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The KERALA MODEL of development, is the style of development that has been practised in the southern Indian state of Kerala
Kerala
.

This state has achieved improvements in material conditions of living, reflected in indicators of social development, comparable to those of many developed countries, even though the state's per capita income is low in comparison to them. Achievements such as low levels of infant mortality and population growth, and high levels of literacy and life expectancy, along with the factors responsible for such achievements have been considered characteristic results of the Kerala model.

More precisely, the Kerala
Kerala
model has been defined as:

* A set of high material quality-of-life indicators coinciding with low per-capita incomes, both distributed across nearly the entire population of Kerala. * A set of wealth and resource redistribution programmes that have largely brought about the high material quality-of-life indicators. * High levels of political participation and activism among ordinary people along with substantial numbers of dedicated leaders at all levels. Kerala's mass activism and committed cadre were able to function within a largely democratic structure, which their activism has served to reinforce.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 In 1970

* 1.2 Human Development Index
Human Development Index

* 1.2.1 In 1990 * 1.2.2 In 2011

* 2 Reasons

* 2.1 Health care * 2.2 Political Awareness * 2.3 Education * 2.4 State policy * 2.5 Hunger

* 3 Opinions * 4 References * 5 External links

HISTORY

K. N. Raj
K. N. Raj

The Centre for Development Studies
Centre for Development Studies
at Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
with the help of United Nations, conducted a case study of selected issues with reference to Kerala
Kerala
in the 1970s. The results and recommendations of this study came to be known as the ' Kerala
Kerala
model' of equitable growth which emphasised land reforms, poverty reduction, educational access and child welfare. Economy professor K. N. Raj
K. N. Raj
was the main person behind this study. He started the Centre for Development Studies
Centre for Development Studies
in Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
in 1971, by the request of the Kerala
Kerala
Chief Minister C Achutha Menon .

The Kerala
Kerala
model is markedly different from the conventional development thinking which focusses on achieving high GDP
GDP
growth rates. However, in 1990, Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq
Mahbub ul Haq
changed the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people centered policies. To produce the Human Development Report (HDRs), Haq brought together a group of well known development economists including: Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, and Meghnad Desai.

In collaboration with Raj’s close colleague, Indian economist Amartya Sen
Amartya Sen
, he persuaded the UNDP to carry out work on Human Development Indicators (HDIs), which started playing a large role beside GDP
GDP
in the framing of development policies. Another decade down the road, the Millennium Development Goals
Millennium Development Goals
, embracing many of the Kerala
Kerala
Model's features – with the notable omission of land reforms – became the new charter of development. Raj's seminal contribution to development policy thus had worldwide repercussions.

IN 1970

The Human Development Index
Human Development Index
, which was introduced by the United Nations Development Programme (a branch of the United Nations Organisation), has become one of the most influential and widely used indices to measure human development across countries.

The economists noted that despite low incomes, the state had high literacy rates, healthy citizens, and a politically active population. Researchers began to delve more deeply into what was going in the Kerala
Kerala
Model, since human development indexes seemed to show a standard of living which was comparable with life in developed nations, on a fraction of the income. The development standard in Kerala
Kerala
is comparable to that of many first world nations, and is widely considered to be the highest in India at that time.

Despite having high standards of human development, the Kerala
Kerala
Model ranks low in terms of industrial and economic development. The high rate of education in the region has resulted in a brain drain, with many citizens migrating to other parts of the world for employment. The job market in Kerala
Kerala
is forcing many to relocate to other places.

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX

In 1990

From 1990 onwards, the United Nations came with the Human Development Index (HDI). This is a composite statistic used to rank countries by level of "human development" and separate developed (high development), developing (middle development), and underdeveloped (low development) countries. The statistic is composed from data on Life Expectancy, Education and per-capita GDP
GDP
(as an indicator of Standard of living) collected at the national level using a formula. This index, which has become one of the most influential and widely used indices to compare human development across countries, give Kerala Model an international recognition. The HDI has been used since 1990 by the United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Development Programme
for its annual Human Development Reports. From the starting of this index, Kerala
Kerala
has scored high, comparable to developed countries.

