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The Kerala
Kerala
Congress is a regional political party in the state of Kerala, India. The mass base of the party predominantly consists of Christians from Kottayam and Idukki districts of Kerala. Presently, the Kerala
Kerala
Congress(M) is the third largest party after the Congress and IUML, in the alliance of United Democratic Front (UDF). The party has 9 MLAs in the current Kerala
Kerala
Legislative Assembly, and one Member of Parliament each, in the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
and the Rajya Sabha. The Chairman of the united Kerala
Kerala
Congress (M) is K. M. Mani, former Minister of Finance in the UDF-led Kerala
Kerala
government, who resigned in disgrace in November 2015 after he was accused of wrongdoing in the infamous bar bribery case. The party has its roots in the erstwhile Travancore region and is traditionally dominated by the farmers, mostly the Saint Thomas Christians.

Contents

1 Current Factions 2 Splits and mergers

2.1 1977 Split - Kerala
Kerala
Congress (B)

2.1.1 1979 Split - Kerala
Kerala
Congress (M) 2.1.2 1985 Merger - Kerala
Kerala
Congress 2.1.3 1987 Split - Kerala
Kerala
Congress (M) 2.1.4 1993 Split - Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Jacob) 2.1.5 Late 2000 splits and mergers - Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Secular) and IFDP 2.1.6 Moves for United Kerala
Kerala
Congress

2.2 United Kerala
Kerala
Congress

2.2.1 2014 Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
Election

2.3 2016 Split - Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Democratic)

3 Notable leaders of Kerala
Kerala
Congress parties

3.1 Current leaders 3.2 Other notable leaders

4 References 5 External links

Current Factions[edit]

Kerala
Kerala
Congress (M) led by KM Mani
KM Mani
and also including P. J. Joseph, C. F. Thomas and Jose K. Mani Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Jacob) led by Anoop Jacob
Anoop Jacob
and Johnny Nellore Kerala
Kerala
Congress (B) led by R. Balakrishna Pillai and K. B. Ganesh Kumar Janadhipathya Kerala
Kerala
Congress led by K. Francis George Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Skaria Thomas) led by Skaria Thomas Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Thomas) led by P.C. Thomas Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Nationalist) led by Kuruvilla Matthew Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Secular) led by Kallada Das Kerala
Kerala
Vikas Congress (Jose Chemberi) led by Jose Chemberi Kerala
Kerala
Vikas Congress (Prakash Kuriakose) led by Prakash Kuriakose

