Kerguelen Islands (/kərˈɡeɪlən/ or /ˈkɜːrɡələn/; in
French commonly Îles Kerguelen but officially Archipel des Kerguelen,
pronounced [kɛʁɡelɛn]), also known as the Desolation Islands
(Îles de la Désolation in French), are a group of islands in the
southern Indian Ocean constituting one of the two exposed parts of the
mostly submerged Kerguelen Plateau. They are among the most isolated
places on Earth, located 450 km (280 mi) northwest of the
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Heard Island and McDonald Islands and more than
3,300 km (2,100 mi) from Madagascar, the nearest populated
location (excluding the
Alfred Faure scientific station in Île de la
Possession, about 1,340 km (830 mi) from there, and the
non-permanent station located in Île Amsterdam, 1,440 km
(890 mi) away). The islands, along with Adélie Land, the Crozet
Islands, Amsterdam, and Saint Paul Islands, and France's Scattered
Islands in the Indian Ocean are part of the French Southern and
Antarctic Lands and are administered as a separate district.
The main island, Grande Terre, is 6,675 km2
(2,577 sq mi) in area and is surrounded by a further 300
smaller islands and islets, forming an archipelago of
7,215 km2 (2,786 sq mi). The climate is raw and chilly
with frequent high winds throughout the year. The surrounding seas are
generally rough and they remain ice-free year-round. There are no
indigenous inhabitants, but
France maintains a permanent presence of
45 to 100 scientists, engineers and researchers. There are no
airports on the islands, so all travel and transport from the outside
world is conducted by ship.
2 Grande Terre
2.1 Notable localities
Flora and fauna
8 In popular culture
9 See also
11 External links
The islands are named after the French explorer Yves-Joseph de
Kerguelen Islands appear as the "Ile de Nachtegal" on Philippe
Buache's map from 1754 before the island was officially discovered in
1772. The Buache map has the title Carte des Terres Australes
comprises entre le Tropique du Capricorne et le Pôle Antarctique où
se voyent les nouvelles découvertes faites en 1739 au Sud du Cap de
Bonne Esperance ('Map of the Southern Lands contained between the
Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Pole, where the new discoveries
made in 1739 to the south of the Cape of Good Hope may be seen'). It
is possible this early name was after Abel Tasman's ship "De Zeeuwsche
Nachtegaal." On the Buache map, "Ile de Nachtegal" is located at
43°S, 72°E, about 6 degrees north and 2 degrees east of the accepted
location of Grande Terre.
The islands were officially discovered by the French navigator
Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec
Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec on 12 February 1772. The next day
Charles de Boisguehenneuc landed and claimed the island for the French
crown. Yves de Kerguelen organised a second expedition in 1773 and
arrived at the "baie de l'Oiseau" by December of the same year. On 6
January 1774 he commanded his lieutenant, Henri Pascal de Rochegude,
to leave a message notifying any passers-by of the two passages and of
the French claim to the islands. Thereafter, a number of
expeditions briefly visited the islands, including that of Captain
James Cook in December 1776 during his third voyage, who verified and
confirmed the passage of de Kerguelen by discovering and annotating
the message left by the French navigator.
Christmas Harbour, Kerguelens Land, dated 1811 by George Cooke
Soon after their discovery, the archipelago was regularly visited by
whalers and sealers (mostly British, American and Norwegian) who
hunted the resident populations of whales and seals to the point of
near extinction, including fur seals in the 18th century and elephant
seals in the 19th century. Since the end of the whaling and sealing
era, most of the islands' species have been able to increase their
In 1800, Hillsborough spent eight months sealing and whaling around
the islands. During this time Captain Robert Rhodes, her master,
prepared a chart of the islands.
In 1825, the British sealer John Nunn and three crew members from
Favourite, were shipwrecked on Kerguelen until they were rescued in
1827 by Captain Alexander Distant during his hunting campaign.
Illustration from John Nunn's book about the three years he and his
shipwrecked crew survived on the island in the 1820s.
