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Kedah
Kedah
(Malay pronunciation: [kəˈdɑh]; Jawi: قدح), also known by its honorific Darul Aman or "Abode of Peace",[citation needed] is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The state covers a total area of over 9,000 km², and it consists of the mainland and Langkawi. The mainland has a relatively flat terrain, which is used to grow rice. Langkawi
Langkawi
is an archipelago of islands, most of which are uninhabited. Kedah
Kedah
was called Kadaram (Tamil: கடாரம்; kadāram) by ancient and medieval Tamil people and Syburi
Syburi
(Thai: ไทรบุรี; RTGS: Sai Buri) by the Siamese when it was under their influence.[3] To the north, Kedah
Kedah
borders the state of Perlis
Perlis
and shares an international boundary with the Songkhla and Yala provinces of Thailand. It borders the states of Perak
Perak
to the south and Penang
Penang
to the southwest. The state's capital is Alor Setar
Alor Setar
and the royal seat is in Anak Bukit. Other major towns include Sungai Petani, and Kulim
Kulim
on the mainland, and Kuah
Kuah
on Langkawi.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 Kedah
Kedah
Sultanate 1.3 Incorporation into Malaya

2 Geography 3 Demographics

3.1 Language 3.2 Ethnicity 3.3 Religion

4 Governance

4.1 Kedah
Kedah
State Assembly 4.2 Administrative divisions

5 Economy 6 Education

6.1 Public universities and colleges 6.2 Private universities and colleges 6.3 Technical institutes 6.4 Boarding schools

7 Boarding school

7.1 Private and public schools

8 Tourism

8.1 Kedah
Kedah
Mainland 8.2 Langkawi

9 Sports 10 Bibliography 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] Further information: British Malaya
British Malaya
and Early history of Kedah Early history[edit]

Candi Bukit Batu Pahat of Bujang Valley.

