Kelantan (Malay pronunciation: [kəˈlantan]; Jawi: کلنتن;
RTGS: Kalantan, Kelantanese: Kelate) is a state of Malaysia. The
capital and royal seat is Kota Bharu. The honorific of the state is
Darul Naim (Jawi: دار النعيم, "The Blissful Abode"). Kelantan
is positioned in the north-east of Peninsular Malaysia. It is bordered
Narathiwat Province of
Thailand to the north,
Terengganu to the
Perak to the west and
Pahang to the south. To the
Kelantan is the South China Sea.
Kelantan is located in the north-eastern corner of the peninsula.
Kelantan, which is said to translate as the "Land of Lightning" (see
alternate theories below), is an agrarian state with green paddy
fields, rustic fishing villages and casuarina-lined beaches. Kelantan
is home to some of the most ancient archaeological discoveries in
Malaysia, including several prehistoric aboriginal settlements.
Due to Kelantan's relative isolation and largely rural lifestyle,
Kelantanese culture differs somewhat from Malay culture in the rest of
the peninsula; this is reflected in the cuisine, arts and the unique
Kelantanese Malay language, which is unintelligible even for some
speakers of standard Malay.
5 Politics and government
Sultan of Kelantan
5.3 State Executive Council
6 Political background
7 Oil royalties
7.1 Assignment deed
7.2 Current action
8.1 Ethnic groups
8.1.4 Orang Asli
9.1 Local specialties
9.2 Thai-influenced dishes
11 Administrative divisions
14 Notable Kelantanese
15 See also
17 Further reading
18 External links
The 17th century
Mao Kun map
Mao Kun map from
Wubei Zhi which is based on the
early 15th century navigation maps of
Zheng He showing
There are a number of suggestions for the origin of the name Kelantan.
One theory, according to historian Mohd Rosli Bin Ismail, proposes
Kelantan is a corruption of gelam hutan, i.e. the Malay word for
the cajuput, or swamp tea tree (
Melaleuca leucadendron). Other
theories claim that the name comes from the Malay word kilatan,
'shiny/glittery' or kolam tanah, 'clay pool'.
Kelantan was called
Kalantan (Thai: กลันตัน) by the Siamese when it was
under their influence.
Another occasionally quoted suggestion is that 'Kelantan' derived
originally from the Indian 'Kolaan Thana' or 'Kolaam Thana', which
meant 'Land of Kolaan' or 'Land of Kolaam', the term 'kolaan' or
'kolaam' referring to the floor paintings/diagrams in the numerous
Hindu temples which dotted the land in the very ancient days. 'Kolaan
Thana' or 'Kolaam Thana' gradually became 'Kelantan' to fit in better
with the speaking dialect of the local people.
The early history of
Kelantan traces distinct human settlement dating
back to prehistoric times. Early
Kelantan had links to the Funan
Kingdom, the Khmer Empire, Sri Vijaya,
Majapahit and Siam[citation
needed]. Around 1411, Raja Kumar, the ruler of Kelantan, became
independent of Siam, and
Kelantan became an important centre of trade
by the end of the 15th century.
Kelantan became a vassal state of the
Malacca Sultanate. With
the fall of
Malacca in 1511,
Kelantan was divided up and ruled by
petty chieftains, paying tribute to Patani, then the supreme Malay
Kingdom of the eastern peninsula. By the early 17th century, most of
Kelantan chiefs became subject to Patani.
The legendary Cik
Siti Wan Kembang
Siti Wan Kembang was said to have reigned over
Kelantan sometime between the 16th and 17th centuries.
The flag of
Kelantan before 1924. The flag incorporates Kitmir, a dog
from Surah Al-Kahf.
Around 1760, Long Yunus, an aristocratic warlord of Patani origin
succeeded in unifying the territory of present-day
enthroned by his father-in-law Ku Tanang Wangsa,
Regent of Terengganu
as Yang di-Pertuan Muda or Deputy Ruler of Kelantan. Long Yunus was
succeeded in 1795 by his son-in-law Tengku Muhammad
Sultan Mansur of
Terengganu. The enthronement of Tengku Muhammad by
opposed by Long Yunus' sons, thus triggering a war against Terengganu
by Long Muhammad, the eldest son of Long Yunus. The pro-Terengganu
faction was defeated in 1800 and Long Muhammad ruled
Kelantan with the
new title of
Sultan Muhammad I. Nevertheless, the death of
childless Long Muhammad triggered another civil war among claimants to
the throne. His nephew and son of Long Tan (Temengggong), Long Senik
Mulut Merah, triumphed over his uncles and cousins and assumed the
throne in 1835 as
Sultan Muhammad II.