The islands were not completely surveyed until the
Ross expedition of
For the 1874 transit of Venus,
George Biddell Airy
George Biddell Airy at the Royal
Observatory of the UK organised and equipped five expeditions to
different parts of the world. Three of these were sent to the
Kerguelen Islands. The Reverend
Stephen Joseph Perry
Stephen Joseph Perry led the British
expeditions to the Kerguelen Islands. He set up his main observation
station at Observatory Bay and two auxiliary stations, one at Thumb
Peak (49°30′47.3″S 70°10′18.1″E / 49.513139°S
70.171694°E / -49.513139; 70.171694) led by Sommerville Goodridge,
and the second at Supply Bay (49°30′47.3″S 69°46′13.2″E /
49.513139°S 69.770333°E / -49.513139; 69.770333) led by Cyril
Corbet. Observatory Bay was also used by the German Antarctic
Expedition led by
Erich Dagobert von Drygalski
Erich Dagobert von Drygalski in 1902–03. In
January 2007, an archaeological excavation of this site was carried
In 1874–1875, British, German and U.S. expeditions visited Kerguelen
to observe the transit of Venus.
In 1877 the French started a coal mining operation; however, this was
abandoned soon after.
French sailors officially taking possession of the Islands on 8
The Kerguelen Islands, along with the islands of Amsterdam and St
Paul, and the Crozet archipelago were officially annexed by
1893, and were included as possessions in the French constitution in
1924 (in addition to that portion of
Antarctica claimed by
known as Adélie Land; as with all Antarctic territorial claims,
France's possession on the continent is held in abeyance until a new
international treaty is ratified that defines each claimant's rights
German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis
German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis called at Kerguelen during
December 1940. During their stay the crew performed maintenance and
replenished their water supplies. This ship's first fatality of the
war occurred when a sailor, Bernhard Herrmann, fell while painting the
funnel. He is buried in what is sometimes referred to as "the most
southerly German war grave" of World War II.
Kerguelen has been continually occupied since 1950 by scientific
research teams, with a population of 50 to 100 frequently present.
There is also a French satellite tracking station.
Until 1955, the
Kerguelen Islands were administrative-wise part of the
French Colony of
Madagascar and Dependencies. That same year they
collectively became known as Les Terres australes et antarctiques
françaises (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) and were
administratively part of the French Départment d'outre-mer de la
Réunion. In 2004 they were permanently transformed into their own
entity (keeping the same name) but having inherited another group of
five very remote tropical islands, les îles Éparses, which are also
France and are dispersed widely throughout the southern
Indian Ocean.[clarification needed]
Péninsule Rallier du Baty
Port aux Français
Two Brothers Mountains (Monts des Deux Frères)
Terminus of a glacier of the Cook Ice Cap
The main island of the archipelago is called La Grande Terre. It
measures 150 km (93 mi) east to west and 120 km
(75 mi) north to south.
Port-aux-Français, a scientific base, is along the eastern shore of
the Gulf of Morbihan on La Grande Terre at 49°21′S 70°13′E /
49.350°S 70.217°E / -49.350; 70.217 (Port-aux-Français).
Facilities there include scientific-research buildings, a satellite
tracking station, dormitories, a hospital, a library, a gymnasium, a
pub, and the chapel of Notre-Dame des Vents.
The highest point is
Mont Ross in the Gallieni Massif, which rises
along the southern coast of the island and has an elevation of 1,850
metres (6,070 ft). The
Cook Ice Cap
Cook Ice Cap (French: Calotte Glaciaire
Cook), France's largest glacier with an area of about 403 km2
(156 sq mi), lies on the west-central part of the island.
Overall, the glaciers of the
Kerguelen Islands cover just over
500 km2 (190 sq mi). Grande Terre has also numerous
bays, inlets, fjords, and coves, as well as several peninsulas and
promontories. The most important ones are listed below:
Péninsule Rallier du Baty
Péninsule Jeanne d'Arc
Presqu'île de la Société de Géographie
Presqu'île du Prince de Galles
Presqu'île du Gauss
Presqu'île Bouquet de la Grye
Presqu'île du Bougainville
There are also a number of notable localities, all on La Grande Terre
(see also the main map):
Anse Betsy [Betsy Cove] (a former geomagnetic station at 49°10′S
70°13′E / 49.167°S 70.217°E / -49.167; 70.217 (Anse
Betsy)), on Baie Accessible [Accessible Bay], on the north coast of
the Courbet Peninsula. On this site an astronomical and geomagnetic
observatory was erected on 26 October 1874 by a German research
expedition led by Georg Gustav Freiherr von Schleinitz. The primary
goal of this station was the 1874 observation of the transit of Venus.
