Kenosha /kɛˈnˌʃɑː/ is a city in and the county seat of Kenosha County, Wisconsin, United States.[8] Kenosha is on the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan. With an estimated population of 99,889 as of July 1, 2013,[9] it is the fourth-largest city in Wisconsin and the fourth-largest city on Lake Michigan. The city is part of the United States Census Bureau's Chicago Combined Statistical Area (CSA).[10]


Early archaeological sites have been discovered in the Kenosha vicinity; the discoverer of two sites believes they antedate the Clovis culture, making them contemporaneous with the ice age.[11] Paleo Indians settled in the area at least 13,500 years ago.[12]

The Potawatomi originally named the area ginoozhe (also transcribed kenozia, kinoje) 'place of the pike'.[13]

The early name by the Ojibwa Indians is reported as Masu-kinoja. This describes the place of spawning trout as "trout (pike) come all at same time". Thousands of fish were entering the rivers from Lake Michigan. Harvesting these fish provided food for the coming months.

The first white settlers, part of the Western Emigration Company, arrived in the early 1830s from Hannibal and Troy, New York, led by John Bullen, Jr., who sought to purchase enough land for a town. Thwarted in Milwaukee and Racine, the group arrived at Pike Creek on 6 June 1835, building log homes at first and, later, homes of frame, native stone, and brick. The first school and churches followed by 1835, with platting completed in 1836.[14] As more settlers arrived and the first post office was established, the community was first known as Pike Creek in 1836.[15] In the ensuing years, the area became an important Great Lakes shipping port, and in 1837, the village was renamed[15] Southport, a name which lives on as a southeast-side neighborhood, park, and elementary school, and has been adopted by several businesses.

In 1850, another change brought the growing city (and later Kenosha County) its current name, adapted from the Chippewa word Kinoje, which means pike or pickerel.[16]

Between 1902 and 1988, Kenosha produced millions of automobiles and trucks[17] under marques such as Jeffery, Rambler, Nash, Hudson, LaFayette, and American Motors Corporation (AMC). A prototype steam car was built in Kenosha by the Sullivan-Becker engineering firm in 1900. Two years later, the Thomas B. Jeffery Company, builders of the Sterling bicycle, began production of the Rambler runabout. In 1902, Rambler and Oldsmobile were the first cars to employ mass-production techniques. The 1902 Rambler was also the first automobile to use a steering wheel, rather than the then-common tiller-controlled steering. Auto executive Charles W. Nash purchased Jeffrey in 1916 and the new company became Nash Motors. In May 1954, Nash acquired Detroit-based Hudson and the new firm was named American Motors Corporation. A 47-acre (190,000 m2) west side park and an elementary school are named for Charles W. Nash.[18]


In partnership with French automaker Renault, AMC manufactured several models in Kenosha in the early 1980s, including the Alliance, which won the 1983 "Car of The Year" award from Motor Trend. Two decades earlier, AMC's 1963 Rambler Classic had also received the award. In 1987, Renault sold its controlling interest in AMC to Chrysler Corporation, which had already contracted with AMC for the production of its M-body midsized cars at the Kenosha plant. The AMC Lakefront plant (1960–88), a smaller facility, was demolished in 1990 (a chimney-demolition ceremony that June drew 10,000 spectators) and was redeveloped into HarborPark.[19] The area now hosts lakeside condominiums, a large recreational marina, numerous parks and promenades, sculptures, fountains, the Kenosha Public Museum, and the Civil War Museum, all of which are connected by the Kenosha Electric Railway streetcar system.

From the start of the 20th century through the 1930s, Italian, Irish, Polish, and German immigrants, many of them skilled craftsmen, made their way to the city and contributed to the city's construction, culture, architecture, music, and literature.

Kenosha has 21 locations and three districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places[20] including the Library Park, Third Avenue, and the Civic Center historic districts. The city has a Kenosha Landmarks Commission, and among the many local city-designated landmarks are the 1929 YMCA at 711 59th Place, the Manor House at 6536 Third Avenue, the John McCaffary House at 5732 13th Court, the St. Matthew Episcopal Church at 5900 Seventh Avenue, the Washington Park Clubhouse at 2205 Washington Road, and the Justin Weed House at 3509 Washington Road.

