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Ekaterina Gabrielis asuli Jughashvili[1][2] (née Geladze;[3] 5 February 1858 – 4 June 1937) was the mother of Joseph Stalin. Those close to her called her "Keke". Her husband and Stalin's father was Besarion Jughashvili.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Marriage and motherhood 3 Later life 4 References 5 Bibliography

Early life Keke was born to a family of Georgian Orthodox
Georgian Orthodox
Christian serfs in Gambareuli near Gori in 1858. Her father, Giorgi (aka Glakha or Gabriel)[4][5] Geladze, was a potter belonging to Prince Amilakhvari. He died young and the family was always poor, but somehow her mother Melania[6] (née Homezurashvili)[citation needed] ensured that Keke learned to read and write. Marriage and motherhood At 17, Keke met and married Besarion Jughashvili. Her first two children died shortly after birth—Mikhail in 1876 and Georgy the following year from measles. Her third son (and last child), Joseph, was born on December 18, 1878 and survived. Nicknamed "Soso", Joseph grew up in a violent home: his father ("Beso") was incessantly drunk and beat his mother and him frequently. Once Joseph was beaten so hard there was blood in his urine for just over a week.[7] When Stalin's father beat Keke, Keke occasionally fought back. Once, a blood soaked Joseph ran to the Gori police chief Davrichewy crying: "Help! Come quickly! He's killing my mother!" Joseph even threw a knife at his father while defending his mother. Before Joseph was 10, Beso left the family home (some sources say he was thrown out by his wife). To support herself and her son, Keke took on any menial job available; mainly housework, sewing and laundering.[8] They had nine homes in the next decade. She returned once when Beso promised to improve, but she soon left to live with Father Charkviani. Keke often worked in the houses of rich Jewish
Jewish
traders in Gori, and sometimes took her son along. She did housework for Davrichewy, laundered for Egnatashvili (the best man at her wedding), with whom she may have had an affair. Beso would smash his tavern windows when he heard. She eventually settled in a couture shop where she worked for 17 years.[9] Joseph was said to have been a smart child and he entertained some of the householders, including David Pismamedov who encouraged the young Stalin
Stalin
to study, and gave him money and books to read. Charkviani's sons taught Joseph Russian. His mother's ambition was for Joseph to become a bishop and she somehow accumulated enough money for his education, perhaps with Pismamedov's help. In 1888 she was able to enroll Soso into the Gori Church School and, later, with his mother's encouragement, he obtained a scholarship to the Tiflis
Tiflis
Theological Seminary, a Georgian Orthodox institution which he attended from the age of sixteen. She had made sure he was the best dressed of the boys on his first school day despite being the poorest. In 1890 Joseph's father kidnapped him after a serious street accident and made him work in the Adelkhanov shoe factory. His horrified mother fought desperately to send him back to school, appealing to all her friends and even the Exarch
Exarch
of the Georgian Church. Keke now laundered for the chairman of the school board at a salary of 10 roubles a month. Keke was so angry with Joseph when he was expelled from the seminary that he hid outside Gori for a while; friends brought him food.[10] Later life Later in life, when Stalin
Stalin
achieved prominence in the communist regime in the 1920s, his mother was installed in a palace in the Caucasus, formerly used by the tsar's viceroy. There she is said to have occupied only one tiny room from where she wrote frequent letters (in Georgian – she never managed to learn good Russian) to her son and daughter-in-law. Stalin
Stalin
visited his mother very rarely after the Revolution. Beria took responsibility for her care.[11] Stalin
Stalin
wrote letters to Keke occasionally. These letters were affectionate and upbeat, but short; it took him an excessively long time to write them because it had become difficult for him to write in Georgian (the only language his mother understood).[12] N. Kipshidze, a doctor who treated Keke in her old age, recalled that when Stalin
Stalin
visited his mother in October 1935, he asked her: "Why did you beat me so hard?" "That's why you turned out so well", Keke answered. In return, his mother asked him: "Joseph – who exactly are you now?" "Do you remember the tsar? Well, I'm like a tsar", replied Stalin. "You'd have done better to have become a priest" was his mother's retort.[13] Keke died of pneumonia on June 4, 1937. Although her death was reported in Georgia, Stalin
Stalin
ordered that the news not be reported across the rest of the Soviet Union. Stalin
Stalin
did not attend the funeral, held on June 8; the Great Purge
Great Purge
had reached a frenzied intensity, and Stalin
Stalin
was apparently preoccupied by the purge of the Red Army leadership at the time. He sent a wreath, on which he referred to himself by his original name, Joseph Dzhugashvili. Despite Keke's devout religious beliefs, she was given a secular funeral fit for a leading Bolshevik, with Beria as one of her pallbearers.[12] In later years, Stalin's daughter, Svetlana Alliluyeva, remarked that Stalin
Stalin
was never afraid of anyone, except his mother. Keke was a distant figure to the young Svetlana, as she chose to remain in Georgia; she died while Svetlana was still a child, and Svetlana apparently visited her on only one occasion.[14] References