Armor (Base Armor), established in 1983, is located 40 km
(25 mi) west of
Port-aux-Français at the bottom of Morbihan
Gulf, for the acclimatization of salmon to the Kerguelen islands.
Baie de l'Observatoire [Observatory Bay] (a former geomagnetic
observation station at 49°21′S 70°12′E / 49.350°S
70.200°E / -49.350; 70.200 (Baie de l'Observatoire)), just west
of Port-Aux-Français, on the eastern fringe of the Central Plateau,
along the northern shore of the Golfe du Morbihan.
Cabane Port-Raymond (scientific camp at 49°20′S 69°49′E /
49.333°S 69.817°E / -49.333; 69.817 (Cabane Port-Raymond)),
at the head of a fjord cutting into the
Courbet Peninsula from the
Cap Ratmanoff (geomagnetic station at 49°14′S 70°34′E /
49.233°S 70.567°E / -49.233; 70.567 (Cap Ratmanoff)), the
eastmost point of the Kerguelens.
La Montjoie (scientific camp at 48°59′S 68°50′E /
48.983°S 68.833°E / -48.983; 68.833 (La Montjoie)), on the
south shore of Baie Rocheuse, along the northwestern coast of the
Molloy (Pointe Molloy), a former observatory ten kilometers west of
the present-day Port-Aux-Français, along the south coast of the
Courbet Peninsula, or northern shore of the Golfe du Morbihan
(Kerguelen), at 49°21′38″S 70°3′50″E / 49.36056°S
70.06389°E / -49.36056; 70.06389 (Molloy). An American
expedition led by G. P. Ryan erected a station at this site on 7
September 1874. That station was also established to observe the 1874
transit of Venus.
Bizet (seismographic station at 49°31′12″S
69°54′36″E / 49.52000°S 69.91000°E / -49.52000;
69.91000 (Port Bizet)), on the northeastern coast of Île Longue.
This also serves as the principal sheep farm for the island's resident
Port Christmas (a former geomagnetic station at 48°41′S
69°03′E / 48.683°S 69.050°E / -48.683; 69.050 (Port
Christmas)), on Baie de l'Oiseau, in the extreme northwest of the
Loranchet Peninsula. This place was so named by Captain James Cook,
who re-discovered the islands and who anchored there on Christmas Day,
1776. This is also the place where Captain Cook coined the name
"Desolation Islands" in reference to what he saw as a sterile
Port Couvreux (a former whaling station, experimental sheep farm, and
geomagnetic station, at 49°17′S 69°42′E / 49.283°S
69.700°E / -49.283; 69.700 (Port Couvreux)), on Baie du
Hillsborough, on the southeast coast of Presqu'île Bouquet de la
Grye. Starting in 1912, sheep were raised here to create an economic
base for future settlement. However, the attempt failed and the last
inhabitants had to be evacuated, and the station abandoned, in 1931.
The huts remain, as well as a graveyard with five anonymous graves.
These are those of the settlers who were unable to survive in the
Port Curieuse (a harbor on the west coast across Île de l'Ouest
49°22′S 68°48′E / 49.367°S 68.800°E / -49.367;
68.800 (Port Curieuse)). The site was named after the ship
La Curieuse, which was used by
Raymond Rallier du Baty
Raymond Rallier du Baty on his
second visit to the islands (1913–14).
Port Douzième (literally Twelfth Port, a hut and former geomagnetic
station at 49°31′S 70°09′E / 49.517°S 70.150°E /
-49.517; 70.150 (Port Douzième)), on the north coast of
Presqu'île Ronarch, southern shore of the Golfe du Morbihan.
Port Jeanne d'Arc (a former whaling station founded by a Norwegian
whaling company in 1908, and a former geomagnetic station at
49°33′S 69°49′E / 49.550°S 69.817°E / -49.550;
69.817 (Port Douzième)), in the northwestern corner of Presqu'île
Jeanne d'Arc, looking across the Buenos Aires passage to
Île Longue (4 km (2.5 mi) northeast). The derelict
settlement consists of four residential buildings with wooden walls
and tin roofs, and a barn. One of the buildings was restored in 1977,
and another in 2007.
From 1968 to 1981, 49°21′S 70°16′E / 49.350°S
70.267°E / -49.350; 70.267 (
Rocket launch site) just east of
Port-aux-Français was a launching site for sounding rockets, some for
French (Dragon rockets), American (Arcas) or French-Soviet (Eridans)
surveys, but at the end mainly for a Soviet program (M-100).
