HOME
The Info List - Kejawen


--- Advertisement ---



Java Javanese culture Javanese people Sundanese people Religion
Religion
in Indonesia

Early religiosity

Sunda Wiwitan Hyang Dewi Sri

Hinduism

Hinduism
Hinduism
in Java

Buddhism

Buddhism
Buddhism
in Indonesia Sanghyang Adi Buddha Ashin Jinarakkhita

Islam

Spread of Islam
Islam
in Indonesia Santri Abangan Wali Sanga Kyai Muhammadiyah

Kebatinan

Kebatinan Subud Aliran kepercayaan

Christianity

Christianity
Christianity
in Indonesia Divine Word Missionaries Ganjuran Church

v t e

Part of a series on

Anthropology of religion

Basic concepts

Afterlife Animism Bora Communitas Comparative religion Divination Divine language Evolutionary origin of religions Fetishism Great Spirit Henotheism Initiation Liminality Magic Mana Monotheism Polytheism Transtheism Revitalization movement Rite of passage Ritual Sacred language Sacred–profane dichotomy Shamanism Theories about religions Totem Veneration of the dead

Case studies

Magic

Coral Gardens and Their Magic Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants Neo-Paganism Dukun Kebatinan

Ritual

Slametan

Revitalization movement

Cargo cult Ghost dance Handsome Lake

Related articles

The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life Purity and Danger Myth and ritual Archaeology of religion and ritual Poles in mythology

Major theorists

Augustin Calmet Akbar S. Ahmed Talal Asad Joseph Campbell Mary Douglas Émile Durkheim Arnold van Gennep E. E. Evans-Pritchard James Frazer Clifford Geertz Robin Horton Claude Lévi-Strauss Robert Marett Roy Rappaport Saba Mahmood Marshall Sahlins Melford Spiro Stanley Tambiah Victor Turner Edward Burnett Tylor Daniel Martin Varisco Anthony F. C. Wallace

Journals

Anthropological Perspectives on Religion Folklore The Hibbert Journal The Journal of Religion Oceania

Religions

Buddhism

Mahayana Nichiren Pure Land Shingon Theravada Tiantai Tibetan Vajrayana Zen

Christianity

Adventism Anglicanism Armenian Apostolic Church Baptists Calvinism Catholic Church Coptic Eastern Orthodox Coptic Orthodox Lutheranism Methodism Pentecostalism Protestantism Quakers Russian Orthodox

Hinduism

Hindu
Hindu
denominations Shaivism Vaishnavism Shaktism

Islam

Ahmadiyya Ibadi Mahdavia Non-denominational Quranists Shia Sufism Sunni Yazdânism

Jainism

Judaism

Social and cultural anthropology

v t e

Symbols of Javanism: The Sky is my Father, and The Earth is my Mother

A Wayang
Wayang
puppet representing Semar

Kejawèn
Kejawèn
or Javanism, also called Kebatinan, Agama Jawa, and Kepercayaan is a Javanese religious tradition, consisting of an amalgam of animistic, Buddhist, Hindu
Hindu
and Islamic, especially Sufi, beliefs and practices. It is rooted in the Javanese history and religiosity, syncretizing aspects of different religions.

Contents

1 Definitions 2 History

2.1 Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism 2.2 Islam 2.3 Christianity

3 Islam
Islam
and kebatinan 4 Characteristics

4.1 Aim 4.2 Beliefs 4.3 Membership 4.4 Official recognition

5 Practices

5.1 Meditation 5.2 Fasting 5.3 Animistic worship 5.4 Other practices

6 Historical texts 7 Kebatinan
Kebatinan
organisations

7.1 Subud 7.2 Sumarah 7.3 Pangestu 7.4 Sapta Dharma 7.5 Majapahit
Majapahit
Pancasila

8 Spread of kebatinan

8.1 Malaysia 8.2 Netherlands 8.3 Singapore 8.4 Suriname

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Sources

12.1 Published sources 12.2 Web-sources

13 Further reading 14 External links

Definitions[edit] The term kebatinan is being used interchangeably with kejawen,[1] Agama Jawa[2] and Kepercayaan,[3][4] although they are not exactly the same:

Kebatinan: "the science of the inner",[1] "inwardness",[4] derived from the Arabic word batin, meaning "inner" or "hidden".[5] Kejawen: "Javanism",[1][6] the culture and religious beliefs and practices of the Javanese people
Javanese people
of Central Java
Java
and East Java.[7][6] It is "not a religious category, but refers to an ethic and a style of life that is inspired by Javanist thinking".[8] Agama Jawa: "the Javanese religion"[2] Kepercayaan: "belief",[3] "faith",[4] full term: Kepercayaan kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa,[web 1] "Believer in One Mighty God".[9] "Kepercayaan" is an official cover term for various forms of mysticism in Indonesia. According to Caldarola, it "is not an apt characterization of what the mystical groups have in common".[4] It includes kebatinan, kejiwan and kerohanian.[4]

Kebatinan
Kebatinan
is the inner-directed cultivation of inner peace, rooted in pre- Islamic
Islamic
traditions,[10] whereas kejawen is outer-directed and community-oriented, manifesting in rituals and practices.[10] History[edit] Main articles: Java, Javanese culture, and Religion
Religion
in Indonesia