In 2011

The India Human Development Report, 2011 prepared by Institute of Applied Manpower Research, placed Kerala
Kerala
on top of the index for achieving highest literacy rate, quality health services and consumption expenditure of people.

REASONS

HEALTH CARE

Calicut Medical College
Calicut Medical College
in Kozhikode
Kozhikode
. Kerala
Kerala
has around 2,700 government medical institutions in the state, with 330 beds per 100,000 population, the highest in the country.

The basis for the state's impressive health standards is the statewide infrastructure of primary health centres. There are over 2,700 government medical institutions in the state, with 330 beds per 100,000 population, the highest in the country. With virtually all mothers taught to breast-feed, and a state-supported nutrition programme for pregnant and new mothers, infant mortality in 2011 was 12 per thousand, compared with 91 for low-income countries generally. In Kerala
Kerala
the birth rate is 40 per cent below that of the national average and almost 60 per cent below the rate for poor countries in general. In fact, a 1992 survey found that the birth rate had fallen to replacement level. Kerala's birth rate is 14 per 1,000 females and falling fast. India's rate is 25 per 1,000 females and that of the U.S. is 16. Its adult literacy rate is 94.59 per cent compared to India's 65 and the US's 99. Life expectancy
Life expectancy
at birth in Kerala
Kerala
is 75 years compared to 64 years in India and 77 years in the US. Female life expectancy in Kerala
Kerala
exceeds that of the male, just as it does in the developed world., Kerala's maternal mortality rate is :Total: 1.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1990), lowest in India.

District-wise details of health care institution and beds for as per the 1991 census

DISTRICT NO OF HEALTH CARE INSTITUTIONS NUMBER OF BEDS

Alappuzha 343 8,835

Ernakulam 676 21,819

Idukki 194 4,096

Kannur 392 5,149

Kasaragod 209 2,107

Kollam 704 12,530

Kottayam 440 9,323

Kozhikode 342 9,034

Malappuram 327 5,030

Palakkad 316 4,925

Pathanamthitta 310 5,096

Thiruvananthapuram 1011 73,410

Thrissur 602 19,891

Wayanad 127 2,307

TOTAL 5,993 183,552

According to a white paper on the Quality of Death, released by the Economist Intelligence Unit in 2010, has projected the community model healthcare system from Kerala
Kerala
as a beacon of hope for providing palliative care services. The report from ' The Economist
The Economist
' has ranked 40 countries across the world on end-of-life care facilities on the basis of 24 indicators on healthcare environment and availability, cost and quality of care. In the overall score, India with a score of 1.9 out of 10 ranked the 40th, behind countries such as Slovakia, Malaysia, Turkey, Brazil and even Uganda. UK topped the list followed by Australia and New Zealand.

While India ranks at the bottom of the Index in overall score, and performs badly on many indicators, Kerala, if measured on the same points, would buck the trend. With only 3% of India's population, the tiny state provides two-thirds of India's palliative care services. The Economist
The Economist
has lauded the ' Kerala
Kerala
Community Model' in healthcare. Moreover, The Economist
The Economist
has patted the Kerala
Kerala
Government for providing palliative care policy (It is the only Indian state with such a policy) and funding for community-based care programmes. Kerala
Kerala
had pioneered Universal health care
Universal health care
through extensive public health services. Hans Rosling also highlighted this when he said Kerala matches United States in health but not in economy and took the example of Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
which is much richer but is less healthy compared to Kerala.

The magazine said that Kerala
Kerala
is one of the first of India's states to relax narcotics regulations to permit use of morphine by palliative care providers. Kerala
Kerala
has also extended the definition of palliative care to include the long-term chronically ill and even the mentally incapacitated. Kerala's formal palliative care policy, the only state with such a policy, the community-based Neighborhood Network in Palliative Care (NNPC) Project that employs an army of volunteers and the Government funding for these local community-based care units, almost 260 in number, has earned it many an accolade.