Thousands flocked into the streets of
Kota Bharu to witness the Burung
Petala Procession in 1933.
Sultan Muhammad II leveraged on his loose alliance with
Siam to form
Kelantan state, centered in his new fort on the eastern
bank of the
Kelantan river, which became
Kota Bharu in 1844.
Under the terms of the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909, the Thais
relinquished their claims over Kelantan, Terengganu,
Kedah and Perlis
to Great Britain, and
Kelantan thus became one of the Unfederated
Malay States with a British Adviser.
Kelantan was where the Japanese first landed during their invasion of
Malaya, on 8 December 1941. In 1943,
Kelantan was transferred by the
Thailand and became a province of Thailand. Kelantan
reverted to British protection upon the end of World War 2 in August
Kelantan became part of the
Malayan Union in 1946 and then the
Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya on 1 February 1948, and together with other
Malayan states attained independence on 31 August 1957. On 16
Kelantan became one of the states of Malaysia.
Rising high on the slopes of Gunung Korbu, the second highest peak in
Peninsular Malaysia, the Nengiri River flows east to merge first with
the Galas, and then with the Lebir — the latter born in the wilds of
Taman Negara National Park — before turning decisively northwards
and emptying into the shallow waters of the South China Sea. From
Kuala Krai the conjoined streams become the
Kelantan River, a broad,
mud-coloured stream which dominates the fertile coastal plains and
defines the geography of the region. The
Kelantan River valley is a
fertile rice-bowl, rich in hardwoods and rubber and lush with tropical
Kelantan was all but separated from the rest of the
country by the Titiwangsa Mountains, a mountain range running from
north to south through the peninsula. Weeks of hard travel were
required to reach Kelantan. The "easy way" to
Kelantan was to sail
around the peninsula, braving the sea and pirates. For this reason
Kelantan's history often involves the sea, and boats. Even today, many
of its people are very much tied to the sea. A discussion with many
coastal residents will confirm that their ancestors, as far back as
they know, were "of the sea."
In the early 1980s, trunk roads were built to link it with nearby
states. Presently, one can travel by road from the capital city Kuala
Kota Bharu through the mountain range within 8 hours.
Kelantan has a chiefly agrarian economy dominated by rice, rubber and
Fishing along its 96-kilometre coastline is also an important
Cottage industries which employ traditional skills
in handicraft production such as batik, woodcarving and songket
weaving are also evident. Logging activities are active given the vast
remaining area of forest. In recent years, tourism, especially to
offshore islands, has increased in importance. A few reputable hotels
have been established and more modern shopping malls have been opened
to cater for urban folks.
Kota Bharu, the capital, is the major urban centre, and there are also
plans to open up the southern portion of the state under an ambitious
multimillion-dollar development project. The main market at the city
centre is a top attraction.
Kelantan has a
GDP per capita
GDP per capita in 2006 at RM7,985, which is about a
fraction that of other richer states like
Selangor and Penang.
Kelantan has become the first state to introduce the gold dinar and
silver dirham as official currency.
Kelantan has a tropical climate, with temperatures from 21 to
32 °C and intermittent rain throughout the year. The wet season
is the east-coast monsoon season from November to January.
Politics and government
Kelantan came into force in 1949 and is divided
into two sections:
The first part of the laws
The second part of the laws enforced upon the people
Sultan of Kelantan
Sultan of Kelantan
Sultan of Kelantan is the Constitutional Ruler of his State. The
role, duties and powers of the
Sultan are as laid out in the State's
constitution and other state laws. The
Constitution proclaims that the
executive power of the state is vested in the sultan, that he is the
Head of the Religion of
Islam in the state and that he is the source
of all honours and dignities in the state. The current ruler of the
State is Duli Yang Maha Mulia
Sultan Muhammad Faris Petra Ibni Sultan
State Executive Council
The State Executive Council is established by the constitution. It is
composed of the Menteri Besar, who is its chairman, and ten other
members. The Menteri Besar and other members of the council are
appointed by the
Sultan of Kelantan
Sultan of Kelantan from members of the State
Assembly. The current Menteri Besar is Datuk Ahmad Yakob. He succeeded
the Menteri Besar 22 years ruled, Dato'
Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat
Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat (Tok
Guru), a religious teacher and former Mursyidul Am (spiritual leader)
The flag consists of a white emblem on a red background. The red
background signifies the loyalty of the people of Kelantan. The white
emblem stands for the sanctity of the office of the Ruler.