A Wayang
Wayang
puppet representing Garuda

Java
Java
has been a melting pot of religions and cultures, which has created a broad range of religious belief, including animism, spirit cults, and cosmology. Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism[edit] Main articles: Hinduism
Hinduism
in Indonesia
Indonesia
and Buddhism
Buddhism
in Indonesia Indian influences came first with Hinduism, which reached the Indonesian Archipelago as early as first century.[11] In the 4th century, the kingdom of Kutai
Kutai
in East Kalimantan, Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
in West Java, and Holing (Kalingga) in Central Java, were among the early Hindu
Hindu
states established in the region. Several notable ancient Indonesian Hindu
Hindu
kingdoms are Mataram, famous for the construction of the majestic Prambanan
Prambanan
temple, followed by Kediri and Singhasari. Since then Hinduism
Hinduism
along with Buddhism
Buddhism
spread across the archipelago and reached the peak of its influence in the 14th century. The last and largest among Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
Javanese empires, Majapahit, influenced the Indonesian archipelago.[citation needed] Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
penetrated deeply into society, blending with the indigenous tradition and culture.[12] One conduit for this were the ascetics, called resi, who taught mystical practices. A resi lived surrounded by students, who took care of their master's daily needs. Resi's authorities were merely ceremonial. At the courts, Brahmin clerics and pudjangga (sacred literati) legitimized rulers and linked Hindu
Hindu
cosmology to their political needs.[12] Small Hindu
Hindu
enclaves are scattered throughout Java, but there is a large Hindu
Hindu
population along the eastern coast nearest Bali, especially around the town of Banyuwangi. Islam[edit] Main article: Islam
Islam
in Indonesia Java
Java
adopted[13][note 1] Islam
Islam
around 1500 CE.[13] Islam
Islam
was first accepted by the elites, which contributed to the further spread and acceptance. Sufi
Sufi
and other versions of Folk Islam
Islam
were most easily integrated in the folk religion of Java.[13] The learned versions of Sufi
Sufi
Islam
Islam
and shari`a-oriented Islam
Islam
were integrated at the courts with rituals and myths of the existing Hindu-Buddhist civilisation.[13] Clifford Geertz
Clifford Geertz
described this as abangan and priyayi, "the lower class and elite varieties of Javanese syncretism".[13] The Kyai, the Muslim scholar of the writ became the new religious elite as Hindu
Hindu
influences receded. Islam
Islam
recognises no hierarchy of religious leaders nor a formal priesthood, but the Dutch colonial government established an elaborate rank order for mosque and other Islamic
Islamic
preaching schools. In Javanese pesantren ( Islamic
Islamic
schools), The Kyai
Kyai
perpetuated the tradition of the resi. Students around him provided his needs, even peasants around the school.[12] Christianity[edit] Main article: Christianity
Christianity
in Indonesia Christianity
Christianity
was brought to Java
Java
by Portuguese traders and missionaries, from the Dutch Reformed Church, and in the 20th century also by Roman Catholics, such as the Jesuits
Jesuits
and the Divine Word Missionaries. Nowadays there are Christian
Christian
communities, mostly Reformed in the larger cities, though some rural areas of south-central Java
Java
are strongly Roman Catholic. Roman Catholics and other Christian
Christian
groups have been persecuted for their beliefs such as a ban on Christmas services or decorations.[14] Islam
Islam
and kebatinan[edit] Nowadays more than 90 percent of the people of Java
Java
are Muslims, on a broad continuum between abangan and santri.[citation needed] Although Java
Java
is nominally Islamitic, kejawen, the syncretic Javanese culture, is a strong undercurrent.[15] Pre- Islamic
Islamic
Javan traditions have encouraged Islam
Islam
in a mystical direction.[citation needed] Some Javanese texts relate stories about Syekh Siti Jenar (also known as Syekh Lemah Abang) who had conflicts with Wali Sanga, the nine Islamic
Islamic
scholars in Java, and the Sultanate of Demak.[16][17] Although Syekh Siti Jenar was a sufi whose teaching were similar with Al-Hallaj,[citation needed] most of his followers (Ki Kebo Kenanga) come from Kebatinan.[citation needed] Some historians have doubted the existence of Syekh Siti Jenar, suggesting the stories represent conflicts between Kebatinan
Kebatinan
and Islam
Islam
in the past.[citation needed] With the Islamisation of Java
Java
there emerged a loosely structured society of religious leadership, revolving around kyais, Islamic experts possessing various degrees of proficiency in pre- Islamic
Islamic
and Islamic
Islamic
lore, belief and practice.[12] The kyais are the principal intermediaries between the villages masses and the realm of the supernatural. However, this very looseneess of kyai leadership structure has promoted schism. There were often sharp divisions between orthodox kyais, who merely instructed in Islamic
Islamic
law, with those who taught mysticism and those who sought reformed Islam
Islam
with modern scientific concepts. As a result, the Javanese recognize two broad streams of religious commitment:[18][note 2]

Santri
Santri
or putihan ("pure ones"), those who pray, performing the five obligatory daily ritual prayers.[18] They are more orthodox in their Islamic
Islamic
belief and practice,[12] and oppose the abangan, who they consider to be heterodox.[21] Abangan, "the red ones", who do not strictly observe the Islamic rituals.[18] They have mixed pre- Islamic
Islamic
animistic and Hindu-Indian concepts with a superficial acceptance of Islamic
Islamic
belief,[12] and emphasize the importance of the purity of the inner person, the batin.[18]

This distinction between "the High Islam
Islam
or scripturalist, shari`a-oriented Islam
Islam
of the `ulama"[13] and "living local Islam"[13] or "Folk Islam"[13] or "popular Islam"[13] is not restricted to Java, but can be found in other Islamic
Islamic
countries as well.[13] Ernest Gellner
Ernest Gellner
has developed an influential model of Muslim society, in which this dichotomy is central:[13]

He sees a dialectical relationship between the two, with periods of scripturalist dominance followed by relapses into emotional, mystical, magical folk Islam. Modernity — especially urbanisation and mass literacy — unsettles the balance between the two, by eroding the social bases of folk Islam. An irreversible shift to scripturalist Islam
Islam
occurs, which is in Gellner’s view the equivalent of secularisation in the West.[13]

Bruinessen finds this too limited, and distinguishes three overlapping spheres:[13]

Shari`a-oriented Islam, Sufism
Sufism
(mystical Islam, which has its learned and popular variants), The periphery of local rituals, local shrines, local spirit cults and heterodox beliefs and practices in general.[note 3]