Archaeological evidence found in Bujang Valley
Bujang Valley
(Malay:Lembah Bujang) reveals that a Hindu– Buddhist
Buddhist
kingdom ruled ancient Kedah
Kedah
possibly as early as 110 A.D. The discovery of temples, jetty remains, iron smelting sites, and clay brick monuments dating back to 110 A.D shows that a maritime trading route with south Indian Tamil kingdoms was already established since that time.[4] The discoveries in Bujang Valley also made the ancient Kedah
Kedah
as the oldest civilisation of Southeast Asia.[5] Reference to ancient Kedah
Kedah
was first mentioned in a Tamil poem Paṭṭiṉappālai written at the end of the 2nd century A.D. It described goods from Kadaram "heaped together in the broad streets" of Chola
Chola
capital. Other than Kadaram, Kedah
Kedah
was known with different names at varying times in Indian literature; Kataha-Nagara (in Kaumudi Mahotsava drama), Anda-Kataha (in Agni Purana), Kataha-Dvipa (in Samarāiccakahā), and Kataha (in Kathasaritsagara).[6] In the middle eastern literature, ancient Kedah
Kedah
was referred as Qilah by Ibn Khordadbeh in Kitāb al Masālik w'al Mamālik, Kalah-Bar by Soleiman Siraf & Abu Zaid al Hassan in Silsilat-al-Tawarikh (travels in Asia), and Kalah by Abu-Dulaf Misa'r Ibn Muhalhil in Al-Risalah al-thaniyah.[7] The famous Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
Buddhist
Buddhist
monk, Yi Jing who visited Malay archipelago
Malay archipelago
between 688–695, also mentioned about a kingdom known as Ka-Cha in the northern part of Malay peninsular, which according to him was 30 days sail from Bogha (Palembang), the capital of Sribogha (Srivijaya).[8] In the 7th and 8th centuries, Kedah
Kedah
was under the loose control of Srivijaya.[9] Indian and Arab sources consider Kedah
Kedah
to be one of the two important sites during the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
period, often calling the king of the straits "the ruler of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and Kataha".[10] In 1025, Rajendra Chola, the Chola
Chola
king from Coromandel in South India, captured Kedah
Kedah
in his invasion of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and occupied it for some time.[11] A second invasion was led by Virarajendra Chola
Chola
of the Chola dynasty who conquered Kedah
Kedah
in the late 11th century.[12] During the reign of Kulothunga Chola
Chola
I Chola
Chola
overlordship was established over the Sri Vijaya province Kedah
Kedah
in the late 11th century.[13] Kedah
Kedah
Sultanate[edit] Main article: Kedah
Kedah
Sultanate According to Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa
Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa
or the Kedah
Kedah
Annals, Kedah
Kedah
was founded by a Hindu
Hindu
king named Merong Mahawangsa. According to the text further, the Sultanate of Kedah
Sultanate of Kedah
started in year 1136 when King Phra Ong Mahawangsa converted to Islam
Islam
and adopted the name Sultan Mudzafar Shah. However, an Acehnese account gave a date of 1474 for the year of conversion to Islam
Islam
by the ruler of Kedah. This later date accords with an account in the Malay Annals where a raja of Kedah
Kedah
visited Malacca
Malacca
during the reign of its last sultan seeking the honour of the royal band that marks the sovereignty of a Muslim
Muslim
ruler.[14] It was later under Siam, until it was conquered by the Malay sultanate of Malacca
Malacca
in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Kedah
Kedah
was attacked by the Portuguese after their conquest of Malacca, and by Aceh. In the hope that Great Britain would protect what remained of Kedah
Kedah
from Siam, the sultan handed over Penang
Penang
and then Province Wellesley to the British at the end of the 18th century. The Siamese nevertheless invaded Kedah
Kedah
in 1821,[15] and it remained under Siamese control under the name of Syburi. In 1896, Kedah
Kedah
along with Perlis
Perlis
and Setul
Setul
was combined into the Siamese province of Monthon Syburi
Syburi
which lasted until transferred to the British by the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909. Incorporation into Malaya[edit] See also: Si Rat Malai In World War II, Kedah
Kedah
(along with Kelantan) was the first part of Malaya to be invaded by Japan. The Japanese returned Kedah
Kedah
to their Thai allies who had it renamed Syburi, but it returned to British rule after the end of the war. Kedah
Kedah
was a reluctant[citation needed] addition to the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
in 1948. Since 1958, the hereditary Sultan of Kedah
Sultan of Kedah
has been Tuanku Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah. The Kedah Sultanate
Kedah Sultanate
began when the 9th Kedah
Kedah
Maharaja Derbar Raja or Phra Ong Mahawangsa, converted to Islam
Islam
and changed his name to Sultan Mudzafar Shah I. Since then there have been 27 Sultans who ruled Kedah.[16] Geography[edit]

Menara Alor Setar
Alor Setar
is the tallest tower in Kedah.

Kedah
Kedah
is the 8th largest state by land area and 8th most populated state in Malaysia, with a total land area of 9,500 km2 (3,700 sq mi),[17] and a population of 1,890,098.[1] The Pedu Lake is the largest man-made lake in the state. Demographics[edit] Kedah
Kedah
has a relatively heterogeneous populace constituted by three major ethnic groups; the Malays, Chinese and Indians as well as some Malaysian Siamese
Malaysian Siamese
ethnic groups, similar to most of the other Malaysian states. Prior to the formation of the Federation of Malaya, there was an ethnic group known as the Sam Sam people. They are culturally Malay Muslim
Muslim
but speak Siamese language. Most of these communities are almost extinct due to assimilation with the Malays. In some places in Kedah, the Sam Sam people still retain their Siamese language as their mother tongue. These communities can be found in Pendang
Pendang
District, Kuala Nerang District and Kubang Pasu District (Changlun, Kodiang, Jitra, Wang Tepus, Guar Napai, Malau, Ason and Napoh). Kedah
Kedah
has a very small Orang Asli
Orang Asli
community. Orang Asli
Orang Asli
only can be found in the Baling
Baling
district.[citation needed] Language[edit] Like most parts of Malaysia, Kedah
Kedah
is home to various languages and dialects. The majority language of Kedah
Kedah
is Kedah
Kedah
Malay, known natively by locals as Pelat Utagha (Northern dialect), it is a distinct variety of Malay which also serves as the state's main lingua franca and is used by almost all Kedahans regardless of race. Kedah Malay has many sub-dialects which differs from district to district and is also spoken outside of its boundaries such as Penang, Perlis, northern Perak
Perak
and even as far as Satun
Satun
in Thailand
Thailand
and Tanintharyi
Tanintharyi
in Myanmar. Besides Kedah
Kedah
Malay, another distinct variety of Malay known as Baling
Baling
Malay (Cakak Baling) is mainly spoken in Baling
Baling
district as well as some parts of Sik and Yan districts. Baling, along with Grik Malay is part of Reman Malay, an offshoot of Kelantan-Pattani Malay of which it was descended from the people of the Kingdom of Reman
Kingdom of Reman
of which once ruled the Baling
Baling
and Grik regions before it was dissolved and became part of three distinct political entities namely Kedah, Perak
Perak
and Yala (Thailand). Besides Malay, there are also various minority languages spoken throughout Kedah, Aslian languages such as Jahai, Kensiu and Kintaq are spoken by the small Orang Asli
Orang Asli
populations mostly in the inland region. The Chinese in Kedah
Kedah
also speaks various varieties of Chinese such as Mandarin, Hokkien
Hokkien
(majority), Teochew, Cantonese
Cantonese
and so on. There are also a small but well established Indian community mostly of ethnic Tamil and Punjabis
Punjabis
and also smaller number of Telugus who speak their own respective languages. Kedah
Kedah
is also home to a large community of ethnic Siamese of which it has its own distinct dialect of the Thai language
Thai language
which is different from ones spoken in Kelantan (which also has a large Siamese population) and Standard Thai. Ethnicity[edit] The population of Kedah
Kedah
in 2015 was 2,071,900. It was made up of 76% Bumiputra (Malays and others), 12.7% Chinese, 6.9% Indian, 0.9% others and 3.4% non-Malaysian. The following is based on 2015 figures from the Department of Statistics Malaysia.[2]