In June 1993, the city installed reproductions of the historic Sheridan LeGrande street lights that were specially designed for Kenosha by Westinghouse Electric in 1928; these can be seen on Sixth Avenue between 54th Street and 59th Place. A classic two-mile (3.2 km) downtown electric streetcar system was opened on June 17, 2000, and on September 22nd, 2014, the Kenosha city council approved a crosstown extension of the system incorporating the existing route between 48th and 61st Streets on both Sixth and Eighth Avenues.[21]


Kenosha is in southeastern Wisconsin at 42°34′56″N 87°50′44″W / 42.58222°N 87.84556°W / 42.58222; -87.84556 (42.582220, -87.845624).[22] It is bordered by Lake Michigan to the east, the Town of Somers to the north, the village of Bristol to the west, and the village of Pleasant Prairie to the south. Kenosha's passenger train station is the last stop on Chicago's Union Pacific North Metra Line and is almost halfway between Milwaukee and Chicago.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 27.03 square miles (70.01 km2), of which, 26.93 square miles (69.75 km2) is land and 0.10 square miles (0.26 km2) is water.[3]


Kenosha has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb) with warm summers and cold winters. The record high is 105 °F (40 °C), set in July 2012. The record low is -31 °F (-35 °C) set in January 1985.[23]

Climate data for Kenosha, WI (1981-2010 normals, extremes 1944-present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 65
Average high °F (°C) 30.4
Average low °F (°C) 16.4
Record low °F (°C) −31
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.76
Average snowfall inches (cm) 12.0
Source: [24]


Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 3,455
1860 3,990 15.5%
1870 4,309 8.0%
1880 4,039 −6.3%
1890 6,532 61.7%
1900 11,606 77.7%
1910 21,371 84.1%
1920 40,472 89.4%
1930 50,262 24.2%
1940 48,765 −3.0%
1950 54,368 11.5%
1960 67,899 24.9%
1970 78,805 16.1%
1980 77,685 −1.4%
1990 80,352 3.4%
2000 90,352 12.4%
2010 99,218 9.8%
Est. 2016 99,631 [5] 0.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[25]
2013 Estimate[9]

2010 census

As of the census[4] of 2010, there were 99,218 people, 37,376 households, and 24,090 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,684.3 inhabitants per square mile (1,422.5/km2). There were 40,643 housing units at an average density of 1,509.2 per square mile (582.7/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 77.1% White, 10.0% African American, 0.6% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 6.8% from other races, and 3.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.3% of the population.

There were 37,376 households of which 36.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 15.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 35.5% were non-families. 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.17.

The median age in the city was 33.5 years. 26.8% of residents were under the age of 18; 10.9% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 28.3% were from 25 to 44; 23.2% were from 45 to 64; and 10.8% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.1% male and 50.9% female.

The 2010 census reported that the city's population are mainly newcomers, with 51 percent of Kenosha residents having moved from other cities and states. The Chamber of Commerce attributed this to the city's museums, lakeshore attractions, cultural and work opportunities, its public-school system, transportation amenities, and relatively lower costs-of-living.[26]

2000 census

As of the census[6] of 2000, there were 90,352 people, 34,411 households, and 22,539 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,795.1 inhabitants per square mile (1,465.3/km2). There were 36,004 housing units at an average density of 1,512.3 per square mile (583.9/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 83.64% White, 7.68% African American, 0.44% Native American, 0.99% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 4.83% from other races and 2.38% from two or more races. 9.96% of the population were Hispanic of any race. 25.5% were of German, 11.5% Italian, 7.1% Irish and 6.6% Polish ancestry.

There were 34,411 households out of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them: 47.1% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present and 34.5% were non-families. 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.13.

In the city, the population included 27.2% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 96.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.2 males.