Javanese syncretistic religiousness has a strong popular base, outnumbering the santri and the support for Islamic
Islamic
political parties.[22][web 2] Choy relates this to a Javanese apparent openness to new religions, but filtering out only those elements which fit into the Javanese culture.[23] Choy mentions several reasons for this nominal Islamic
Islamic
identity:[24]

The Islamic
Islamic
scholars in Java
Java
have been trained in curricula which were geared for social conditions of two or three centuries ago, lacking the ability to impart the spirit and sense of Islam;[23] The inability to summarise the principles of Islam
Islam
in understandable basic points which can be applied to daily life;[24] Kebatinan
Kebatinan
can be learned and understood without the need to learn Arabic.[25]

In the early 20th century, several groups became formalised, developing systemetised teachings and rituals, thus offering a 'high' form of abangan religiosity, as an alternative to the 'high' Islam.[26] Bruinessen opines that the kebatinan-movements is a deliberate rejection of scriptural Islam,[27] which arose out of "folk Islam".[13] Characteristics[edit]

A Javanese man meditating under Banyan
Banyan
tree. Dutch East Indies, before 1940.

Aim[edit] See also: Batin (Islam) Kebatinan
Kebatinan
is derived from the Arabic word batin, meaning "inner" or "hidden",[5] or "inner self".[28] It is a metaphysical search for harmony within one's inner self, connection with the universe, and with an Almighty God.[28] Kebatinan
Kebatinan
believe in a "super-consciousness" which can be contacted through meditation.[25] Beliefs[edit] Kebatinan
Kebatinan
is a combination of metaphysics, mysticism and other esoteric doctrines[28] from Animistic, Hinduistic, Buddhist
Buddhist
and Islamic
Islamic
origins.[citation needed] Although the Javanese culture
Javanese culture
is tolerant, and open to new religions, only those qualities are accepted and filtered which fit into the Javanese culture, character and personality.[23] Javanese ideals combine human wisdom (wicaksana), psyche (waskita) and perfection (sempurna). The follower must control his/her passions, eschewing earthly riches and comforts, so that he/she may one day reach enlightened harmony and union with the spirit of the universe. According to Choy, the Kebatinan
Kebatinan
have no certain prophet,[29] sacred book,[29] nor distinct religious festivals and rituals. Nevertheless, various kebatinan-movements have their own foundational writings and founders.[30][31] A kebatinan practitioner can identify with one of the six officially recognized religions, while still subscribe to the kebatinan belief and way of life. Membership[edit] Although kebatinan is a predominantly Javanese tradition, it has also attracted practitioners from other ethnic and religious groups, such as Chinese and Buddhists,[32] and foreigners from Australia and Europe.[9] President Suharto
Suharto
counted himself as one of its adherents.[citation needed] Their total membership is difficult to estimate as many of their adherents identify themselves with one of the official religions.[33] Official recognition[edit] The Indonesian state ideology strives toward a unified nation, recognizing only monotheism. Meanwhile, there is also a tolerance for non-recognized religions.[15] A broad plurality of religions and sects exist. In the middle of 1956, the Department of Religious Affairs in Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
reported 63 religious sects in Java
Java
other than the official Indonesian religions. Of these, 22 were in West Java, 35 were in Central Java, and 6 in East Java.[12] These include also kebatinan-groups, such as Sumarah. This loosely organized current of thought and practice was legitimized in the 1945 constitution,[citation needed] but failed to attain official recognition as a religion.[9] In 1973 it was recognized as Kepercayaan kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa (Indonesian: Belief
Belief
in One Mighty God[9]), but withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Religion
Religion
and placed under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education and Culture.[9] Practices[edit] See also: Tapas (Sanskrit) A variety of practices is being used in kebatinan to acquire ilmu[34][note 4], namely tiraka[35][34][36][note 5] and tapa[35] or tapabrata.[36][note 6] Many Kebatinan
Kebatinan
followers practice in their own way to seek spiritual and emotional relief. These practices are not performed in churches or mosques, but at home or in caves or on mountain perches. Meditation
Meditation
in Javanese culture
Javanese culture
is a search for inner self wisdom and to gain physical strength. This tradition is passed down from generation to generation.[citation needed] Meditation[edit] There are several tapa:

tapa Ngalong (meditation by hanging from a tree) tapa Kungkum ( Meditation
Meditation
under small waterfall or meeting point of 2-3 rivers / Tempuran / Tjampuhan)

Fasting[edit] Fasting is a common practice employed by Javanese spiritualists in order to attain discipline of mind and body to get rid of material and emotional desires:

pasa Mutih (abstention from eating anything that is salted and sweetened, only eat/drink pure water & rice), pasa Senen-Kemis (fasting on Monday-Thursday) pasa Ngebleng (fasting for a longer period, usually 3-5-7 days)

Animistic worship[edit] Kebatinan
Kebatinan
often implies animistic worship, because it encourages sacrifices and devotions to local and ancestral spirits. These spirits are believed to inhabit natural objects, human beings, artifacts, and grave sites of important wali (Muslim saints). Illness and other misfortunes are traced to such spirits, and if sacrifices or pilgrimages fail to placate angry deities, the advice of a dukun or healer is sought. Other practices[edit] Other practices include:

tapa Pati-Geni (avoiding fire or light for a day or days and isolating oneself in dark rooms), tapa Ngadam (stand/walk on foot from sunset till sunset, 24 hours in Silence) The rituals carried out on Mount Kemukus (also known as Sex Mountain) have also been linked to Kejawen.[37]