^ Georgian: ეკატერინა გაბრიელის ასული ჯუღაშვილი The birth register entry for her son, Ioseb, notes her name as "Ekaterina, daughter of Gabriel". Like most Georgian women, she adopted the surname of her husband when she married. ^ Donald Rayfield (2007). Stalin
Stalin
and his Hangmen. Random House Publishing Group. ISBN 9780307431837.  ^ Georgian: გელაძე Service (2004), Montefiore (2008) ^ Keke Jughashvili (2012). My Dear Son: The Memoirs of Stalin's Mother. Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia.  ^ Ekaterina's middle name was "Gabrielis asuli" which means "daughter of Gabriel". ^ Montefiore 2007, p. 22 ^ Montefiore 2007, p. 23 ^ Washington Post.com ^ Montefiore 2007, p. 26 ^ Montefiore 2007, p. 63 ^ Montefiore. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. 2003 ^ a b Zhores and Roy Medvedev, The Unknown Stalin
Stalin
(2003), pages 300–305. ^ Radzinsky 1997, p. 32 ^ Rosemary Sullivan, Stalin's Daughter: The Extraordinary and Tumultuous Life of Svetlana Alliluyeva
Svetlana Alliluyeva
(2015).

Bibliography

Montefiore, Simon Sebag (2007), Young Stalin, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 978-0-297-85068-7  Radzinsky, Edvard (1997), Stalin: The First In-depth Biography Based on Explosive New Documents from Russia's Secret Archives, Anchor, ISBN 978-0-385-47954-7 

v t e

Joseph Stalin

History and politics

Overviews

Early life Russian Revolution, Russian Civil War, Polish-Soviet War Rise Rule as Soviet leader Cult of personality

Chronology

August Uprising Anti-religious campaign (1921–1928)/(1928–1941) Collectivization

Kolkhoz Sovkhoz

Chinese Civil War First five-year plan Sino-Soviet conflict (1929) 16th / 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) 1931 Menshevik Trial Spanish Civil War Soviet invasion of Xinjiang Soviet–Japanese border conflicts 1937 Islamic rebellion in Xinjiang 1937 Soviet Union
Soviet Union
legislative election 18th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact Invasion of Poland Winter War Moscow Peace Treaty Occupation of the Baltic states German–Soviet Axis talks Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact Continuation War World War II Soviet atomic bomb project Tehran Conference Yalta Conference Potsdam Conference Ili Rebellion Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance 1946 Iran crisis 1946 Soviet Union
Soviet Union
legislative election Turkish Straits crisis First Indochina War Cold War Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance Eastern Bloc Cominform Greek Civil War 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito– Stalin
Stalin
split Berlin Blockade Comecon 1950 Soviet Union
Soviet Union
legislative election 19th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Korean War

Concepts

Stalinism Neo-Stalinism Korenizatsiya Socialism in One Country Great Break Socialist realism Stalinist architecture Aggravation of class struggle under socialism Five-year plans Great Construction Projects of Communism Engineers of the human soul 1936 Soviet Constitution New Soviet man Stakhanovite Transformation of nature