See also: *Breakdown of State Seats Representatives elected 2013
A part of the deeply conservative Malay heartlands,
Kelantan has been
ruled by the Islamic Party of
Malaysia (PAS) since 1990. It is
currently one of three Malaysian states not ruled by the Barisan
Nasional coalition after the 2013 elections.
Almost all PAS members are Malay Muslims, as are about 95% of
The state of
Kelantan is almost synonymous with PAS, as
been under PAS rule for two lengthy periods. (Neighbouring Terengganu
has also been under PAS rule twice, but for short periods each time
[1959–1962 and 1999–2004].) The first period of PAS rule in
Kelantan began two years after independence, in 1959, and lasted 18
years (1959–1977); the current period is 28 years long and counting
(1990- ). In November 1977, a state of emergency in
declared by the federal government following a political crisis and
street violence. An election took place soon after the emergency which
was won by UMNO.
The interval between the two periods of PAS government, when the
Barisan Nasional coalition ruled the state, was only about 12 years
(11 March 1978 to 21 October 1990). In the 1990 General Election, PAS
returned with an overwhelming victory, winning all the 39 State and 13
Parliamentary seats. The victory was achieved through the PAS-led
Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah
Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah (APU). In the following
General Election in 1995, PAS won again, though with a reduced
majority. PAS won big in 1999, due in significant part to Malay anger
over the treatment of former Deputy Prime Minister
Anwar Ibrahim by
Mahathir Mohammed and other officials of the
national government. However, PAS very nearly lost control of
Kelantan, retaining it with only a 1-seat majority, in 2004, when
Barisan Nasional, under the new leadership of Abdullah Badawi
following Tun Mahathir's retirement, won by a landslide nationally.
However, after the Malaysian general election, 2008, PAS regained the
two-third majority of seats in the state assembly.
For years, PAS has attempted to impose a strict interpretation of
Islamic Law on Kelantan. It has succeeded in imposing certain social
strictures such as single-sex queues in supermarkets; separate public
benches for men and women; and limiting entertainment centres to
prohibit "salacious behaviour". Proposals to institute punishments
such as amputation of limbs for thievery and execution for blasphemy
(collectively known as
Hudud Law), however, have been blocked by the
national government on constitutional grounds.
One of the most controversial steps PAS has taken in
Kelantan is to
place tough restrictions or outright bans on the traditional
performance of syncretic Malay theatrical forms, such as
Mak Yong, Dikir Barat, and Main Puteri. PAS also took action to vanish
any sculpture that looked like human or animal, modified versions
without the traditional references to
Hindu dewa–dewi and
traditional Malay hantu (spirits or ghosts) and otherwise in keeping
Islam are, however, tolerated in certain cases. Also
restricted are public performances by women: Aside from Quran
recitals, such performances are completely banned if any men are in
the audience. While PAS has maintained that these steps were essential
Islam and put an end to immoral behaviour among the Muslim
population, many consider them an act of defiance against Barisan
Nasional's laws — which are more tolerant or laxer, depending on
one's viewpoint — and also a major loss to Malay traditional arts.
On 9 May 1975, an agreement was signed between the
Minister of the time Datuk Mohammad Nasir, and the Chairman of
Petronas, Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah. According to the terms of the
Kelantan was to receive cash payment ('bayaran tunai', the
term 'royalties' was not used in the agreement) of 5 percent a year
biannially, for any oil found in
Kelantan or its coastal areas. In
Petronas to exclusive rights to "petroleum
whether lying onshore or offshore of Malaysia".
As to the issue whether
Kelantan has the right to claim oil royalties
from federal government as enumerated in the Assignment Deed. The
question arises put so much legal complication and it is trans-border
many relevant statues namely Petroleum Development Act 1974, Petroleum
Mining Act 1966 and requires legal interpretation on some provisions
in Federal Constitution. Being the supreme law of the land, any law or
any agreements enacted inconsistent with Federal
Constitution is void.