The following is a list of the most important adjacent islands:
Île Foch in the north of the archipelago, at 54 km2
(21 sq mi), the second most important offlier in the
Kerguelens (49°0′S 69°17′E / 49.000°S 69.283°E /
-49.000; 69.283 (Île Foch)).
Île Saint-Lanne Gramont, is to the west of
Île Foch in the Golfe
Choiseul. It has an area of 45.8 km2 (17.7 sq mi). Its
highest point reaches 480 m (1,570 ft) (48°55′S
69°12′E / 48.917°S 69.200°E / -48.917; 69.200 (Île
Île du Port, also in the north in the Golfe des Baleiniers at
49°11′S 69°36′E / 49.183°S 69.600°E / -49.183;
69.600 (Île du Port), is the fourth largest satellite island with
an area of 43 km2 (17 sq mi), near its centre it
reaches an altitude of 340 metres (1,120 ft).
Île de l'Ouest
Île de l'Ouest (west coast, about 33 km2 (13 sq mi),
49°21′S 68°44′E / 49.350°S 68.733°E / -49.350;
68.733 (Île de l'Ouest))
Île Longue (southeast, about 35 km2 (14 sq mi)
49°32′S 69°54′E / 49.533°S 69.900°E / -49.533;
69.900 (Île Longue))
Îles Nuageuses (northwest, including île de Croÿ, île du Roland,
îles Ternay, îles d'Après, 48°37′S 68°44′E / 48.617°S
68.733°E / -48.617; 68.733 (Îles Nuageuses))
Île de Castries (48°41′S 69°29′E / 48.683°S 69.483°E
/ -48.683; 69.483 (Île de Castries))
Îles Leygues (north, including île de Castries, île Dauphine,
48°41′S 69°29′E / 48.683°S 69.483°E / -48.683;
69.483 (Îles Leygues))
Île Violette (49°07′S 69°40′E / 49.117°S 69.667°E /
-49.117; 69.667 (Île Violette))
Île Australia (also known as Île aux Rennes –
(western part of the Golfe du Morbihan, area 36.7 km2
(14.2 sq mi), altitude 145 m (476 ft), 49°27′S
69°51′E / 49.450°S 69.850°E / -49.450; 69.850 (Île
Île Haute (western part of the Golfe du Morbihan, altitude 321 m
(1,053 ft), 49°23′S 69°55′E / 49.383°S 69.917°E
/ -49.383; 69.917 (Île Haute))
Île Mayès (49°28′20″S 69°55′55″E / 49.47222°S
69.93194°E / -49.47222; 69.93194 (Île Mayès))
Îles du Prince-de-Monaco
Îles du Prince-de-Monaco (south, in the Audierne bay, 49°36′S
69°14′E / 49.600°S 69.233°E / -49.600; 69.233 (Îles
Îles de Boynes
Îles de Boynes (four small islands 30 km (19 mi) south of
Presqu'ile Rallier du Baty
Presqu'ile Rallier du Baty on the main island, 50°01′S
68°52′E / 50.017°S 68.867°E / -50.017; 68.867 (Îles
Île Altazin (a small island in the Swains Bay, 49°38′S
69°45′E / 49.633°S 69.750°E / -49.633; 69.750 (Île
Île Gaby (a small island in the Swains Bay, 49°39′S 69°46′E
/ 49.650°S 69.767°E / -49.650; 69.767 (Île Gaby))
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The French supply ship Marion Dufresne makes regular calls at the
Kerguelen Islands and typically carries a small contingent of
Principal activities on the
Kerguelen Islands focus on scientific
research – mostly earth sciences and biology.
The former sounding rocket range to the east of Port-aux-Français
49°21′S 70°16′E / 49.350°S 70.267°E / -49.350;
70.267 (FUSOV) is currently the site of a
Since 1992, the French
Centre National d'Études Spatiales
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES) has
operated a satellite and rocket tracking station which is located four
kilometers east of Port-aux-Français. CNES needed a tracking station
in the Southern Hemisphere, and the French government required that it
be located on French territory, rather than in a populated, but
foreign, place like Australia or New Zealand.