Splits and mergers[edit] The Kerala
Kerala
Congress has suffered severe divisions and several factions (called groups) have emerged, all claiming the name ' Kerala
Kerala
Congress' in various times in its history. Factions included the parent under P. J. Joseph, Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Mani) under K. M. Mani, Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Balakrishna Pillai) under R. Balakrishna Pillai, and Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Jacob) under Johnny Nellore. The group that had retained the official recognition by the Election Commission of India
India
to the name 'Kerala Congress' was the one led by P. J. Joseph (which is informally called the Joseph group) [4] until 2010. 1977 Split - Kerala
Kerala
Congress (B)[edit] Kerala
Kerala
Congress grew under K. M. George. R. Balakrishna Pillai was another founding leader of the party. Besides these two leaders Karingozhakkal Mani Mani, popularly called K.M. Mani and P. J. Joseph, the youth front leader rose as prominent leaders of the party. After the death of K. M. George in 1976, there was tussle for control over the party between Balakrishna Pillai and K. M Mani. Pillai felt, as the senior most leader, he would be the de facto leader of the party. However Mani and Joseph had more followers. In the year 1977, just before the Assemble elections, R. Balakrishna Pillai announced a split from the parent Kerala
Kerala
Congress. This group came to be known as Kerala Congress (Balakrishna Pillai) with R. Balakrishna Pillai as the Chairman. In the Assembly elections of 1977 Kerala
Kerala
Congress stayed with U. D. F. and secured 20 seats where as Pillai group secured 2 seats with L.D. F.[5] 1979 Split - Kerala
Kerala
Congress (M)[edit] Kerala
Kerala
Congress was again split in the year 1979, when veteran Indian politician and the then Minister of Home Affairs in the Kerala government, Karingozhakkal Mani Mani, popularly called K.M. Mani, announced a split from the parent Kerala
Kerala
Congress, owing to difference of opinions with P. J. Joseph. This group came to be known as Kerala Congress (M) with K. M. Mani
K. M. Mani
as the Chairman. In the 1979 Panchayat elections Kerala
Kerala
Congress (M) stayed with U. D. F. and Kerala
Kerala
Congress under P. J. Joseph stayed with L. D. F. In 1980 Assembly elections both factions switched the sides. Kerala
Kerala
Congress (M) moved over to L. D. F. along with Congress Leader A. K. Antony and Kerala
Kerala
Congress under P. J. Joseph moved over to U. D. F. Later Kerala
Kerala
Congress (M) returned to the U. D. F. All three factions represented the U. D. F. in 1982 Assembly lections as separate entities. In the 1982 U. D. F government, K. M Mani (Finance), P. J. Joseph (Revenue), R. Balakrishna Pilai (Transport), T. M. Jacob ( Education) became ministers. 1985 Merger - Kerala
Kerala
Congress[edit] In 1985 the Kerala
Kerala
Congress (M) and Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Balakrishna Pillai) merged with its parent Kerala
Kerala
Congress under P. J. Joseph while the two factions realized that the splits are indeed weakening the party. The merged Kerala
Kerala
Congress had 25 MLAs and 4 Ministers. On May 25, 1985, at a public meeting at Ernakulam, R Balakrishna Pllai, then a Minister in the Kerala
Kerala
Cabinet, allegedly incited the people to resort to protests like 'Punjab Model' to get the rights of Kerala State. This became a huge controversy and Pillai was forced to resign from the Cabinet and his portfolio was given to K. M Mani. Later the High Court of Kerala
Kerala
gave relief to Pillai. On this grounds the Kerala Congress under Chairman P. J. Joseph requested the then Chief Minister K. Karunakaran to reindic Pillai to the cabinet. Karunakaran saw this as an opportunity to weaken Kerala
Kerala
Congress and took a stand that for Pillai to be re-indicted to the cabinet Kerala
Kerala
Congress has to surrender the Finance portfolio held by Mani or be content with 3 minister ships. This caused Mani to be upset and following a sequence of events, the seeds of another split was already sown. 1987 Split - Kerala
Kerala
Congress (M)[edit] Just before the Assembly elections of 1987 the differences between the factions under K. M Mani and P. J. Joseph got wider following the 'Punjab Model' issue. The Kerala
Kerala
Congress was again split when Mani famously declared 'If it is a split, So be it'. The faction under K. M. Mani was again known as Kerala
Kerala
Congress (M). Pillai and Joseph remained as Kerala
Kerala
Congress. T. M Jacob choose to stay with K. M Mani. In general there was a discontent among the Kerala
Kerala
Congress leaders that K. M. Mani
K. M. Mani
was not putting the interests of the party, but a large number of ordinary party men stayed with Mani. A lot of Mani's earlier loyal leadership team including the leaders who were initially chosen by Mani to negotiate with Joseph, like O. Lukose and P. C. Joseph had to finally align with Joseph in the political situation that unfolded. However K. M. Mani
K. M. Mani
still commanded a lot of loyalty in ordinary party men who were unaware of the insider information. 1993 Split - Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Jacob)[edit] On December 16, 1993, then Irrigation Affairs Minister T. M. Jacob MLA along with Johny Nellore MLA, P. M. Mathew MLA, Mathew Stephen MLA, Oommen Mathew, Vakkanad Radhakrishnan, and George Kunnappuzha split from Kerala
Kerala
Congress (M)citing differences with K. M. Mani. The newly formed faction was called Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Jacob). Late 2000 splits and mergers - Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Secular) and IFDP[edit] P. C. Thomas, son of P. T. Chacko who was part of Kerala
Kerala
Congress (M) and was the sitting M.P from Muvattupuzha
Muvattupuzha
had growing differences with K. M. Mani. This caused a split of a group of leaders from Kerala Congress (M) to form Indian Federal Democratic Party (I.F.D.P). IFDP tried to form a national level alliance but failed. Meanwhile, the parent Kerala
Kerala
Congress under P. J. Joseph also got split when P. C. George formed the Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Secular) splitting away from parent Kerala
Kerala
Congress under P. J. Joseph. Later Indian Federal Democratic Party(I.F.D.P), under P. C. Thomas which split from the Mani group, merged with the Joseph group. A section of the Indian Federal Democratic Party under M. P. George retains its own cadre. In October 2009, Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Secular) under P. C. George, which split from the Joseph group, merged with the Mani group. A section of the Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Secular) denied the merger and began to be known as Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Socialist). Kerala Congress Socialist soon got dissolved when it merged with the Janata Dal (Secular).[6] Moves for United Kerala
Kerala
Congress[edit] There were several unofficial moves for bringing back the various split groups together under one umbrella ever since the first split of 1979. In 2007, Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Mani), Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Secular), Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Balakrishna Pillai), and Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Jacob) tried to form a united forum, but this was unsuccessful. United Kerala
Kerala
Congress[edit] P. J. Joseph announced on 30 April 2010 the intention of his group to leave the Left Democratic Front (LDF), of which his group had been a constituent for two decades, and merge with the group led by K. M. Mani to form the original Kerala
Kerala
Congress.[7][8] K. M. Mani reciprocated shortly thereafter, welcoming the exit of the Joseph group from the LDF.[9] This reunited the two factions which had split in 1979 to form a single Kerala
Kerala
Congress, and made it the largest constituent of the United Democratic Front (UDF) after the Indian National Congress. When the Kerala
Kerala
Congress under P. J. Joseph merged with the Mani group, a faction under P. C. Thomas dissented and stayed back with the Left Democratic Front, forming the Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Anti-merger Group). During the 2011 Kerala
Kerala
Assembly elections, both P. J. Joseph and P. C. Thomas claimed the party symbol Bicycle and party name Kerala Congress. Registration of the name Kerala
Kerala
Congress was temporarily frozen by the election commission as the arguments were inconclusive.[10] The Joseph group which united with the Mani group was asked to adopt the name of Kerala
Kerala
Congress (M) and its symbol Two leaves. The Thomas group was allotted the name Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Anti-merger Group) and the symbol Chair. 2014 Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
Election[edit]