Historical texts[edit] Kebatinan
Kebatinan
and kejawen practices are extensively written about in texts that are held in the Sanabudaya library
Sanabudaya library
in Yogyakarta, and the main Kraton Libraries of Solo and Yogyakarta.[citation needed] Many of the texts are deliberately elliptical so that those who do not work with either initiates or teachers are unable to ascertain or understand the esoteric doctrines and practices.[citation needed] In quite a few cases codified texts with secret systems to "unlock" the meanings are employed.[citation needed] But according to Bruinessen, the writing down of kebatinan teachings was a novelty which appeared with the institutinalisation of the kebatinan-movements in the beginning of the 20th century.[27] Kebatinan
Kebatinan
organisations[edit] The appearance of formal kebatinan movements reflects the modernisation of Indonesia.[1] Kebatinan
Kebatinan
movements appeared early in the 1900s in urban traditional elite circles,[13] together with the rise of nationalism and the Muhammadiyah, a modernist Islamic movement.[1] Hardopusoro, one of the earliest kebatinan-movements, had strong links with the Theosophical Society.[1] Some remained very elitist, while others also accepted lower urban and rural followings, thereby popularising abangan, or syncretistic Islam, as an alternative to shari`a-oriented Islam.[13] After the independence of 1949, the kebatinan received political support and attracted large followings.[38] Kebatinan-movements were seen by secular nationalistic elites as allies against the rise of political Islam.[27] The political struggle between the Muslim parties and the Communists and Nationalists lead to a sharper demarcation between syncretistic and shari`a-oriented Islam, whereby most kebatinan movements affiliated with the Communist or Nationalist Parties.[13][note 7] Umbrella organisations representing several hundred kebatinan organisations, lobbied to attain legitimacy and recognition as an official religion.[1][3] They are registered at the HKP (Himpunan Penghayat Kepercayaan), which is controlled by the PAKEM (Pengawas Aliran Kepercayaan Masyarakat).[citation needed] After the Suharto-era (1967-1998), the kebatinan-movements lost political support,[38] and have become less dynamic, their adherents avoiding public engagement.[1] Altogether several hundred kebatinan-groups are or have been registered, the best-known of which are:[note 8]

Subud[49][50] Sumarah[49][50] Pangestu[49][50] Sapta Dharma[49][50] Majapahit
Majapahit
Pancasila[50]

Subud[edit] Main article: Subud Subud
Subud
was founded in the 1920s by Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo. The name Subud
Subud
was first used in the late 1940s when Subud
Subud
was legally registered in Indonesia. The basis of Subud
Subud
is a spiritual exercise commonly referred to as the latihan kejiwaan, which was said by Muhammad Subuh to be guidance from "the Power of God" or "the Great Life Force". The aim of Subud
Subud
is to attain perfection of character according to the will of God.[51] Only when passion, heart and mind are separated from the inner feeling is it possible to make contact with the "Great Life Force" which permeates everywhere.[52] The name Subud
Subud
is formed from the words susila ("the good character of man"[51]), budhi ("the force of the inner self"[51]) and dharma ("trust in God"[51]). These words are derived from the Sanskrit words suzila, bodhi and dharma.[web 3] Muhammad Subuh saw the present age as one that demands personal evidence and proof of religious or spiritual realities, as people no longer just believe in words. He claimed that Subud
Subud
is not a new teaching or religion but only that the latihan kejiwaan itself is the kind of proof that humanity is looking for. He also rejected the classification of Subud
Subud
as a kebatinan organization. There are now Subud
Subud
groups in about 83 countries, with a worldwide membership of about 10,000.[53] Sumarah[edit] Sumarah was formed in the 1930s by Pak Hardo, Pak Sadina and Pak Sutadi, without a formal organisation.[54] In those early days, the younger members were taught kanoman, occult practices including invulnerability for knives and guns. This was regarded as essential in the struggle against the Dutch colonial powers.[54] Around 1950, when Indonesia
Indonesia
becale an independent nation, Sumarah was streamlined and organised by dr. Surono. The emphasis shifted from magic to "surrender to God".[54] From 1957 on internal struggles surfaced between dr. Surono and the founders Pak Hardo and Pak Sadina, leading to a change in leadership by dr. Ary Muthy in 1967.[54] Sumarah theology maintains that humankind's soul is like the holy spirit, a spark from the Divine Essence, which means that we are in essence similar to God. In other words, "One can find God
God
within oneself," a belief similar to the "I=God" theory found in Hindu-Javanese literature.[55] According to Sumarah theology, man and his physical and spiritual world are divided into three parts:[55]

The physical body and brain. One section, Sukusma, governs the passions. In the brain, the faculty of thinking has two functions:

To record memories To serve as a means of communion with God

The invisible world, which is situated within the chest. It is the Jiwa, the ineffable soul, which provides the driving forces governing thought and reason. It is here that the deeper feeling (Rasa) is located. The more elusive and sublime world. The most elusive and sublime world is hidden somewhere near the anatomical heart.