Agricultural activities were limited until 2007 to raising sheep
Bizet sheep – a breed of sheep that is rare in
mainland France) on Longue Island for consumption by the occupants of
the base, as well as small quantities of vegetables in a greenhouse
within the immediate vicinity of the main French base. There are also
feral rabbits and sheep that can be hunted, as well as wild birds.
There are also 5 fishing boats and vessels, owned by fishermen on
Réunion Island (a department of
France about 3,500 km
(2,200 mi) to the north) who are licensed to fish within the
archipelago's Exclusive Economic Zone.
Simplified geological map of the Kerguelen Islands
The Kerguelen islands form an emerged part of the submerged Kerguelen
Plateau, which has a total area nearing 2.2 million km2
(0.85 million sq mi). The plateau was built by
volcanic eruptions associated with the Kerguelen hotspot, and now lies
on the Antarctic plate.
The major part of the volcanic formations visible on the islands is
characteristic of an effusive volcanism, which caused a trap rock
formation to start emerging above the level of the ocean
35 million years ago. The accumulation is of a considerable
amount; basalt flows, each with a thickness of three to ten metres,
stacked on top of each other, sometimes up to a depth of 1,200 metres
(3,900 ft). This form of volcanism creates a monumental relief
shaped as stairs of pyramids.
Other forms of volcanism are present locally, such as the strombolian
volcano Mont Ross, and the volcano-plutonic complex on the Rallier du
Baty peninsula. Various veins and extrusions of lava such as
trachytes, trachyphonolites and phonolites are common all over the
No eruptive activity has been recorded in historic times, but some
fumaroles are still active in the South-West of the Grande-Terre
A few lignite strata, trapped in basalt flows, reveal fossilised
araucarian fragments, dated at about 14 million years of age.
Glaciation caused the depression and tipping phenomena which created
the gulfs at the north and east of the archipelago. Erosion caused by
the glacial and fluvial activity carved out the valleys and fjords;
erosion also created conglomerate detrital complexes, and the plain of
the Courbet Peninsula.
The islands are part of a submerged microcontinent called the
Kerguelen sub-continent. The microcontinent emerged substantially
above sea level for three periods between 100 million years ago
and 20 million years ago. The so-called Kerguelen sub-continent may
have had tropical flora and fauna about 50 million years ago. The
Kerguelen sub-continent finally sank 20 million years ago and is
now one to two kilometres (0.6 to 1.2 mi) below sea level.
Kerguelen's sedimentary rocks are similar to ones found in Australia
and India, indicating they were all once connected. Scientists hope
that studying the Kerguelen sub-continent will help them discover how
Australia, India, and
Antarctica broke apart.
Kerguelen Islands from space, 2016
Kerguelen's climate is oceanic, cold and extremely windswept. Under
the Köppen climate classification, Kerguelen's climate is considered
to be an ET or tundra climate, which is technically a form of polar
climate, as the average temperature in the warmest month is below
10 °C (50 °F). Comparable climates include the
Aleutian Islands, Campbell Island (New Zealand), the Crozet Islands,
Iceland, northern Kamchatka Peninsula,
Labrador and Tierra del Fuego.
All climate readings come from the
Port-aux-Français base, which has
one of the more favourable climates in Kerguelen due to its proximity
to the coast and its location in a gulf sheltered from the wind.
The average annual temperature is 4.9 °C (40.8 °F) with an
annual range of around 6 °C (11 °F). The warmest months of
the year include January and February, with average temperatures
between 7.8 and 8.2 °C (46.0 and 46.8 °F).The coldest
month of the year is August with an average temperature of
2.1 °C (35.8 °F). Annual high temperatures rarely surpass
20 °C (68 °F), while temperatures in winter have never
been recorded below −10 °C (14 °F) at sea level.
Kerguelen receives frequent precipitation, with snow throughout the
year as well as rain.
Port-aux-Français receives a modest amount of
precipitation (708 mm (27.9 in) per year) compared to the
west coast which receives an estimated three times as much
precipitation per year.
The mountains are frequently covered in snow but can thaw very quickly
in rain. Over the course of several decades, many permanent glaciers
have shown signs of retreat, with some smaller ones having disappeared
The west coast receives almost continuous wind at an average speed of
35 km/h (22 mph), due to the islands' location in between
Roaring Forties and the Furious Fifties. Wind speeds of
150 km/h (93 mph) are common and can even reach
200 km/h (120 mph).