Francis George, Kerala
Kerala
Congress leader from Muvattupuzha
Muvattupuzha
and the son of K. M. George, founder of Kerala
Kerala
Congress

Kerala
Kerala
Congress made claims to the Idukki Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
seat within the United Democratic Front for the 2014 elections. There was a strong sentiment against the sitting congress M.P, P. T. Thomas because of his stand on the Kasturirangan Report. Francis George, who was earlier M.P. from the constituency, was very vocal against the Kasturirangan Report and had mobilized the people in protest along with several other banners. The Congress high command denied seat to Kerala Congress and Mr. Dean Kuriakose was announced as the UDF candidate. The LDF tactically didn't announce its candidate in the hope of pulling over a winnable candidate like Francis George
Francis George
or P. C. Joseph from Kerala
Kerala
Congress, who were spearheading the protests against the Kasturirangan Report. But Francis George
Francis George
openly refused the offer to contest under the LDF banner. Finally Mr. Joice George, an advocate of 'Highrange Samrakshana Samiti', the forum set up against Kasturirangan Report, was fielded as LDF candidate and he went on to win the election banking on the sentiment against Kasturirangan Report. Just before 2014 Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
elections, on March 11, 2014, a few members led by Noble Mathew left Kerala
Kerala
Congress and form new fractional party named as Kerala
Kerala
Congress(Nationalist). This party is in alliance with BJP led National Democratic Alliance. 2016 Split - Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Democratic)[edit] Francis George, son of founder of Kerala
Kerala
Congress K. M. George, along with Antony Raju and Dr. K C Joseph left Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Mani) and formed Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Democratic). Notable leaders of Kerala
Kerala
Congress parties[edit] Current leaders[edit]

Office Bearer Position Current Group

K. M. Mani Chairman Kerala
Kerala
Congress (M)

P. J. Joseph Working Chairman Kerala
Kerala
Congress(J)

C. F. Thomas Deputy Chairman Kerala
Kerala
Congress (M)

Jose K. Mani General Secretary Kerala
Kerala
Congress(M)

Joy Abraham General Secretary Kerala
Kerala
Congress(M)

Thomas Unniyadan General Secretary Kerala
Kerala
Congress(M)

Monce Joseph General Secretary Kerala
Kerala
Congress(J)

N. Jayaraj General Secretary Kerala
Kerala
Congress(M)

Thomas Chazhikadan General Secretary Kerala
Kerala
Congress(M)

Chev. Dr. T. U. Kuruvilla General Secretary Kerala
Kerala
Congress(J)

Joseph M. Puthussery General Secretary Kerala
Kerala
Congress(M)

Roshy Augustine General Secretary Kerala
Kerala
Congress(M)

Victor T. Thomas General Secretary Kerala
Kerala
Congress(M)

P T Jose General Secretary Kerala
Kerala
Congress (M)

Other notable leaders[edit]

K. M. George Founder Chairman Thomas Kallampally K. Narayana Kurup

References[edit]

^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-09-10. Retrieved 2008-07-09.  ^ a b http://eci.nic.in/eci_main/ElectoralLaws/OrdersNotifications/Symbols_Notification17.09.2010.pdf ^ "Members: Lok Sabha". loksabha.nic.in. Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
Secretariat. Retrieved 14 March 2018.  ^ Kerala
Kerala
Legislature. " Kerala
Kerala
legislative assembly". Niyamasabha.org. Retrieved 2010-09-26.  ^ 1977 KC and Pilla Group. Kerala.gov https://web.archive.org/web/20141006101549/http://kerala.gov.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3776%3Ahistory-of-kerala-legislature. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ " Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Socialist) to merge with Janata Dal
Janata Dal
(S) faction". Hinduonnet.com. Retrieved 2010-09-26.  ^ "Setback for Kerala
Kerala
govt as Christian party part ways, NDTV, 1 May 2010". Ndtv.com. Retrieved 2010-09-26.  ^ " Kerala
Kerala
Congress(J) pulls out of LDF, The Hindu, 30 Apr. 2010". Beta.thehindu.com. 2010-04-30. Retrieved 2010-09-26.  ^ "UDF consent not needed: Mani". Hinduonnet.com. Retrieved 2010-09-26.  ^ "KC-order" (PDF). election commission. 2011-03-25. Retrieved 2011-04-06. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kerala
Kerala
Congress.

Pratichaya: Official organ of the Kerala
Kerala
Congress

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