Sumarah's conception of God
God
is different from Islam. It has a pantheistic vision of reality, considering God
God
to be present in all living beings.[55] Pangestu[edit] Pangestu was founded in 1949.[56] Its doctrine was revealed in 1932 to Sunarto Mertowarjoyo, and written down in the Setat Sasangka Djati by R.T. Harjoparakowo and R. Trihardono Sumodiharjo Pangastu.[56] It describes the way to obtain wahyu, the blessing of God.[56] Sapta Dharma[edit] Sapta Dharma
Dharma
was founded in 1952 by Harjo Sapura, after he received a revelation.[50] According to Sri Pawenang, it was God's wish to provide the Indonesian people with a new spirituality in atime of crisis.[50] Its aim is to free man of his passions.[56] According to Sapta Dharma
Dharma
teachings, suji (meditation) is necessary to pierce through different layers of obstacles to reach Semar, the guardian spirit of Java.[57] Theory and practice resemble Hindu Kundalini yoga, aiming at awakening the Kundalini energy and guiding it through the chakras.[56] Majapahit
Majapahit
Pancasila[edit] Majapahit
Majapahit
Pancasila[note 9] was founded by W. Hardjanta Pardjapangarsa.[52] It is based in Javanese Hindu-yogic practices,[59] c.q. Kundalini yoga,[52] rather than Balinese ritual practice as is prevalent in Parisada Hindu
Hindu
Dharma.[59] According to Hardjanta, his meditation practices also lead to invulnerability for knives, daggers and other weapons.[60] Spread of kebatinan[edit] Malaysia[edit] Kebatinan
Kebatinan
beliefs have spread to some parts of Malaysia in which certain individuals have combined it with Islamic
Islamic
concepts (e.g. proclaiming themselves to be new-age Islamic
Islamic
prophets, but delivering messages that are a combination of Islamic
Islamic
and kebatinan beliefs). This has led to the Malaysian Islamic
Islamic
authorities declaring elements of kebatinan to be "syirik" (shirk) and un-Islamic. Kebatinan interpretations of Islam
Islam
are widespread in Malaysia among practitioners of silat, traditional healers and some preachers (such as Ayah Pin
Ayah Pin
and other self-proclaimed Islamic
Islamic
prophets). Netherlands[edit] In the Netherlands, the former colonial power in Indonesia, some kebatinan-groups are active.[61] Singapore[edit] Since the majority of Singaporean Malays are of Indonesian descent, particularly from Java, many of Kebatinan
Kebatinan
are still practiced usually among older people. However, the practice is still widespread among some Javanese Silat
Silat
and Kuda Kepang
Kuda Kepang
groups, and also traditional shamans. Suriname[edit] It was brought to Suriname
Suriname
by Javanese workers in the late 19th century. See also[edit]

Indonesia
Indonesia
portal

Sunda Wiwitan Hindu
Hindu
Dharma Javanese calendar Javanese sacred places Mythology of Indonesia Wewe Gombel Ziyarat Slametan Hanitu

Notes[edit]

^ Bruinessen: " Java
Java
was converted to Islam
Islam
quite late; the process started seriously around 1500CE, that is, at the time of the great Alevi rebellions. Adoption of Islam
Islam
is perhaps a better term than conversion, for the Javanese were deliberately syncretistic. For many of the new Muslims Islam, especially in its Sufi
Sufi
variety, was a welcome additional source of spiritual power, not a substitute for what they already had."[13] ^ Anthropologist Clifford Geertz
Clifford Geertz
made a well-known, though criticised, threefold distinction between abangan, antri and priyayi.[web 2][19] The priyayi are the descendants of the high class and court members, were gurus taught the Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
art of inner cultivation,[20] which stayed alive in the interior areas of Java.[6] Geertz noticed that the priyayi play a central role in the teaching of kejawen and kebatinan to the abangan.[20] ^ Bruinessen: "This third sphere was no doubt in most parts of the world for many years the one that had by far the greatest numbers of adherents. It has often been through Sufism
Sufism
that people from the heterodox periphery gradually moved towards some degree of conformity with orthodoxy."[13] ^ knowledge, power ^ "Fasting",[35] "ascetic exercises",[34] "spiritual techniques"[36] ^ "austerity",[35] "spiritual techniques"[36] ^ The relation between religion c.q. "spirituality", politics and (post-)colonial struggles is not unique to Indonesia. In India, Hindu reform movements involved both religious and social reforms, for example the Brahmo Samaj,[39] Vivekananda, who modernised Advaita Vedanta,[40] Aurobindo[39] and Mahatma Gandhi.[39] In Buddhist countries, Buddhist
Buddhist
modernism was a response against the colonial powers and the western culture.[41] In Sri Lanka, Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism was revitalised in the struggle against the colonial rule. The Theosophical Society
Theosophical Society
played an essential role here.[42][43][44] In China, Taixu
Taixu
propagated a Humanistic Buddhism, which is again endorsed by Jing Hui, the (former) abbott of Bailin Monastery.[45] In Japan, Buddhism
Buddhism
adopted nationalistic politics to survive in the modern era, in which it lost support from the government.[46][41] zen was popularised in the west by adherents of this modern Buddhism, especially D.T. Suzuki
D.T. Suzuki
and Hakuun Yasutani.[47][41] ^ See [48] for a longer list of Kebatinan
Kebatinan
organisations. ^ Full "Sanaata Dharma
Dharma
Majapahit
Majapahit
Pancasila",[58] acronym "Sadhar Mapan"[58]

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h Ooi 2004, p. 719. ^ a b Caldarola 1982, p. 501. ^ a b c Hooker 1988, p. 196. ^ a b c d e Caldarola 1982, p. 539, note 30. ^ a b Levenda 2011, p. 72. ^ a b c Mulder 2005, p. 16. ^ Oey 2000, p. 58-59. ^ Mulder 2005, p. 17. ^ a b c d e Choy 1999, p. 112. ^ a b Levenda 2011, p. 73. ^ McDaniel 2010. ^ a b c d e f g van der Kroef 1961. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s van Bruinessen 2000a. ^ Epa 2010. ^ a b Mulder 2005. ^ Headley 2004, p. 367-368. ^ Azra 2006, p. 129. ^ a b c d Mulder 2005, p. 15. ^ Mulder 2005, p. 21-22. ^ a b Mulder 2005, p. 21. ^ Mulder 2005, p. 15-16. ^ Mulder 2005, p. 22-24. ^ a b c Choy 1999, p. 109. ^ a b Choy 1999, p. 109-110. ^ a b Choy 1999, p. 110. ^ Masus 2009, p. 148. ^ a b c van Bruinessen 2000b. ^ a b c Choy 1999, p. 107. ^ a b Choy 1999, p. 108. ^ Choy 1999. ^ Masud 2009, p. 148. ^ Choy 1999, p. 111-112. ^ Beatty 1999. ^ a b c Retsikas 2012, p. 179. ^ a b c d Christomy 2008, p. 171. ^ a b c d Hughes-Freeland 2008, p. 189. ^ An adulterous pilgrimage, abc.net.au. ^ a b Musad 2009, p. 148. ^ a b c Senari 2000. ^ Rambachan 1994. ^ a b c McMahan 2008. ^ McMahan 2008, p. 98. ^ Gombrich 1996, p. 185-188. ^ Fields 1992, p. 83-118. ^ Feuchtwang 2010, p. 189. ^ Victoria 2006. ^ Fields 1992. ^ van Bruinessen & Howell 2007, p. 225-226. ^ a b c d van Bruinessen & Howell 2007, p. 226. ^ a b c d e f g Choy 1999, p. 116. ^ a b c d Choy 1999, p. 118. ^ a b c Choy 1999, p. 119. ^ Hunt 2003, p. 122. ^ a b c d Choy 1999, p. 115. ^ a b c Choy 1999, p. 114. ^ a b c d e Choy 1999, p. 117. ^ Choy 1999, p. 116-117. ^ a b Research School of Pacific Studies 1980, p. 217. ^ a b Tarling 1992, p. 563. ^ Choy 1999, p. 122. ^ Renard 2010.