Malaysia is a federation of 13 states, the division of powers
between two level of governments (central government and state
government) are the most important feature in the federal
constitution. Relevant with the issue, Article 76 gives powers to two
level of governments accordingly set out in Schedule Ninth. In
Schedule 9, List I of the Federal Constitution, the following topics
are assigned to the Federal Government:
Except as to State rights over permits and licences, the Federal
Government has rights over development of mineral resources, mines,
mining, minerals and mineral ores, oils and oilfields, petroleum
products, safety in mines and oilfields
Gas and gasworks, production and distribution of power and energy
Foreign and extraterritorial jurisdiction
Treaties, agreements and conventions with other countries and all
matters which bring the Federation into relations with any other
As for the state government:
Land: Schedule 9 List II, Para 2(a). Under the Interpretation Acts,
1948 and 1967, Section 3, land includes “the surface of the earth
... all substances therein... all vegetations and other natural
products... whether on or below the surface... and land covered by
water”. The territorial waters of
Kelantan will come within the
definition of “land covered by water”. Territorial waters are
defined by Section 4(2) of the Emergency (Essential Powers) Ordinance
No 7, 1969. Subject to some exceptions, they refer to three nautical
Revenue from lands: Schedule 10, Part III Para 2.
In addition to the income from land, one notes that in Article 110[3A]
there is provision for discretionary payment on such terms and
conditions as maybe prescribed by or under federal law of the export
duty on “mineral oils” produced in the state. Petroleum comes
within the meaning of “mineral oils” under Section 10 of the
Petroleum Development Act.
It is clear, from the Schedule, Peninsular
Malaysia states has the
constitutional right to fees for permits and licences for extraction
of any petroleum that is derived from their land and territorial
waters. Anything beyond territorial waters, such as on the continental
shelf, is entirely in federal hands. However, because exploration of
oil and gas is approximately 150 km from
Kota Bharu and beyond
the territorial water of Kelantan. Relying on that, Emeritus Professor
Shad Saleem Faruqi concludes
Kelantan has no constitutional right
to regulate it and to receive compensation for it. He further
argued given the agreement deed to support
Kelantan rights over
royalties will render as unconstitutional and void under the doctrine
of severability (constitutional parts of the law remain even if other
parts are unconstitutional), as the Assignment by
Kelantan gives to
Petronas the ownership of all petroleum "whether lying onshore or
offshore of Malaysia" was an overstatement, and
Kelantan has no rights
to what lies off the shores of the whole of Malaysia. Indeed, it is
the rights of federal government guaranteed by constitution that
extraterritorial operations are in their hands.
States cannot transfer rights over something they do not own. In the
Kelantan and any other Peninsular Malaysian state, the Deed
should have been worded to refer only to onshore petroleum.
Unfortunately for Kelantan, the matter cannot end with the two
agreements. There is a supreme
Malaysia with a
federal-state division of legislative and financial powers. The
constitutional allocation cannot be altered except by constitutionally
permitted procedures and amendments. Even mutual agreements cannot
override the constitutional scheme of things because jurisdiction is a
matter of law and not of consent or acquiescence.
Kelantan state government is owed between RM850 million and RM1
billion from oil revenue royalties from the central government,
according to the Petroleum Act 1974. In 2009, the central government
offered 'compensation' or Wang Ehsan, a fraction of the sum actually
owed. Discrimination of
Kelantan on the matter has led the state
government considering action in the International Court of Justice
(ICJ). Support for
Kelantan and the local government in defiance of
the central government includes the group
Kelantan Peoples' Movement
Demanding Petroleum Royalties or Gerakan Menuntut Royalti Petroleum
The largely rural state preserves rich Malay traditions such as
kite-flying contests, top-spinning contests, and bird singing
competitions, and traditional handicrafts such as batik, songket, and
silver crafts. As a border state and former vassal state of Thailand,
Kelantan has absorbed influences from Thai customs and traditions that
help to make the state's culture distinct from those of other states
of Malaysia. The Kelantanese people, regardless of ethnic origin, are
proud of their state and its unique local culture and dialect.
All the ethnicities generally live together harmoniously in Kelantan.
For example, members of the Thai community received a permit to build
a very large statue of the Buddha without any objection from the Malay
community or the PAS government that granted the permit.