Ethnic groups in Kedah, 2015

Ethnicity Population Percentage

Bumiputera 1,574,400 76.0%

Chinese 263,200 12.7%

Indian 143,200 6.9%

Others 19,600 0.9%

Non-Malaysian 71,500 3.4%

Religion[edit]

Religion in Kedah
Kedah
– 2010 Census[18]

religion

percent

Islam

77.2%

Buddhism

14.2%

Hinduism

6.7%

Christianity

0.8%

Unknown / None

0.6%

Chinese Ethnic Religion

0.3%

Others

0.1%

No Religion

0.1%

As of 2010 the population of Kedah
Kedah
is 77.2% Muslim, 14.2% Buddhist, 6.7% Hindu, 0.8% Christian, 0.6% unknown / none, 0.3% Taoist or Chinese religion followers, 0.1% followers of other religions, and 0.1% non-religious.[18] Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 94.3% of the Chinese population are identified as Buddhists, with significant minorities of adherents identifying as Christians (2.4%), Chinese folk religions (2.4%) and Muslims (0.4%). The majority of the Indian population are Hindus (91.7%), with a significant minorities of numbers identifying as Christians (3.7%), Muslims (2.4%) and Buddhists (1.3%). The non-Malay bumiputera community are predominantly Christians (39.7%), with significant minorities identifying as Muslims (26.9%) and Buddhists (26.3%). All Malays are Muslims.[19] Governance[edit] Kedah's Constitution was promulgated by its Ruler in July 1950.[citation needed] The various provisions laid down in the Constitution include the role and powers of the Monarch, the State Parliament and the State's Civil Service. The Sultan of Kedah
Sultan of Kedah
is the constitutional ruler of the State. His position is hereditary and he holds office for life. The Ruler is the head of the religion of Islam
Islam
in the State and the executive power of the state government is vested in him. The current Sultan is Tunku Mahmud Sallehuddin, who has reigned on September 12, 2017 after his elder brother Abdul Halim of Kedah
Abdul Halim of Kedah
died on September 11, 2017. The State Executive Council, which along with the Sultan is Kedah's executive branch of government. It is composed of the Menteri Besar, who is its chairman and Kedah's head of government, and ten other members. The Menteri Besar
Menteri Besar
and other members of the council are appointed by the Sultan of Kedah
Sultan of Kedah
from members of the Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Assembly). Kedah
Kedah
State Assembly[edit]