Law and government

Kenosha has an elected mayor, who is the chief executive, and an appointed city administrator, who is the chief operating officer. The mayor is elected every four years. The city's Common Council consists of 17 aldermen from Kenosha's 17 districts (each district having several wards), elected for two-year terms in even-numbered years.

The mayor of Kenosha is John Martin Antaramian, the longest-serving chief executive in the city's history over four terms between 1992 and 2008. Antaramian was re-elected on April 5, 2016.[27]

Kenosha is represented by Paul Ryan (R) in the United States House of Representatives, and by Ron Johnson (R) and Tammy Baldwin (D) in the United States Senate. Robert Wirch (D) represents Kenosha in the Wisconsin State Senate, and Peter Barca (D) and Tod Ohnstad (D) represent Kenosha in the Wisconsin State Assembly.


Big Star Drive-In Restaurant
House of Gerhard German-American Restaurant
6th Ave Downtown Kenosha

Kenosha, decades ago a bustling hub of manufacturing, is today a bedroom community because of the ease of access to the Chicago-Milwaukee corridor. According to county statistics, 49% of Kenosha's workforce commutes outside of Kenosha County to their positions. Many travel northward towards Milwaukee or south into the Chicago area.[28] The 2016 Kenosha County Out-Commuter Analysis, underwritten by the Kenosha Area Business Alliance (www.kaba.org) and an adjunct to the coincidental Labor Analysis of Kenosha County, found that Kenosha's "out-commuters most likely work for positions in healthcare, manufacturing, professional/scientific and technical services. The majority of occupations included management, business/financial, and office/administrative support position” and that 73 percent of out-commuters have a bachelor's degree or a higher level of education.[29]

A June 2009 study by the Milken Institute reported that Kenosha placed in the national top-50 high-tech economies.[30]

Jockey International Inc.

Business and industry

Snap-on Tools world headquarters and Jockey International corporate headquarters are in Kenosha. Kenosha has a number of light industrial and distribution companies in outlying business parks.


Tourists spent an estimated $196.6 million in Kenosha County in 2015, with the county ranking fourth in the state in tourist money generated.[31]

The Kenosha Public Museum System includes the main Kenosha Public Museum, the Dinosaur Discovery Museum in association with Carthage College and the Smithsonian, and the Kenosha Civil War Museum. On Simmons Island, the Kenosha History Center and adjacent Maritime Museum offer memorabilia from the city's nautical past.

Other popular tourism sites include the Jelly Belly Visitor Center store and factory tours, and the Mars Cheese Castle with Wisconsin-related products.

The Kenosha HarborMarket is a European-style Farmer's Market held mid-May through mid-October on Second Avenue bisected by the 56th Street boulevard streetcar line. It hosts stalls with local food products and artisans' creations. In winter, the market moves indoors to the lobby of the 1927 Rhode Center of the Arts.

Real estate and housing

The number of households in Kenosha County increased by nearly 80% from 1990 to 2005.[32]

A Kenosha neighborhood

Number of households:

  • 1990: 47,029
  • 2000: 56,057
  • 2005: 58,715

2005 housing statistics:

  • Total housing units: 67,568
  • Owner occupied: 42,197
  • Median value of homes: $167,500
  • Renter occupied: 16,518
  • Median rent paid: $722
  • Rental vacancy rate: 11.1%

A 2015 WalletHub survey listed Kenosha among the top 100 American cities for first-time home buyers.[33]


Kenosha Electric Railway PCC streetcar 4608 'Pittsburgh'.

Kenosha has been served by rail service to and from Chicago since May 19, 1855,[34] when the predecessors to the Chicago and North Western Railway, the Milwaukee and Chicago Railway Company (originally the Illinois Parallel Railroad) and the original "Lake Shore Railroad" (later the Green Bay, Milwaukee and Chicago Railway) were officially joined with great ceremony just south of today's 52nd Street.