Tengku Muhammad Faiz Petra
Tengku Muhammad Faiz Petra Mosque.
Kelantanese Malay people are the predominant ethnic group in the
state. They speak
Kelantanese Malay which is distinguished from
standard Malay as well as other Malay varieties in
Malaysia by its
unique grammar, pronunciation and figures of speech.
Kelantanese Malay are somewhat partially intelligible with other Malay
variants. Whilst the
Arabic script called Jawi has less influence in
the other parts of Malaysia, it is still widely used in writing and
Malay language in Kelantan. Signboards in
written in both Jawi and Rumi. To a certain extent, Thai is also used.
94% of Kelantan's population are ethnic Malays, and under the
Malaysian Constitution, all Malays are Muslims; therefore,
the most influential religion in the state.
To most Malaysians,
Kelantan is synonymous with Malays arts and
crafts. Kota Bharu, as the state capital, is a popular centre for such
pursuits as silat, martial arts, and kertok drumming. Here, too, more
than any other place in Malaysia, the traditional pastimes of
top-spinning — known as gasing — and the flying of giant,
elaborately decorated kites called wau, are still much in evidence.
Main article: Malaysian Siamese
Reclining Buddha in
The minority ethnic Thai inhabitants of
Kelantan are mostly centred in
an area around the coastal town of Tumpat, site of most of the state's
two hundred or so
Buddhist temples, and noteworthy for its number of
relatively well-off Siamese villages.
The dialect of the
Thai language spoken in
Kelantan is called "Tak
Bai", after the southernmost coastal town
Tak Bai of Narathiwat
Province, just across the Golok River from Malaysia.
Tak Bai dialect
differs substantially from standard southern Thai and other regional
Thai dialects, and it seems certain that the
Kelantan Thais are the
descendants of an original enclave of
Narathiwat settlers established
in sparsely populated Malay territory as long as four centuries ago.
Buddhism is also visible, in that hundreds of Thai wats also known as
'ketik' can be found throughout the state. The longest statue of a
reclining Buddha in
Southeast Asia can be found in
Wat Photivihan, in
The reclining Buddha at
Wat Photivihan in
Kelantan opened in 1980.
This temple is very popular with pilgrims and devotees. The Metta
Chanting is using the original language (Pali), or in Thai
The Thai group will conduct the religious celebration at the
as Tok'katinna, Loy Krathong, Saibat, Songkran, and so forth. One
thousand visitors will attend this function.
In Kelantan, the Kelantanese Chinese see themselves as either Cina
Kampung (village Chinese) or Cina Bandar (town Chinese). Famous
Chinese villages in
Kampung Tok'kong (300-year-old
temple), Batu Jong,
Kampung Mata Ayer,
Kampung Balai, and Gua Musang.
Descendants of the earlier waves of small-scale migration are known as
Orang Cina kita (our very own Chinese) and the elders are seen as
Kelantan betul (true Kelantanese).
Kampung assimilation in
Kelantan is manifested as: "Malay
behaviour as frontstage and Chinese behaviour as backstage".
"Frontstage" or public behaviour includes speaking Kelantanese Malay
even when among themselves, adopting Malay-style clothing, and
observing certain Malay customs and holidays. "Backstage" or private
behaviour includes maintaining certain traditional Chinese beliefs and
customs confined only within the home. A pattern which they also
associate as Peranakan Chinese, nonetheless they are culturally
different in some ways from the Strait-Chinese Peranakan of Malacca,
Singapore or even the Indonesian Peranakans.
Kelantan have native speaker competence in the
Kelantanese dialect. It is impossible to tell a Malay from a Chinese
by listening to his speech in the Kelantanese dialect, without looking
at the person.
Much of Chinese culture still continues until today; such as Lion
Dragon Dance during the Chinese New Year, temple
celebration, eating bakchang (meat dumpling), mooncake, baby fullmoon,
pulut kuning, telur merah, eat 'e' (tangyuan), religious celebration
including praying Na Tuk Kong. They also cook 'bak hong', 'uang
(meatball)' during the wedding ceremony and ' kiam mai' during the
The village of
Kampung Tok'kong in the
Kelantan state of Malaysian is
well known for a historically significant Chinese Temple known as Seng
Choon Keong. 25 km from Kota Bharu, it is located within a paddy
field village with a population of around 500 person. The temple is
approximately 300 years old. It is dedicated to the worship of the
Goddess Matsu. Every year on the equivalent date to 23 March on the
Chinese Calendar, the birthday of Mazu is commemorated with concerts,
lion dance, Carrying god ride 'Kheng kiu', 'siam hee' and also wayang
kulit show for three days. Chinese and Mazu followers visit the temple
to pay homage to Mazu, to offer prayers for health and wealth, as well
as for personal safety and security and eat
Kampung Tokkong most
famous 'Bak hong'.