See Also:Breakdown of State Seats Representatives elected 2013

The state also has a legislative branch, called the State assembly. It is similar to the Parliament but is limited to making laws relating to the state. Its members are elected in elections which are usually held simultaneously with federal elections. The term of each state assembly member is limited to five years. The state assembly must be dissolved before or once it expires its term for a fresh election to elect its members. Administrative divisions[edit] Modern Kedah
Kedah
is divided into 12 administrative districts. These 12 districts, are further divided into administrative Municipal councils (Majlis Bandaraya/Perbandaran and Daerah):

Baling

Majlis Daerah Baling
Baling
(MDB)

Bandar Baharu
Bandar Baharu
contains Serdang

Majlis Daerah Bandar Baharu
Bandar Baharu
(MDBB)

Kota Setar, contains Alor Setar

Majlis Bandaraya Alor Setar
Alor Setar
(MBAS)

Kuala Muda
Kuala Muda
contains Sungai Petani

Majlis Perbandaran Sungai Petani
Sungai Petani
(MPSPK)

Kubang Pasu

Majlis Daerah Kubang Pasu (MDKP)

Kulim

Majlis Perbandaran Kulim
Kulim
(MPK) Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan Perindustrian Hi-Tech Kulim
Kulim
(HI-TECH Kulim)

Pulau Langkawi
Langkawi
contains Kuah

Majlis Perbandaran Langkawi
Langkawi
Bandaraya Pelancongan (MPLBP)

Padang Terap

Majlis Daerah Padang Terap
Padang Terap
(MDPT)

Pendang

Majlis Daerah Pendang
Pendang
(MDP)

Pokok Sena

Majlis Bandaraya Alor Setar
Alor Setar
(MBAS)

Sik

Majlis Daerah Sik (MDS)

Yan

Majlis Daerah Yan (MDY)

Economy[edit]

A paddy field in Kedah.

Kedah
Kedah
is considered the "rice bowl"[20][21] (Malay: Jelapang Padi) of Malaysia, accounting for about half of Malaysia's total production of rice. In 2008, the state government banned the conversion of paddy fields to housing and industrial lots to protect the rice industry.[22] Tourism, particularly on the island of Langkawi
Langkawi
is of growing importance. More recently, Kedah
Kedah
has forged its economy towards the automotive and aerospace industries with Modenas
Modenas
and Asian Composites setting up bases here.[citation needed] One of the main advantages is the low labour costs and the infrastructure in place with the North–South Expressway and the Penang
Penang
International Airport close by. In 1996, the Kulim
Kulim
Hi-Tech Park was officially opened as the first high technology industrial park in Malaysia.[citation needed] The Park comprises a total land area of approximately 14.5 square kilometres (5.6 mi²). According to the Ninth Malaysia
Malaysia
Plan, this economic area is part of the Northern Corridor Economic Region
Northern Corridor Economic Region
(NCER).[23] The Northern Corridor Economic Region is one of three development regions formed in Peninsular Malaysia; other development regions being the Iskandar Malaysia
Malaysia
(or South Johor
Johor
Economic Region) and the East Coast Development Region. Education[edit]

AIMST University

Public universities and colleges[edit] The state has a campus of Universiti Utara Malaysia
Malaysia
(UUM), which is located in Bandar Baru Sintok. It was formally incorporated on 16 February 1984. The University was established with the specific mission of providing a leadership role for management education in the country. The academic establishments in UUM include College of Business (COB), College of Law, Government and International Studies (COLGIS) and College of Arts and Sciences (CAS). Kedah
Kedah
also has several public universities and colleges such as Universiti Teknologi MARA
Universiti Teknologi MARA
(UiTM) in Merbok, the Malaysian Spanish Institute of Universiti Kuala Lumpur
Universiti Kuala Lumpur
(UniKL MSI) and the Polytechnic Institute of Sultanah Bahiyah (PSB) in Kulim, the Asian Institute of Medicine, Science and Technology (AIMST University) in Bedong, Kolej Universiti Insaniah (KUIN) in Mergong and the Polytechnic Institute of Sultan Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah (POLIMAS) in Jitra. There are 2 teacher training institution in Kedah, Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Sultan Abdul Halim (IPGKSAH) in Sungai Petani
Sungai Petani
and Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Darul Aman (IPGKDA) in Bandar Darulaman that are set up by the government to provide teaching courses for trainee teachers. Private universities and colleges[edit] Private universities and colleges that are located in Kedah
Kedah
include the Open University
Open University
of Malaysia
Malaysia
(OUM) Regional Learning Center for the state of Kedah
Kedah
and Perlis
Perlis
at Sungai Petani, the Albukhary International University in Alor Setar, Pusat Bahasa Titian Jaya the PTPL College and the Cosmopoint College. Technical institutes[edit] Kedah
Kedah
houses three technical institutes that are affiliated with MARA, that is Institut Kemahiran MARA Sungai Petani, Institut Kemahiran MARA Alor Setar
Alor Setar
and Institut Kemahiran MARA Sik. Boarding schools[edit]