Sources[edit] Published sources[edit]

Azra, Azyumardi (2006), Islam
Islam
in the Indonesian World: An Account of Institutional Formation, Mizan Pustaka  Beatty, Andrew (1999), Varieties of Javanese Religion: An Anthropological Account, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-62473-8  van Bruinessen, Martin (2000a), Muslims, Minorities and Modernity: The restructuring of heterodoxy in the Middle East and Southeast Asia. Inaugural Lecture  van Bruinessen, Martin (2000b), Transformations of Heterodoxy. Inaugural Lecture (condensation) (PDF)  van Bruinessen, Martin; Howell, Julia Day (2007), Sufism
Sufism
and the 'Modern' in Islam, I.B.Tauris  Caldarola, Carlo (1982), Religion
Religion
and Societies: Asia and the Middle East, Walter de Gruyter  Choy, Lee Khoon (1999), A fragile nation: the Indonesian crisis, World Scientific  Christomy, Tommy (2008), Signs of the Wali: Narratives at the Sacred Sites in Pamijahan, West Java, ANU E Press  Epa, Konradus (2010). "Christians refuse to cancel Christmas". UCA News. Archived from the original on 2013-08-20.  Feuchtwang, Stephen (2010), The Anthropology of Religion, Charisma and Ghosts: Chinese Lessons for Adequate Theory, Walter de Gruyter  Fields, Rick (1992), How the Swans Came to the Lake. A Narrative History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in America, Boston & London: Shambhala  Geels, Antoon (1997), Subud
Subud
and the Javanese mystical tradition, Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, ISBN 0-7007-0623-2  Gombrich, Richard (1996), Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism. A Social History From Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo, Routledge  Headley, Stephen Cavanna (2004), Durga's Mosque: Cosmology, Conversion And Community in Central Javanese Islam, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies  Hooker, M.B. (1988), Islam
Islam
in South East Asia, Brill  Hughes-Freeland, Felicia (2008), Embodied communities: dance traditions and change in Java, Berghahn Books  Hunt, Stephen J. (2003). Alternative Religions: A Sociological Introduction. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-3410-8.  van der Kroef, Justus M (1961). "New Religious Sects in Java". Far Eastern Survey. 30 (2): 18. doi:10.1525/as.1961.30.2.01p1432u. JSTOR 3024260.  Levenda, Peter (2011), Tantric Temples: Eros and Magic in Java, Nicolas-Hays  Masud, Muḥammad Kalid; Salvatore, Armando; Bruinessen, Martin van (2009), Islam
Islam
and modernity: key issues and debates, Edinburgh University Press  McDaniel, June (2010). "Agama Hindu
Hindu
Dharma
Dharma
Indonesia
Indonesia
as a New Religious Movement: Hinduism
Hinduism
Recreated in the Image of Islam". Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions. 14 (1): 93–111. doi:10.1525/nr.2010.14.1.93. JSTOR 10.1525/nr.2010.14.1.93.  McMahan, David L. (2008), The Making of Buddhist
Buddhist
Modernism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195183276  Muhaimin, Abdul Ghoffir (2006), The Islamic
Islamic
Traditions of Cirebon: Ibadat and Adat
Adat
Among Javanese Muslims, ANU E Press  Mulder, Niels (1978), Mysticism
Mysticism
& everyday life in contemporary Java: cultural persistence and change, Singapore: Singapore University Press  Mulder, Niels (2005), Mysticism
Mysticism
in Java: Ideology in Indonesia, Kanisius  Oey, Eric (2000), Adventure Guides: Java
Java
Indonesia, Tuttle Publishing  Ooi, Keat Gin, ed. (2004). Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor (3 vols). Vol 3. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1576077702. OCLC 646857823.  Rambachan, Anatanand (1994), The Limits of Scripture: Vivekananda's Reinterpretation of the Vedas, University of Hawaii Press  Renard, Philip (2010), Non-Dualisme. De directe bevrijdingsweg, Cothen: Uitgeverij Juwelenschip  Research School of Pacific Studies (1980), Indonesia, Australian perspectives, Volumes 1-3, Australian National University  Retsikas, Konstantinos (2012), Becoming: An Anthropological Approach to Understandings of the Person in Java, Anthem Press  Sinari, Ramakant (2000), Advaita and Contemporary Indian Philosophy. In: Chattopadhyana (gen.ed.), "History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization. Volume II Part 2: Advaita Vedanta", Delhi: Centre for Studies in Civilizations  Stange, Paul (1980), The Sumarah movement in Javanese mysticism. Thesis (Ph.D.) University of Wisconsin-Madison, University Microfilms International  Tarling, N. (1992), The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: The nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Volume two, Cambridge University Press  Victoria, Brian Daizen (2006), Zen
Zen
at war (Second ed.), Lanham e.a.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 

Web-sources[edit]