Health Development indicators- Kerala
Kerala
"> thanks to its history of Social Reformers like Sree Narayana Guru
Sree Narayana Guru
, Shree Chattambi Swamigal, Kuriakose Elias Chavara
Kuriakose Elias Chavara
, Ayyankali
Ayyankali
etc., Leftist Movements and the unique political situation that exists in Kerala. Political history in Kerala
Kerala
shows a trend of an alternating elected Right wing and Left government, which results in an increase in public welfare activities, much to the benefit of the common man. In each town square, political parties maintain their icons – a statue of EMS or Indira Gandhi or a portrait of Marx, Engels, and Lenin in careful profile. Strikes, agitations, and stirs, a sort of wildcat job action, are so common as to be almost unnoticeable. Anthropologist Bill McKibben
Bill McKibben
says "Though Kerala
Kerala
is mostly a land of paddy-covered plains, statistically Kerala stands out as the Mount Everest of social development; there's truly no place like it.

EDUCATION

A government school in Kottarakara
Kottarakara

The Pallikkoodam , a school model started by Christian missionaries initiated by the then Archbishop of Verapoly, Bernardo (Giuseppe) Baccinelli, O.C.D., paved the way for an educational revolution in Kerala
Kerala
by making education accessible to all, irrespective of caste or religion. Christian missionaries introduced Western education methods to Kerala. Communities such as Ezhavas, Nairs and Dalits
Dalits
were guided by monastic orders (called ashrams ) and Hindu saints and social reformers such as Sree Narayana Guru
Sree Narayana Guru
, Sree Chattampi Swamikal
Chattampi Swamikal
and Ayyankali
Ayyankali
, who exhorted them to educate themselves by starting their own schools. That resulted in numerous Sree Narayana schools and colleges, Nair Service Society
Nair Service Society
schools. The teachings of these saints have also empowered the poor and backward classes to organize themselves and bargain for their rights. The Muslim Educational Society (MES) also made significant contributions to education. The Government of Kerala
Kerala
instituted the Aided School system to help schools with operating expenses such as salaries for running these schools.

Kerala
Kerala
had been a notable centre of Vedic learning, having produced one of the most influential Hindu philosophers, Adi Shankaracharya
Adi Shankaracharya
. The Vedic learning of the Nambudiris is an unaltered tradition that still holds today, and is unique for its orthodoxy, unknown to other Indian communities. However, in feudal Kerala, though only the Nambudiris received an education in Vedas , other castes as well as women were open to receive education in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, mathematics and astronomy , in contrast to other parts of India.

The upper castes, such as Nairs , Tamil Brahmin
Tamil Brahmin
migrants, Ambalavasis , St Thomas Christians
St Thomas Christians
, as well as backward castes such as Ezhavas had a strong history of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
learning. In fact many Ayurvedic Physicians (such as Itty Achudan
Itty Achudan
) were from the backward Ezhava community. This level of learning by non-Brahmin learning was not seen in other parts of India. Also, Kerala
Kerala
had been the site of the notable Kerala
Kerala
School which pioneered principles of mathematics and logic, and cemented Kerala's status as a place of learning.

The prevalence of education was not only restricted to males. In pre-colonial Kerala, women, especially those belonging to the matrilineal Nair
Nair
caste, received an education in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and other sciences, as well as Kalaripayattu
Kalaripayattu
, a martial art. This was unique to Kerala, but was facilitated by the inherent equality shown by Kerala society to females and males, since Kerala
Kerala
society was largely matrilineal, as opposed to the rigid patriarchy in other parts of India which led to a loss of women's rights.

The rulers of the princely state of Travancore
Travancore
(were at the forefront in the spread of education. A school for girls was established by the Maharaja in 1859, which was an act unprecedented in the Indian subcontinent. In colonial times, Kerala
Kerala
exhibited little defiance against the British Raj . However, they had mass protests for social causes such as rights for "untouchables " and education for all. Popular protest to hold public officials accountable is a vital part of life in Kerala.

In the 1860s, the government of India spread the educational programs into Malabar , the northern state that had been ruled directly by the British, and began granting scholarships to Dalits
Dalits
and tribal peoples. By 1981, the general literacy rate in Kerala
Kerala
was 70 per cent – almost twice the all-India rate of 36 per cent. The rural literacy rate was almost identical, and female literacy, at 66 per cent, was not far behind. The government continued to press the issue, aiming for "total literacy," usually defined as about 95 per cent of the people being able to read and write.