Waves up to 12–15 m (39–49 ft) high are common, but
there are many sheltered places where ships can dock.
Due to the island's southern latitude it experiences Astronomical
Twilight (sun illumination is barely distinguishable at nighttime) for
a couple of weeks from December to early January.
Climate data for Port-aux-Français, Kerguelen
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average relative humidity (%)
Flora and fauna
Flora and fauna of the Kerguelen Islands
The islands are part of the Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra
ecoregion that includes several subantarctic islands. Plant life is
mainly limited to grasses, mosses and lichens, although the islands
are also known for the indigenous, edible Kerguelen cabbage, a good
source of vitamin C to mariners. The main indigenous animals are
insects along with large populations of ocean-going seabirds, seals
The wildlife is particularly vulnerable to introduced species and one
particular problem has been cats. The main island is the home of a
well-established feral cat population, descended from ships' cats.
They survive on sea birds and the feral rabbits that were introduced
to the islands. There are also populations of wild sheep (Ovis
orientalis orientalis) and reindeer.
In the 1950s and 1960s, French geologist Edgar Albert de la Rue began
the introduction of several species of salmonids. Of the seven species
introduced, only brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout
Salmo trutta survived to establish wild populations.
Oopterus soledadinus [introduced]
Meropathus chuni [endemic]
In popular culture
The islands appear in a number of fictional works. The title character
in Edgar Allan Poe's 1838 novel, The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of
Nantucket, visits the islands. French writer Jules Verne's 1897
novel An Arctic Mystery offers a follow up to Poe's book, and revisits
the Kerguelen Islands. The 1874 short story "The Tachypomp" by
Edward Page Mitchell tells of a hole through the center of the earth
with one end in the United States and the other in "Kerguellen's Land"
(which is roughly antipodal to the United States and Canada). Henry De
Vere Stacpoole set his 1919 novel The Beach of Dreams on the
Kerguelen Islands were the setting for a post-Second
World War confrontation between W. E. Johns's recurring hero, Biggles
and the crew of a gold bullion-bearing German U-boat, in the 1951
novel Biggles' Second Case. The fifth book in Patrick O'Brian's
Aubrey–Maturin series, published in 1978, is entitled Desolation
French author Jean-Paul Kauffmann produced a non-fiction account of
his 1991 journey to the islands, titled "The Arch of Kerguelen: Voyage
to the Islands of Desolation".
In 2000 British journalist and former Conservative MP Matthew Parris
spent 4 months on Kerguelen, staying with the researchers at
Port-aux-Français. A series of articles were published in The Times
in which Parris charted his visit, and a documentary "To The Ends of
Earth: Dreaming on Desolation Island" was produced for UK television,
which aired on Channel 4.
The islands inspired the 2008 song "The Loneliest Place on the Map" by
singer Al Stewart.
Administrative divisions of France
French overseas departments and territories
Islands controlled by
France in the Indian and Pacific oceans
List of Antarctic and subantarctic islands
^ a b Official organisational chart[dead link]
^ "Kerguelen, n". Oxford English Dictionary. 2017. Retrieved
2017-10-19. Pronunciation: /kəˈɡeɪlən/ /ˈkəːɡələn/ ,
respectively kər-GAY-lən or KUR-gə-lən.
^ "Kerguelen Islands". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 22 October
^ a b Sea Level Measurement and Analysis in the Western Indian Ocean,
UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
^ "Kerguelen – yves trémarec – james cook – asia –
hillsborough – rhodes". Kerguelen-voyages.com. Archived from the
original on 2 October 2013.
^ a b The Three Voyages of Captain
James Cook Round the World, volume
5, James Cook, pub. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, et Brown, Londres,
1821, pp. 146–151.
^ Whales, whaling, and ocean ecosystems, James A. Estes
^ Clayton, Jane M. (2014) Ships employed in the South Sea Whale
Fishery from Britain: 1775–1815: An alphabetical list of ships.
(Berforts Group), p.141. ISBN 978-1908616524
^ "Kerguelen – morell – john nunn – ross – ofley –
challenger – fuller – eure – bossière". Kerguelen-voyages.com.
Archived from the original on 26 April 2012.
^ Nunn, John (1850). Narrative of the Wreck of the "Favourite" on the
Island of Desolation: detailing the adventures, sufferings and
privations of J. Nunn, an historical account of the Island, and its
whale and seal fisheries. London: William Edward Painter. p. 236.