Kenosha has the only Metra station in Wisconsin, with nine inbound and nine outbound trains each weekday. Passenger ridership on the Kenosha line was up by a slight 0.06% in 2009, while elsewhere on the 11-route Metra system, passenger counts dropped by 5.2 percent. Not all Union Pacific/North Line trains terminate and originate in Kenosha; most terminate at Waukegan, Illinois, to the south of Kenosha.[35]

Since June 2000, a 2-mile (3.2 km) streetcar line has served the downtown area and HarborPark, connecting the Metra station with downtown and several area parks. Kenosha is one of the smallest cities in America with any type of streetcar system today.[36]

In addition to its streetcar line, Kenosha has a city bus network with eight routes. Kenosha was the first city to color-code transit routes (with the Blue, Green, Red, and Orange Lines), and also the first city to use electric trolley buses in full transit service, both occurring on February 14, 1932.[37]

Kenosha Regional Airport (KENW) serves the city and surrounding communities.


Public schools

The Kenosha Unified School District operates 23 public elementary schools, five middle schools, seven charter schools, and six high schools:[38] Mary D. Bradford High School, George Nelson Tremper High School, Indian Trail High School and Academy, LakeView Technology Academy, Reuther Central High School, and Harborside Academy, the latter a research school that uses the Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound model; it was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.[39]

Private schools

Kenosha's private schools include St. Joseph Catholic Academy, All Saints Catholic School, Bethany Lutheran School, Friedens Lutheran School, Christ Lutheran Academy, Kenosha Montessori School, Shoreland Lutheran High School, and Christian Life School. At the beginning of the 2011-2012 school year, St. Mary's and Holy Rosary schools became campuses of All Saints Catholic School. Both campuses operate as the same school with the same principal. St. Mark's and St. Joseph High School have also conjoined into Saint Joseph Catholic Academy.

Higher education

Kenosha is home to the University of Wisconsin-Parkside with over 4,000 students,[40] Carthage College with over 2,500 students,[41] and the Kenosha campus of Gateway Technical College.

Concordia University Wisconsin, Cardinal Stritch University, National-Louis University, and Herzing University maintain campuses in Kenosha. Journey Ministry College, a cohort of SUM Bible College and Seminary, was established in 2011.


The Kenosha Public Library, which is part of the Kenosha County Library System, operates in four locations throughout the city: Northside Neighborhood Library, Southwest Neighborhood Library, Uptown Neighborhood Library, and Simmons Neighborhood Library. Daniel H. Burnham designed the 1900 Beaux-Arts Gilbert M. Simmons Library, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[42]

Health care

Kenosha has two hospitals: the Froedert South Kenosha Medical Center Campus downtown and the Aurora Medical Center at the extreme western edge of the city limits. Just outside of the city limits is the Froedert South St. Catherine's Medical Center Campus, which opened in 2002 and has a heart institute named in honor of cardiac surgeon Michael E. DeBakey.[43]


The primary newspaper of Kenosha County is the Kenosha News, a broadsheet with circulation of around 23,000 copies. Happenings Magazine is an ad supported entertainment publication distributed at local businesses since 1978, they also publish The Smart Reader, Homes Plus, as well as other seasonal event-orientated magazines.

Kenosha News Building

Kenosha is considered as part of the Milwaukee television market by A.C. Nielsen, but due to a commuter population, Kenosha is also served by Chicago's television stations, which are carried by Time Warner Cable in addition to Milwaukee stations. Arbitron classifies Kenosha as part of the Chicago radio market. Five major radio stations broadcast from Kenosha: WLIP (CBS) 1050 AM, Gateway Technical College's WGTD (91.1 FM), a member station of the Wisconsin Public Radio News & Classical Music Network, rock WIIL (95.1 FM) and classic hits WWDV (96.9 FM), which simulcasts Chicago-based WDRV (97.1 FM). The Kenosha Convention and Visitors Bureau operates WPUR937 (1180 AM), a low-power tourist information station. Most of the AM and FM radio stations from Milwaukee and Chicago can be heard clearly in Kenosha.[44]

WPXE (Channel 55), owned by ION Television, is Kenosha's only locally licensed television station. Its analog transmitter was based in northern Racine County, while the digital tower is in Milwaukee's tower farm site on the north side and the station's studios are just south of suburban Glendale, serving the entire Milwaukee television market.

