Kevalis_—omniscient beings—can comprehend objects in all aspects and manifestations; others are only capable of partial knowledge. Consequently, no single, specific, human view can claim to represent absolute truth .

STAGES OF SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT

Main article: Gunasthana

According to Jain texts, there are fourteen stages (_gunasthana_) of spiritual development. The soul can gradually frees itself, firstly from the worst, then from the less bad and finally from all kinds of karma, and manifests the innate qualities of knowledge, belief and conduct in a more and more perfect form. The first four _gunasthana_ are related to belief or rationality in perception. As and when the soul acquires rationality in perception it moves on to 4th _gunasthana_. Stages 5 to 14 relate to conduct. The purity in conduct determines the gunasthana from 5th stage onwards. Those who have taken the _anuvratas_ {minor vows} may reach up to the 5th Gunasthana. The 6th to 14th Gunasthanas can only be attained by those who have taken the _Mahavratas _ (major vows) of Jain ascetic . Following are the stages of spiritual development:

# 14 _GUNASTHANAS_

01. _mithya-drishti_ The stage of wrong believer

02. _sasvadana-samyagdrsti_ The stage of one who has a slight taste of right belief.

03. _misradrsti_ The stage of mixed belief

04. _avirata-samyagdrsti_ The stage of one who has true belief but has not yet self-discipline

05. _desavirata_ The stage of partial self-control

06. _pramatta-samyata_ The stage of complete self-discipline, although sometimes brought into wavering through negligence

07. _apramatta samyata_ The stage of self-control without negligence

08. _nivrtti badra samparaya_ The stage of one in whom the passions are still occurring in a gross form

09. _annivrtti badara samparaya_ The stage of one who practices anivratti karana, however the passions are still occurring

10. _suksama samparaya_ The stage of one in whom the passions occur in a subtle form

11. _upasana kasaya vitaraga chadmasta_ The stage of one who has suppressed every passion but still does not possess omniscience

12. _ksina kasay vitaraga chadmasta_ The stage of who has annihilated every passion but does not yet possess omniscience

13. _sayogi kevalin_ The stage of omniscience with activity

14. _ayogi kevalin_ The stage of omniscience without any activity

SEE ALSO

* Shrutakevalin * Jain Cosmology

NOTES

* ^ Sharma 1991 , p. 49 * ^ Kumar 2001 , p. 3 * ^ Jaini 2000 , p. 51 * ^ Jaini 1998 , p. 91 * ^ Dundas 2002 , p. 45 45 * ^ Kabay, Paul (2013-05-09). "Interpreting the Divyadhvani: On Why the Digambara Sect Is Right about the Nature of the Kevalin". _Philosophy East and West_. 63 (2): 176–193. ISSN 1529-1898 . doi :10.1353/pew.2013.0020 . * ^ Shah 2004 , p. 39 * ^ Jaini 2001 , p. 98 99 * ^ Dundas 2002 , p. 25 * ^ Jaini 2001 , pp. 99–100 * ^ Shah 2004 , p. 39 * ^ Shah 2004 , p. 13 * ^ Flügel 2006 , p. 113 * ^ Flügel 2006 , p. 91 * ^ Flügel 2006 , p. 91 * ^ Flügel 2006 , p. 110 * ^ Jain 2016 , p. 10. * ^ Flügel 2006 , p. 110 * ^ Flügel 2006 , p. 110 * ^ Flügel 2006 , p. 108 * ^ Glasenapp 1999 , pp. 204–205 * ^ Hughes, Marilynn (2005). _The voice of Prophets_. Volume 2 of 12. Morrisville, North Carolina: Lulu.com. pp. 590–591. ISBN 1-4116-5121-9 . * ^ Jaini, Padmanabh (1998). _The Jaina Path of Purification_. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 91. ISBN 81-208-1578-5 . * ^ Kuhn 2001 , pp. 186–219 * ^ Jaini1998 , pp. 272–273 * ^ Tatia 1994 , pp. 274–285

REFERENCES

* Jain, Vijay K (2016-01-01). _Ācārya Samantabhadra\'s Aptamimamsa (Devāgamastotra)_. Vikalp printers. ISBN 9788190363983 . * Dundas, Paul (2002), _The Jains_, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-26605-5 * Flügel, Peter (2006), _Studies in Jaina History and Culture: Disputes and Dialogues_, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 978-0-203-00853-9 * Glasenapp, Helmuth Von (1999), _Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation_, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1376-6 * Jaini, Padmanabh (1998), _The Jaina Path of Purification_, New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p. 91, ISBN 81-208-1578-5 * Jaini, Padmanabh S (2000), _Collected Papers On Jaina Studies_, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1691-6 * Jaini, Padmanabh S. (2001), _Collected Papers On Buddhist Studies_, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1776-0 * Kumar, Sehdev (2001), _Jain Temples of Rajasthan_, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 978-81-7017-348-9 * Shah, Natubhai (2004), _Jainism: The World of Conquerors_, 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-1-898723-30-1 * Sharma, Candradhar (1991), _A critical survey of Indian philosophy_, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0365-7

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