^ Indonesia: East Java
Java
native religion called Aliran Kepercayaan or Kepercayaan Kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, aka Pangistu; its status and treatment of its members by Muslim fundamentalists (2003-June 2004)[permanent dead link] ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Rogge2009 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ SubudBritain, About Subud

Further reading[edit]

Geertz, Clifford (1976), Religion
Religion
of Java, University of Chicago Press  Jones, David (2010), Magic & Mysticism
Mysticism
in Java  Kinney, Ann R.; Klokke, Marijke J.; Kieven, Lydia (2003), Worshiping Siva and Buddha: The Temple Art of East Java, University of Hawaii Press  Retsikas, Konstantinos (2012), Becoming: An Anthropological Approach to Understandings of the Person in Java, Anthem Press  Stange, Paul (n.d.), The evolution of Sumarah (PDF) 

External links[edit]

Kejawen, a Javanese traditional spiritual teaching - Joglosemar Online A center for Javanese Metaphysics and Kundalini Yoga Sumarah SUMARAH: A STUDY OF THE ART OF LIVING IndaNehsia.com, Religion
Religion
at Java

v t e

Islam
Islam
in Indonesia

Branches

Modernist

santri

Traditionalist

Kejawen abangan priyayi

Shia Islam Ahmadiyya

Major figures

Classic era

Hamzah Fansuri Yusuf al-Makassari Malikussaleh Ismail al-Khalidi al-Minangkabawi Padri

Tuanku Imam Bonjol Tuanku Rao Tuanku Tambusai

Wali Sanga

Sunan Ampel Sunan Bonang Sunan Drajat Sunan Giri Sunan Gunung Jati Maulana Malik Ibrahim Sunan Kalijaga Sunan Kudus Sunan Murya

Abdurrauf Singkil Ali Mughayat Syah Tuanku Nan Tuo Burhanuddin Ulakan

National Awakening era

Abdullah Ahmad Abdul Karim Amrullah Hasyim Asy'ari Ahmad Dahlan Tahir bin Jalaluddin Muhammad Jamil Jambek Mas Mansoer Ahmad Khatib al-Minangkabawi Haji Misbach Rasuna Said

Post- independence

Mukti Ali Ulil Abshar Abdalla Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah Azyumardi Azra Abu Bakar Bashir Idham Chalid Djohan Effendi Abdullah Gymnastiar Wahid Hasyim Kartosoewirjo Ahmad Syafi'i Maarif Nurcholish Madjid Hasyim Muzadi Zainuddin M.Z. Harun Nasution Mohammad Natsir Amien Rais Muhammad Rizieq Shihab Quraish Shihab Said Aqil Siradj Din Syamsuddin Ahmad Wahib Abdurrahman Wahid Muhammad Luthfi bin Yahya

Organizations

Civil society organizations

Campus Dakwah Institute Hidayatullah Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia Indonesian Association of Muslim Intellectuals Indonesia
Indonesia
Institute of Islamic
Islamic
Dawah Indonesian Islamic
Islamic
Dawah Council Indonesian Mujahedeen Council Indonesian Ulema Council Al-Irshad Al-Islamiya Islamic
Islamic
Defenders Front Liberal Islam
Islam
Network Muhammadiyah

Aisyiyah

Muslim Students' Association Nahdlatul Ulama

Ansor Youth Movement

PERSIS Sarekat Islam Sumatera Thawalib

Political parties

Crescent Star Party Indonesian Islamic
Islamic
Union Party Indonesian Nahdlatul Community Party Masyumi Party National Awakening Party National Mandate Party National Sun Party Union of Indonesian Muslims Prosperous Justice Party Ulema National Awakening Party United Development Party

Militia

Banser Darul Islam Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid Jamaah Islamiyah Laskar Jihad Mujahidin Indonesia
Indonesia
Timur

History

Pre- independence

Spread of Islam
Islam
in Indonesia Ottoman expedition to Aceh Wali Sanga Islamic
Islamic
States in Indonesia

Aceh Sultanate Demak Sultanate Gowa Sultanate Malacca Sultanate Mataram Sultanate Samudera Pasai Sultanate Ternate Sultanate Tidore Sultanate

Padri War

Post- independence

Jakarta Charter Insurgency in Aceh Maluku sectarian conflict Poso riots November 2016 / December 2016 / February 2017 Jakarta protests

Culture

Adat Architecture

Bedug Tajug

Costumes

Peci Sarong

Lebaran Mosques

Istiqlal Mosque

Musabaqah Tilawatil Quran Saman Sekaten Slametan Tabligh Akbar Tabuik Tausiyah Yaqowiyu

Education

Iqro Jamiat Kheir Kitab kuning Kyai LIPIA Pesantren

Pondok Modern Darussalam Gontor

Surau Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic
Islamic
University Jakarta

others

Al-Munir Islam
Islam
Nusantara Islamic
Islamic
criminal law in Aceh Tafsir Al-Mishbah

by region

Aceh West Sumatra East Java

Mosques in Indonesia History of Indonesia National Heroes of Indonesia

v t e

Indonesia articles

History

Timeline Hinduism- Buddhism
Buddhism
era Spread of Islam VOC era (1603–1800) Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
(1800–1942) Japanese occupation (1942–45) National Revolution (1945–49) Liberal democracy era (1950–57) Guided Democracy (1957–65) Transitional period (1965–66) New Order (1966–98) Reformasi (since 1998)

Geography

Cities Deforestation Earthquakes Environmental issues Geology Islands Lakes Mountains National parks Natural history

Fauna Flora

Rivers Volcanoes

Politics

Administrative divisions

Provinces

Cabinet Constitution Elections Foreign relations Human rights Law

enforcement

Military

History

Pancasila People's Consultative Assembly Police Political parties President

Economy

Agriculture Aviation Banks Energy History Palm oil production Science and technology Stock Exchange Telecommunications Tourism Transport Water supply and sanitation