Retrieved 29 November 2014.
^ Quanchi, Max (2005). Historical Dictionary of the Discovery and
Exploration of the Pacific Islands. The Scarecrow Press.
pp. 87–88. ISBN 0810853957.
^ Exploring Polar Frontiers, p. 346, William James Mills, 2003
^ "19th Century History of Kerguelen Island, South Indian Ocean".
Btinternet.com. 29 June 2003. Archived from the original on 30 July
2012. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
^ "Calotte Glaciaire Cook". Mapcarta. Retrieved 25 September
^ Kauffmann, Jean-Paul (2001). Voyage to Desolation Island. Random
House. pp. 77–78. ISBN 1860469264. Retrieved 18 December
^ (in French) bases temporaires de lancements de fusées
^ Borissova, I., Moore, A.M.G., Sayers, J., Parums, R., Coffin, M.F.
and Symonds P.A. (2002). "Geological Framework of the Kerguelen
Plateau and Adjacent Ocean Basins". Geoscience Australia Record
(2002/005). CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ article by Roland Shlich (Research Manager at the CNRS) Archived 3
November 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
^ UT Austin scientist plays major role in study of underwater
"micro-continent". Retrieved on 29 June 2007
^ Sci/Tech 'Lost continent' discovered Retrieved on 29 June 2007
^ Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated
world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol.
Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007.
ISSN 1027-5606. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
(link) (direct: Final Revised Paper)
^ "Le climat à
Port aux Français
Port aux Français (en °C et mm, moyennes mensuelles
1971/2000 et records depuis 1973) sur MeteoStats". [dead link]
Kerguelen cabbage at Encyclopædia Britannica
^ "Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra". Terrestrial Ecoregions.
World Wildlife Fund.
^ Minou, ce dangereux prédateur
^ Newton, Chris (2013). "The Monsters of Kerguelen". The Trout's Tale
– The Fish That Conquered an Empire. Ellesmere, Shropshire: Medlar
Press. pp. 161–170. ISBN 978-1-907110-44-3.
^ Sharma, Raja (2016). Ready Reference Treatise: The Narrative of
Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket. Lulu Press. p. 41.
An Antarctic Mystery
An Antarctic Mystery by Jules Verne.
^ Stilgoe, John R. (2003). Lifeboat. University of Virginia Press.
p. 36. ISBN 9780813922218.
^ O'Brian, Patrick (1978). Desolation island (Jack Aubrey vol 5).
Collins. ISBN 9780006499244.
^ Barnard, Jason; Stewart, Al (2016). "
Al Stewart – Past, Present
and Future". The Strange Brew. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Kerguelen.
The Wikibook Geography of
France has a page on the topic of: Kerguelen
Official website (in French)
Official website (in French)
"Cartography of the Kerguelen". Archived from the original on 13 April
2003. Retrieved 2007-04-02. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
unknown (link) Including a toponymy index.
Personal site with many pictures
Rocket launches on the Kerguelen Islands
"South Atlantic &
Subantarctic Islands site, Kerguelen Archipelago
page". Archived from the original on 29 November 2012.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kerguelen Islands.
Districts of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands
islands of Saint-Paul and Amsterdam
Important Bird Areas of the French Southern Territories
Amsterdam and Saint Paul Islands
Plateau des Tourbières
Saint Paul Island
Île aux Cochons
Île de la Possession
Île de l'Est
Île des Pingouins
Îlots des Apôtres
Golfe du Morbihan
Île Saint-Lanne Gramont
Péninsule Jeanne d'Arc
Rallier du Baty Peninsula
Île du Lys
Juan de Nova Island
St. Pierre and Miquelon
Wallis and Futuna
Sui generis collectivity
Overseas territory (French
Southern and Antarctic Lands)
Scattered islands in
the Indian Ocean
Bassas da India3
Glorioso Islands2, 3
Juan de Nova Island3
1 Also known as overseas regions
2 Claimed by Comoros
3 Claimed by Madagascar
4 Claimed by Mauritius
Outlying territories of European countries
Territories under European sovereignty but closer to or on continents
Europe (see inclusion criteria for further information).
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Wallis and Futuna
Peter I Island
Queen Maud Land
Plazas de soberanía
Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera
British Antarctic Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Coordinates: 49°15′S 69°10′E / 49.250°S 69.167°E /