Civic organizations

Civic organizations in Kenosha include:

  • American Legion, Post 21
  • Danish Brotherhood, Lodge 14
  • Italian American Society of Kenosha
  • Kenosha Car Club
  • Kenosha Freemasons, Lodge 47
  • Kenosha Women's Club
  • Midwest Street Machine Association
  • Navy Club of the U.S.A., Ship 40
  • Rotary International District 6720, Clubs 2736-2737
  • Swedish American Club, Sigurd Lodge 30
  • Veterans of Foreign Wars, Post 1865


Kenosha's three downtown museums, the Kenosha Public Museum, the Civil War Museum and the Dinosaur Discovery Museum, are Smithsonian Institution affiliates.[45]

Completed in 2001, the Kenosha Public Museum is on the Lake Michigan shoreline. Its main exhibit is a prehistoric woolly mammoth skeleton uncovered in western Kenosha in 1992. Cut-marks on its bones indicate that the animals were butchered by humans using stone tools. Carbon dating indicates their age to be 12,500 radiocarbon years old or 14,500 calendar years old, one thousand radiocarbon years earlier than the previously-accepted presence of humans in the Americas. The museum also displays other ice age and fine art exhibits.[46]

The Kenosha History Center is in the 1917 city water treatment plant on Simmons Island adjoining the 1866 Kenosha Light Station. It showcases the history of Kenosha from the time of Native American settlements and the first European settlements to the present day. The 1906 Kenosha North Pier Light is nearby.

Kenosha's 59,000-square-foot (5,500 m2) Civil War Museum opened on June 13, 2008. The main exhibit, "The Fiery Trial", opened September 15, 2008. It is a 15,000-square-foot (1,400 m2) exhibit offering an interactive experience of the role of six Midwestern states before, during, and after the American Civil War.[47]

The Dinosaur Discovery Museum, designated a federal repository, opened in August 2006 in the historic Old Post Office adjoining the 56th Street streetcar line at Tenth Avenue, and includes an on-site paleontology laboratory operated through the Carthage College Institute of Paleontology.[48]

The Kenosha Transit Carhouse at 724 54th Street, which houses Kenosha's historic fleet of PCC streetcars, is occasionally open for guided tours.

Lighthouse overlooking beach on Simmons Island

A Maritime Museum has been created within the restored 1866 Southport Light and Lighthouse Keeper's cottage on Simmons Island.[49]


Summer band performances are traditionally put on by the Kenosha American Legion Band (renamed the Kenosha Concert Band in 1963 and now called the Kenosha Pops Concert Band). Since 1988 the concerts have been at Kenosha's Sesquicentennial Bandshell in Pennoyer Park.

The Kenosha Lakeshore Youth Philharmonic offers an intensive orchestral experience to middle school and high school musicians.

Southeast Wisconsin Performing Arts (SEWPA) sponsors the Opera à la Carte evening concert series featuring middle school, high school and college singers.

The Music of the Stars radio program, heard worldwide over WLIP, has originated from Kenosha since 1992.[citation needed]

The Kenosha Symphony Orchestra presents concerts in the acoustically-correct Reuther Central Auditorium (listed on the National Register of Historic Places) at Walter Reuther Central High School in downtown Kenosha. Film composer and orchestrator Lucien Cailliet, orchestrator for The Ten Commandments, was the KSO conductor until 1960.

Since 2002, the outdoor Peanut Butter and Jam Concert Series[50] has been held every Thursday in July and August at Veterans Memorial Park.

Lincoln Park Live! concerts began in 2005 on the Lincoln Park lawns near the Warren Taylor Memorial Gardens.

A number of outdoor jazz events are offered throughout the summer months, most often at Veterans' Memorial Park and the historic Kemper Center.