A pilot project began in the Ernakulam region, an area of 3 million people that includes the city of Kochi
Kochi
. In late 1988, 50,000 volunteers fanned out around the district, tracking down 175,000 illiterates between the ages of 5 and 60, two-thirds of them women. Within a year, it was hoped, the illiterates would read Malayalam
Malayalam
at 30 words a minute, copy a text at 7 words a minute, count and write from 1 to 100, and add and subtract three-digit numbers. On 4 February 1990, 13 months after the initial canvass, Indian Prime Minister V. P. Singh marked the start of World Literacy Year with a trip to Ernakulam, declaring it the country's first totally literate district. In 2001, Kerala's literacy rate was 91% almost as high as that of China (93%) and Thailand (93.9%).

The following table shows the literacy rate of Kerala
Kerala
from 1951 to 2011, measured every decade:

YEAR LITERACY MALE FEMALE

1951 47.18 58.35 36.43

1961 55.08 64.89 45.56

1971 69.75 77.13 62.53

1981 78.85 84.56 73.36

1991 89.81 93.62 86.17

2001 90.92 94.20 87.86

2011 94.59 97.10 92.12

STATE POLICY

In 1957 Kerala
Kerala
elected a communist government headed by EMS Namboothiripad , introduced the revolutionary Land Reform Ordinance . The land reform was implemented by the subsequent government, which had abolished tenancy , benefiting 1.5 million poor households. This achievement was the result of decades of struggle by Kerala's peasant associations. In 1967 in his second term as Chief Minister , EMS again pushed for reform. The land reform initiative abolished tenancy and landlord exploitation; effective public food distribution that provides subsidised rice to low-income households; protective laws for agricultural workers; pensions for retired agricultural laborers; and a high rate of government employment for members of formerly low-caste communities.

HUNGER

According to the India State Hunger Index , Kerala
Kerala
is one of the four states where hunger is only "serious". Hunger index score of Kerala
Kerala
is 17.66 and is next only to Punjab. Nation hunger index of India is 23.31.

OPINIONS

British Green activist Richard Douthwaite interviewed a person who remembers once saying that "in some societies, very high levels – virtually First World levels – of individual and public health and welfare are achieved at as little as sixtieth of US nominal GDP
GDP
per capita and used Kerala
Kerala
as an example". :310–312 Richard Douthwaite states that Kerala
Kerala
"is far more sustainable than anywhere in Europe or North America". Kerala's unusual socioeconomic and demographic situation was summarized by author and environmentalist Bill McKibben :

Kerala, a state in India, is a bizarre anomaly among developing nations, a place that offers real hope for the future of the Third World. Though not much larger than Maryland, Kerala
Kerala
has a population as big as California's and a per capita annual income of less than $300. But its infant mortality rate is very low, its literacy rate among the highest on Earth, and its birthrate below America's and falling faster. Kerala's residents live nearly as long as Americans or Europeans. Though mostly a land of paddy-covered plains, statistically Kerala
Kerala
stands out as the Mount Everest of social development; there's truly no place like it.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Parayil, Govindan (2000). "Introduction: Is Kerala\'s Development Experience a Model?". In Govindan Parayil. Kerala: The Development Experience : Reflections on Sustainability and Replicability. London: Zed Books. ISBN 1-85649-727-5 . Retrieved 16 January 2011. * ^ A B Franke, Richard W.; Barbara H. Chasin (1999). "Is the Kerala
Kerala
Model Sustainable? Lessons from the Past, Prospects for the Future". In M.A. Oommen. Rethinking Development: Kerala\'s Development Experience, Volume I. New Delhi: Institute of Social Sciences. ISBN 81-7022-764-X . Retrieved 16 January 2011. * ^ A B " Kerala
Kerala
Model & development". Dawn.com. Archived from the original on 13 April 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2010. * ^ A B "KN Raj passes away". Oman Tribune. Retrieved 17 July 2010.

* ^ " Human Development Index
Human Development Index
rose 21 per cent; Kerala
Kerala
tops chart". CNBC
CNBC
. 21 October 2011. * ^ "HDI in India rises by 21%: Kerala