Unlike the Chinese in other parts of Malaysia, Kelantanese Chinese
prefer to conduct their wedding party at home rather than at a
restaurant. This reflects their mindset that their presence to
celebrate the newly weds is more important than the wedding banquet.
And also make it a gathering ceremony to celebrate the angsu 'red/
happiness'. the more guest mean the house owner is more respectable.
This is further proven by their generosity of the money gifts from the
newly weds. Usually the wedding ceremony begins on Thursday night and
proceeds until the next morning because the weekend holiday is Friday
in Kelantan. For good luck, the groom has to bring home the bride
before 12 noon on the Friday with flowers decorate car.
Most Chinese villagers bury their deceased ones at the local town
cemetery. Others cremate the dead at the nearest Wat. If the deceased
is old, a three-day funeral ceremony and memorial is conducted,
complete with chanting from the monks. But if the deceased is of the
younger generation, they are either buried or cremated as soon as
possible. They also offers prayers for anniversary for the death.
example: for Villager in
Kampung Tok'kong also have cemetery known as
'Chiakka sua' located nearby
Kampung Tok'kong. and one of the biggest
cemetery in kelantan is 'Fu Long Shan' located in nearby kem desa
Orang Asli, mostly Temiar are people who have lived in the forests of
Perak for thousands of years. Some of the Temiar maintain
traditional beliefs in their natural surroundings and other forms of
animist elements. Other
Orang Asli ethnic groups that lives within the
state are Jahais, Bateks and Mendriqs.
In Kelantan, the Indians (Most notably Tamils) are the smallest ethnic
group and most notably settled in
Kota Bharu established themselves as
shop owners and labourers.They made up to 4,800 of the population.
Kelantan - 2010 Census
Chinese Ethnic Religion
Unknown / None
As of 2010 the population of
Kelantan is 95.2% Muslim, 3.8% Buddhist,
0.3% Christian, 0.2% Hindu, 0.5% follower of other religions or
Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 93.2% of the Chinese
population identify as Buddhists, with significant minorities of
adherents identifying as Muslims (3.0%), Christians (2.8%) and Chinese
folk religions (0.6%). The majority of the Indian population identify
as Hindus (76.5%), with a significant minorities of numbers
identifying as Muslims (11.6%), Buddhists (6.7%) and Christians
(3.7%). The non-Malay bumiputera community are predominantly Muslims
(39.8%), with significant minorities identifying as Atheists (30.3%)
and Christians (14.3%). All Malays are considered Muslims according to
The Kelantanese cuisine, heavily influenced by Malay cuisine.
Kelantanese food makes more use of coconut milk than anywhere else in
Curries are richer, and creamier.
Apart from consumable items from local and also imported from
Thailand. There are dishes which have developed through the rich
culture of the Kelantanese themselves, such as:
This is a mix of white rice and brown glutinous rice which is cooked
with coconut milk, blended onions, garlic and some spices (such as
fenugreek) (halba). Fish or chicken curry is usually a complementary
dish, together with a mild brown sugared
Sambal (chili paste).
Nasi Kerabu literally means rice salad.
Kelantan has a variety of Nasi
kerabu. Nasi Kerabu biasa ("normal"), putih ("white"), hitam
("black"), though the actual color is blue after the flower used as
colouring in the recipe and kuning ("yellow"), for the turmeric used
in the cooking process. Each kerabu is usually served with a matching,
traditional sambal. The kerabu (salad) itself can be any combination
of vegetables or edible leaves. It is also served with fried breaded
fish, keropok keping, (see below), salted egg, solok lada (chillies
stuffed with minced fish and grated coconut), and pickled garlic.
Importantly, a sauce called budu must be included for the dish to
Rice packed in a cone-shaped banana leaf. A pack of nasi tumpang
consists of an omelette, meat floss, chicken and/or shrimp curry and
sweet gravy. It is traditionally meant for travellers.