Bands that have originated in Kenosha include the Pat Crawford Big Band, the Jazz Wave, the Parkside Reunion Big Band, Reminiscing (defunct), Electric Hellfire Club, Lazarus A.D., Jungle Rot, Product of Hate, and PATH.


Kenosha is home to a number of summer festivals, with the Outta Sight Kite Flight, Taste of Wisconsin, Pike River Rendezvous (a historical reenactment of Kenosha in the past), the Kenosha Classic Cruise-In Car Show, Food Folks & Spokes, and others occurring in 2018.[51]


Kenosha has dozens of churches,[52] two synagogues, and is home to the American Albanian Islamic Center of Wisconsin.[53] Of the Christian churches, 14 are Lutheran, 13 are Roman Catholic, and 12 are Baptist; other Christian denominations with churches include Anglican, Episcopal, Seventh-day Adventists, Churches of Christ, Methodism, African Methodist Episcopal, Apostolic, Eastern Orthodox, and Presbyterianism. Jehovah's Witness and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.



Kenosha has eight miles (13 km) of Lake Michigan shoreline frontage, nearly all of which is public. The city has 74 municipal parks, totaling 781.52 acres (3.1627 km2).[54]

Kenosha's Washington Park includes the oldest operating velodrome in the United States (opened in 1927) at Washington Bowl.[55] The Kenosha Velodrome Association sponsors American Track Cycling sanctioned races and training sessions at the "Bowl" throughout the summer. Races are held on Tuesday evenings from mid-May through August. Free seating is available on the inside of the track, and on important race days concessions are available.

Petrifying Springs Park, which flanks the Pike River, was developed in the 1930s on the northwestern edge of the city. It is named for its artesian mineral water. Over ten miles (16 km) of trails wind through the wooded park, which also contains an 18-hole golf course.

Hawthorn Hollow Nature Sanctuary and Arboretum has three historic buildings and several trails for hiking.

Library Park is home to a statue of Abraham Lincoln by Charles Henry Niehaus as well as a veterans-memorial statue ("Winged Victory") by the Italian sculptor Decco.[56]

Kenosha has been a Tree City USA since 1982.[57]


Kenosha has a number of golf courses.[58] Petrifying Springs Golf Course was named the "No. 1 Sporty Course in Wisconsin".[59] The Washington Park Golf Course was dedicated on February 18, 1922, and its 1937 English-cottage clubhouse is a city landmark.[60] Most recently, new private courses have opened, including Strawberry Creek.


Kenosha's Library Park is the home of Food Folks and Spokes, a festival with food booths, entertainment, and a bicycle race that is currently the first leg of the Tour of America's Dairyland.[61] It was formerly part of the International Cycling Classic's "Superweek". Kenosha is home to the Washington Park Velodrome, the longest-operating 333-meter track; it opened in 1927.


Kenosha was home to the short lived Kenosha Maroons NFL franchise in 1924. They folded after going 0-4-1.[62] It was also the home of the Kenosha Cardinals, a semi-professional football team between 1937 and 1941[63] which played at Lake Front Stadium at 58th Street and Third Avenue.

The Kenosha Cougars are a semi-professional football team that plays home games at Ameche Field.[64]

The Kenosha Kingfish, a baseball team in the Northwoods League, played its first game at historic Simmons Field on May 31, 2014 with a sold-out crowd of 3,218 fans,[65] and in 2015 won their first championship.[66] Prior to the Kingfish, Kenosha was home to the Frontier League Mammoths in 2003, the Kenosha Twins from 1984-1992, and the Kenosha Comets of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League from 1943-1951.[67]

The Kenosha Yacht Club was established in 1912.