Culture

Architecture Art Batik Cinema Cuisine Dance Ikat Heroes Legends Literature Martial arts Media Music Properties Public holidays Sport Video gaming

Demographics

Education Ethnic groups Health Languages

Indonesian

Nusantara Religion Women

Symbols

Anthem Costume Emblem Faunal emblems

Asian arowana Javan hawk-eagle Komodo dragon

Flag Floral emblems

Common jasmine Moon orchid Giant padma

Garuda Motto Personification Songs Tree

Outline Index

Book Category Portal Gallery Atlas

v t e

Religion

Major religious groups
Major religious groups
and religious denominations

Abrahamic

Judaism

Orthodox

Haredi Hasidic Modern

Conservative Reform Karaite Reconstructionist Renewal Humanistic Haymanot

Christianity

Catholicism

Eastern Catholic Churches

Eastern Christianity

Church of the East

Assyrian Church of the East

Eastern Orthodoxy Oriental Orthodoxy

Ethiopian Orthodoxy

Independent Catholicism

Old Catholicism

Protestantism

Adventism Anabaptism Anglicanism Baptists Calvinism

Presbyterianism Congregationalism Continental Reformed

Lutheranism Methodism Pentecostalism Evangelicalism

Nontrinitarianism

Jehovah's Witnesses Mormonism Jesuism

Nondenominational

Islam

Sunni

Hanafi Maliki Hanbali Shafi'i

Shia

Twelver Isma'ilism Zaidiyyah

Ahmadi Ibadi Non-denominational Quranism Zahirism Salafism

Wahhabism Ahl al-Hadith

Mahdavia European Islam Nation of Islam

Others

Bábism

Azáli Bábism Bahá'í Faith

Druze Mandaeism Rastafari Samaritanism

Dharmic

Hinduism

Vaishnavism Shaktism Shaivism Ayyavazhi Smartism Balinese

Buddhism

Mahayana

Chan

Zen Thiền Seon

Pure Land Nichiren Madhyamaka Tiantai

Theravada Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Newar Bon

Navayana

Others

Dravidian Jainism

Digambara Śvētāmbara

Sikhism Gurung shamanism Bon
Bon
Lamaism Kirant Mundhum

Persian

Manichaeism Yazdânism

Yazidism Ishikism Ali-Illahism Yarsanism

Zoroastrianism

European

Armenian Baltic

Dievturība Druwi Romuva

Caucasian Celtic

Druidry

Germanic Hellenism Italo-Roman Romanian Slavic

Uralic

Finnish Hungarian Uralic

Mari Mordvin Udmurt

Central and Northern Asian

Burkhanism Chuvash Manchu Mongolian Siberian Tengrism

East Asian

Benzhuism Bimoism Bon Cheondoism Confucianism Dongbaism Faism Hmongism Jeungsanism Luoism Meishanism Mileism Muism Neo-Confucianism Ryukyuan religion Shenism Shigongism Shinto Taoism Tenrikyo Wuism Yiguandao

Southeast Asian

Burmese Satsana Phi Malaysian Indonesian

Marapu Kaharingan Kebatinan

Philippine Vietnamese

Caodaism Đạo Mẫu Hoahaoism

African

Traditional

Akan Akamba Baluba Bantu Berber Bushongo Cushitic Dinka Efik Fon and Ewe Guanche Igbo Isoko Lotuko Lozi Lugbara Maasai Mbuti San Serer Tumbuka Waaq Yoruba Zulu

Diasporic

Candomblé Kumina Obeah Quimbanda Palo Santería Umbanda Vodou Voodoo Winti

Other groups

Bathouism Bongthingism Donyi-Polo Kiratism Sanamahism Sarnaism Aboriginal Australian Native American Mesoamerican Hawaiian Polynesian

Recent

Discordianism Eckankar Jediism New Age New Thought Pastafarianism Raëlism Satanism Scientology Thelema Unitarian Universalism Wicca

Historical religions

Prehistoric

Paleolithic

Near East

Arabian Egyptian Mesopotamian Semitic

Canaanite Yahwism

Indo-European

Asia

Proto-Indo-Iranian Armenian Ossetian Vedic Zoroastrianism

Mithraism Zurvanism

Gnosticism

Manichaeism

Europe

Celtic Germanic

Anglo-Saxon Continental Norse

Greek

Gnosticism Neoplatonism

Manichaeism Balkan Roman Slavic

Topics

Aspects

Apostasy / Disaffiliation Behaviour Beliefs Clergy Conversion Deities Entheogens Ethnic religion Denomination Faith Fire Folk religion God Meditation Monasticism

monk nun

Mysticism Mythology Nature Ordination Orthodoxy Orthopraxy Prayer Prophesy Religious experience Ritual

liturgy sacrifice

Spirituality Supernatural Symbols Truth Water Worship

Theism

Animism Deism Dualism Henotheism Monotheism Nontheism Panentheism Pantheism Polytheism Transtheism

Religious studies

Anthropology Cognitive science Comparative Development Evolutionary origin Evolutionary psychology History Philosophy Neurotheology Psychology Sociology Theology Theories Women

Religion
Religion
and society

Agriculture Business Clergy

monasticism ordination

Conversion

evangelism missionary proselytism

Education Fanaticism Freedom

pluralism syncretism toleration universalism

Fundamentalism Growth Happiness Homosexuality Minorities National church National religiosity levels Religiocentrism Political science Populations Schism Science State Theocracy Vegetarianism Video games Violence

persecution terrorism war

Wealth

Secularism
Secularism
and irreligion

Antireligion Deism Agnosticism Atheism Criticism LaVeyan Satanism Deconstruction Humanistic Judaism Irreligion by country Objectivism Secular humanism Secular theology Secularization Separation of church and state Unaffiliated

Overviews and lists

Index Outline Timeline Abrahamic prophets Deification Deities Founders Mass gatherings New religious movements Organizations Religions and spiritual traditions Scholars

Cat

.