Wood-fire broiled chicken dressed with sweet coconut gravy. Ayam
golek/ayam percik is eaten with white rice in major family dishes and
is served during feasts.
A popular breakfast food for the Kelantanese. Nasi berlauk is rice
served with fish or chicken and vegetables cooked with turmeric and
galangal infused yellow gravy.
Ulam is the local term for raw vegetables - the meal consists of white
rice served with a variety of raw vegetables, and is one of the
healthier dishes found in Malay cuisine.
These are Kelantanese crackers and can be made from fish, prawns or
squid. The way they are made is similar to keropok gote, but after
they are steamed or boiled and thinly sliced and dried for storage or
These are Kelantanese fish sausages of
Terengganu origin. Made by
combining fish flesh and sago or tapioca flour, keropok lekor is
rolled into long firm sticks and then steamed or boiled. To enjoy it,
one has to cut it into desired bite sized and deep fried. It is a
popular schoolchildren's snack food.
Laksa dish, white noodles served with gravy (curry or otherwise)
and vegetables, is made differently in every states in Malaysia. The
Kelantan is richer and has a more full-bodied flavour. The
main ingredient is fish flesh. Laksam is another version, with a
Laksa or Laksam is served with Ulam similar to that in
nasi kerabu, with a pinch of salt and belacan, a fermented shrimp
Contrary to popular belief, Colek is not just a dipping sauce, but can
also refer to a snack eaten with the sauce. Colek comes in various
forms, including meaty cholek, colek ayam (chicken), colek perut (cow
tripe), colek pelepong (cow or lamb lung; usually fried plain), and
also a variety of colek buah(fruits; usually unmatured, thus crunchy
and taste sour) such as colek pauh (mango).
The sauce or "the colek" comes in various forms. • Colek manis (with
brown sugar). • A sweet, sour and very mildly hot version. This
colek is different from other chili sauces because colek is very thin
and rather sweet. This dipping sauce is used for chicken, and also
goes well with shrimp, fish cake, spring roll, sausage, etc.
Budu is a salted (fermented) anchovy sauce eaten mainly as flavouring
with rice, grilled fish and vegetables/salads (ulam). A bit of lime
juice, hot chilis and shallots are added on for taste. Also, tempoyak
(fermented durian) or fresh durian is added for good measure. Once so
combined, the purple-brownish condiment has a blend of salty and sour
taste. Sometimes, Budu is used in cookings as part of the ingredient.
Nowadays, other types of fish are also used to create Budu. Famous
Budu maker villages are Kg. Tawang,
Bachok and Kg. Penambang near Kota
Bharu. Similar sauces are found in the
Philippines and Indochina
Somtam is a green papaya salad with a salty, spicy, and sour taste.
The main items in it are young, unripe papaya, soy sauce, groundnuts,
fish sauce, lime juice, and chilies. These items are combined in a
mortar, pounded with a pestle for few seconds and served. The salty
and lime juicy taste is very popular. This light dish is widely
available in regions with large numbers of ethnic Thais, such as
Tumpat and Siamese wats.
Kelantan is known as the cradle of Malay culture based on the diverse
cultural activities practised by Kelantanese. Among the popular
cultural practices are Dikir Barat,
Wayang Kulit Kelantan, Wayang
Kulit Melayu, Mak Yong, Menora, Main Puteri,
Wau Bulan (kite-flying),
Gasing (top-spinning), Silat, Tomoi, bird-singing competition and
Among the handicraft products that are songket, batik, silverware and
mengkuang. The Kandis Resource Centre provides information on the
Kelantanese wood carving.
Kelantan are called Jajahans, though actually the direct
translation of Tanah Jajahan in Malay to English is 'Occupied
Kelantan was a divided feudal state, a common situation
in the Malay Peninsula, with separate petty local rulers. However, a
strong one managed to rise and conquer all these small petty
territories. In the end,
Kelantan became united under one Sultan.
The eleven jajahans, from left to right, are written in Rumi and
Kota Bharu (كوتا بهارو)
Jajahan Pasir Mas (ڤاسير مس)
Jajahan Tumpat (تومڤت)
Jajahan Pasir Puteh (ڤاسير ڤوتيه)
Jajahan Kuala Krai (كوالا كراي)
Jajahan Machang (ماچڠ)
Jajahan Tanah Merah (تانه ميره)
Jajahan Jeli (جيلي)
Gua Musang (ڬوا موسڠ)
Lojing (لوجيڠ) - autonomous sub-district under Gua
Ranking Population Kelantan.