Notable people


  • In 2005 Money listed Kenosha as 94th on its list of "Best Places to Live".[68]
  • In 2005, the Milken Institute rated Kenosha 86th among the largest 200 metro areas in the United States in its "Best Performing Cities" list;[69]
  • In May 2006, Inc. Magazine ranked Kenosha #45 on its "Hottest Midsize Cities" list;[70]
  • Worldwide ERC in 2006 included Kenosha among its "Best Cities for Relocating Families" list in the 500,000 to 250,000 metro population category.[71]

Sister cities

Kenosha's sister cities are:

See also


  1. ^ Wisconsin (23 March 2018). "Acts and Resolves Passed by the Legislature of Wisconsin". David T. Dickson, printer to the state – via Google Books. 
  2. ^ a b City of Kenosha (2010), 'Mayor/Administration', accessed October 22nd from http://www.kenosha.org/mayor/index.html
  3. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2012-01-24. Retrieved 2012-11-18. 
  4. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-18. 
  5. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  6. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  7. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  8. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  9. ^ a b "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2014-05-22. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
  10. ^ "Census Quick Facts". census.gov. 2011-08-02. Retrieved 2011-08-02. 
  11. ^ Wasion, David. "The Mammoth Hunter: David Wasion's Quest for Pre-Clovis People in North America" The Citizen Scientist, 11 February 2005. Accessed 8 April 2005.
  12. ^ Falk, Terrence. "Bones to Pick" Milwaukee Magazine, April 2004
  13. ^
    • Bright, William. 2004. Native American Placenames of the United States. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, p. 213.
    • Vogel, Virgil J. 1991. Indian Names on Wisconsin's Map. Madison: Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 154, 266.
    • Hosmanek, John J. 2006. Kenosha. Charleston, SC: Arcadia.
    • Nestor, Sandy. 2004. 'Indian Placenames in America. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, p. 184.
  14. ^ "Ancestry.com - Genealogy and Family History Records". Rootsweb.ancestry.com. 2001-04-22. Retrieved 2011-08-02. 
  15. ^ a b "Town of Southport No More". Kenosha Democrat. March 11, 1853. p. 3. Retrieved August 13, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  16. ^ "Origin of Kenosha, Wisconsin". Wisconsinhistory.org. Retrieved 2017-08-27. 
  17. ^ City's auto history reaches back more than 100 years[dead link]
  18. ^ "Kenosha Unified School District". Nash.kusd.edu. Retrieved 2011-08-02. 
  19. ^ "Harbor Park: a brief history". Kenoshakorner.com. 2008-08-11. Retrieved 2011-08-02. 
  20. ^ National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 
  21. ^ Kenosha News, September 23, 2014
  22. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  23. ^ "XMACIS2". XMACIS2. National Weather Service. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  24. ^ "Monthly Climate Normals (1981-2010) Kenosha, WI". National Weather Service. Retrieved February 3, 2017. 
  25. ^ United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved August 22, 2014. 
  26. ^ Tichelaar, Melinda (April 26, 2012). "Kenosha Leads State in Non-Native Population". Kenosha News. 
  27. ^ Bill Guida. "Antaramian reclaims Kenosha mayor's office". Kenosha News, April 6, 2016.
  28. ^ "Kenosha County, WI - Home". Co.kenosha.wi.us. 2011-06-30. Retrieved 2011-08-02. 
  29. ^ Kenosha Area Business Alliance www.kaba.org
  30. ^ Newgeography.com (2009-11-18). "North America's High Tech Economy: The Geography of Knowledge-Based Industries". Newgeography.com. Retrieved 2011-08-02. 
  31. ^ "Tourism a consistent boost to local economy". Kenosha News, April 29, 2016.
  32. ^ ascedia.com. "Kenosha Area Business Alliance". Kaba.org. Archived from the original on 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2011-08-02. 
  33. ^ Richie Bernardo (2016-07-18). "2016's Best & Worst Cities for First-Time Home Buyers WalletHub®". Wallethub.com. Retrieved 2017-02-19. 
  34. ^ "Bands of iron". Jsonline.com. 2007-02-04. Retrieved 2011-08-02. 
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Further reading

  • Dudley, Kathryn Marie (1994). The End of the Line: Lost Jobs, New Lives in Postindustrial America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-16908-1. 

External links