Controversies

National delimitation in the Soviet Union Demolition of Cathedral of Christ the Saviour Great Purge Holodomor Gulag Decossackization Dekulakization Population transfer (Nazi–Soviet) Forced settlement Great Break Tax on trees Hitler Youth Conspiracy Hotel Lux Wittorf affair Soviet war crimes Rootless cosmopolitan Night of the Murdered Poets Doctors' plot Moscow Trials Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization Allegations of antisemitism NKVD prisoner massacres Murder of Sergey Kirov Katyń massacre Medvedev Forest massacre 1937 Soviet Census Deportations (Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina Koreans) Operation "North" Georgian Affair Mingrelian Affair Leningrad Affair Relationship with Shostakovich Lysenkoism Japhetic theory Suppressed research in the Soviet Union Censorship of images Operation "Lentil" in the Caucasus Operation "Priboi" Vinnytsia massacre Kurapaty 1946–1947 Soviet famine Nazino affair 1941 Red Army purge 1906 Bolshevik raid on the Tsarevich Giorgi 1907 Tiflis
Tiflis
bank robbery Soviet offensive plans controversy

Works

"Marxism and the National Question" "The Principles of Leninism" "Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia" "Ten Blows" speech Alleged 19 August 1939 speech Falsifiers of History Stalin
Stalin
Note The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Bolsheviks) 1936 Soviet Constitution Stalin's poetry Dialectical and Historical Materialism Order No. 227 Order No. 270 "Marxism and Problems of Linguistics"

De-Stalinization

20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Pospelov Commission Rehabilitation Khrushchev Thaw On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences Gomulka thaw (Polish October) Soviet Nonconformist Art Shvernik Commission 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Era of Stagnation

Criticism and opposition

Stalin
Stalin
Epigram Lenin's Testament Ryutin Affair Anti-Stalinist left Trotskyism True Communists Russian Liberation Movement (Russian Liberation Army Russian Corps) Ukrainian Liberation Army Darkness at Noon Animal Farm Nineteen Eighty-Four Comparison of Nazism and Stalinism The Soviet Story

Remembrance

How the Steel Was Tempered Friends of the Soviet Union Iosif Stalin
Stalin
tank Iosif Stalin
Stalin
locomotive Generalissimus of the Soviet Union Stalin
Stalin
statues Pantheon, Moscow 1956 Georgian demonstrations Stalin
Stalin
Monument in Budapest Stalin
Stalin
Monument in Prague Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
Museum, Gori Batumi Stalin
Stalin
Museum Places named after Stalin Yanks for Stalin Stalin
Stalin
Prize Stalin
Stalin
Peace Prize Stalin
Stalin
Society Stalin
Stalin
Bloc – For the USSR Name of Russia

Family

Besarion Jughashvili
Besarion Jughashvili
(father) Keke Geladze
Keke Geladze
(mother) Kato Svanidze
Kato Svanidze
(first wife) Yakov Dzhugashvili
Yakov Dzhugashvili
(son) Konstantin Kuzakov (son) Artyom Sergeyev (adopted son) Nadezhda Alliluyeva (second wife) Vasily Dzhugashvili
Vasily Dzhugashvili
(son) Svetlana Alliluyeva
Svetlana Alliluyeva
(daughter) Yevgeny Dzhugashvili (grandson) Galina Dzhugashvili (granddaughter) Joseph Alliluyev (grandson) Sergei Alliluyev (second father-in-law) Alexander Svanidze
Alexander Svanidze
(brother-in-law) Yuri Zhdanov (son-in-law) William Wesley Peters (son-in-law)

Friends

Ioseb Iremashvili Kamo (Bolshevik) Kliment Voroshilov Vyacheslav Molotov Lazar Kaganovich Grigory Ordzhonikidze Anastas Mikoyan

Residences

Tiflis
Tiflis
Spiritual Seminary Kuntsevo Dacha Mayakovskaya (Moscow Metro) Sochi Dacha Blizhnyaya Dacha

Category Commons Brezhnev Era template Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal Communism portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 75896505 LCCN: no950049

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