Kelantan had a strong relationship with the Pattani
Kelantan are geopolitically divided but
culturally united. Kelantanese and Southern Thais cross the border
frequently to visit their relatives and transport goods for small
Main article: List of tourist attractions in Kelantan
Among the popular tourist destinations in
Siti Khadijah Market
Siti Khadijah Market – Named after Prophet Muhammad's
entrepreneurial wife, it's a fitting name for a market mostly run by
Gunung Stong State Park – Home to one of the highest waterfalls in
Malaysia, the seven-tiered Jelawang Waterfall
Pantai Bisikan Bayu (Beach of Whispering Breeze) – also known as
Pantai Dalam Rhu, the gentle breeze at the beach produces a hushed
sound that, locals say, sounds like a soothing whisper
Handicraft Village and Craft Museum – Also known as "Balai Getam
Guri", it houses many fine examples of Kelantanese craftsmanship such
as traditional embroidery, songket weaving, batik printing, silver
work and wood carving
Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat
Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat (1931-2015), former Chief Minister of Kelantan
(1990-2013) and spiritual leader of Islamic political party PAS.
Misha Omar, singer and actress.
Neelofa, actress, TV presenter, model.
Khairul Fahmi Che Mat, professional football player.
Fatin Zakirah Zain Jalany, Malaysian rhythmic gymnast.
Ibrahim Ali, the founder and president of Perkasa.
Loh Sea Keong, road racing cyclist.
P. Uthayakumar, legal advisor of HINDRAF.
Tok Janggut (1853–1915), the famous Malay warrior in
Wee Choo Keong, former Member of Parliament for Wangsa Maju.
Zang Toi, fashion designer.
Ng Yen Yen, politician.
Kelantan Royal Mausoleum
^ "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia.
p. 27. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 24
^ "Population by States and Ethnic Group". Department of Information,
Ministry of Communications and Multimedia, Malaysia. 2015. Archived
from the original on 12 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February
^ a b Columnists - Opinion The Star Online. Thestar.com.my.
Retrieved on 27 September 2013.
^ Teo, Kok Seong, 2003. The
Peranakan Chinese of Kelantan. England:
Asian Academic Press.
^ a b "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia" (PDF).
Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Archived from the original (PDF)
on 22 May 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2012. p. 13
^ "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia" (PDF) (in Malay and
English). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. p. 85. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 17 June
^  Malaysian Tourism official website
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16
January 2013. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
^ "Siti Khadijah Market". Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved 21 May
^ "Gunung Stong State Park". Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved 21 May
^ "Pantai Bisikan Bayu (Beach of Whispering Breeze)". Tourism
Malaysia. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
Handicraft Village and Craft Museum". Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved
21 May 2014.
Khadizan bin Abdullah, & Abdul Razak Yaacob. (1974). Pasir Lenggi,
a Bateq Negrito resettlement area in Ulu Kelantan. Pulau Pinang:
Social Anthropology Section, School of Comparative Social Sciences,
Universití Sains Malaysia.
Warisan Kelantan. Perbadanan Muzium Negeri Kelantan. 1985.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kelantan.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Kelantan.
Official site of
Kelantan State Government
Kelantan Online - E-Commerce & Info Tourism Portal
Malaysian General Election 2008 candidates for Kelantan
Malaysia Parliamentary Seats (Dewan Rakyat) from Kelantan
Kelantan State Assembly Seats (Dewan Undangan Negeri)
Launches Saryah Currency)
Kb City - Peta Lengkap Bandar Kota Bharu
Malaysia – Kelantan
Places adjacent to Kelantan
South China Sea
State of Kelantan
Capital: Kota Bharu
Coats of arms
Gua Musang District
Lojing Autonomous Sub-District
Kota Bharu District
Kuala Krai District
Pasir Mas District
Pasir Puteh District
Tanah Merah District
Wakaf Che Yeh
Bandar Utama Gua Musang
Bandar Baru Tunjong
Bandar Pasir Puteh Sentral
Bandar Saujana Harmoni
Islam Pasir Tumboh
Bandar Tasek Raja
States and federal territories of Malaysia