MRSM Merbok in Kedah

This state also has several boarding schools such as Sekolah Berasrama Penuh and MARA Junior Science College
MARA Junior Science College
or MRSM. Boarding school[edit]

Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Kubang Pasu Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Langkawi Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Merbok Maktab Rendah Sains MARA PDRM Kulim Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Pendang Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Baling Sekolah Menengah Sains Sultan Mohamad Jiwa (SAINS KEDAH) Sekolah Menengah Sains Pokok Sena
Pokok Sena
(SAINA) Sekolah Menengah Sultan Abdul Halim (SMSAH) Sekolah Berasrama Penuh
Sekolah Berasrama Penuh
Integrasi Kubang Pasu (I-KUPA) Sekolah Menengah Sains Kubang Pasu (KUPSIS)

Private and public schools[edit]

Chio Min Secondary School, Kulim, Kedah.

Consists of several private and public primary school or secondary school. Public secondary school such as SMK Taman Jelutong, Keat Hwa Secondary School, Convent Secondary School (Formerly known as St. Nicholas Convent Secondary School), Kolej Sultan Abdul Hamid, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Badlishah, Sin Min Secondary School, Chio Min Secondary School, SMK Sultanah Asma, SMK Convent Father Barre, SMK Khir Johari, SMK Aman Jaya, SMK Bedong, SMK Bakar Arang, SMK Darulaman, SMK Ibrahim, K Jit, SMK Mahsuri, SMK Tunku Panglima Besar, Keat Hwa Secondary School, SMK Guar Chempedak, SMK Yan etc. Private secondary school such as Keat Hwa High School, Sin Min High School and SM Sin Min. Tourism[edit]

Masjid Zahir built in 1912

Tourism is mainly concentrated on Langkawi
Langkawi
Island, the largest island in the archipelago. There are some places of interest on the mainland as well. Kedah
Kedah
Mainland[edit]

Bukit Kayu Hitam

Alor Setar
Alor Setar
Tower – One of the tallest telecommunications tower in the world, standing tall at 165.5-metre in height[24] Balai Nobat Bukit Kayu Hitam Balai Seni Negeri Batu Hampar Waterfall Bujang Valley
Bujang Valley
Archaeological Museum – The only museum in Malaysia
Malaysia
to display archaeological artefacts proving the existence of international trade and development of the Hindu
Hindu
Buddha religion in South-East Asia in the 3rd – 12th century[25] Junjong Waterfall Kota Kuala Kedah Lata Mengkuang Waterfall Lembah Bujang Archaeological Park Pantai Merdeka Pantai Merdeka merupakan pantai percutian yang terletak di tanah besar negeri Kedah. Pantai Merdeka terletak di Daerah Kuala Muda, 60 km ke selatan Alor Setar. Pantai merdeka terletak di selatan muara Sungai Merbok. Dari pantai ini, pengunjung boleh melihat pemandangan indah Gunung Jerai
Gunung Jerai
dengan jelas, pengunjung juga boleh melihat Tanjung Dawai
Tanjung Dawai
yang terletak di Utara Muara Sg. Merbok.[26][better source needed] Pantai Murni Waterfront Pekan Rabu (Wednesday Market) – A multi-storey arcade selling a wide range of traditional delicacies, handicraft products and apparel[27] Rumah Merdeka Seri Perigi Waterfall Sungai Merbok Recreation Park Sungai Sedim Tree Top Walk – The longest canopy walk in the world stretching 950m-long, visitors can enjoy the fabulous sight of rushing streams and truly fascinating flora and fauna all from 50m up[28] Ulu Muda Eco Park Ulu Paip Recreational Forest Hutan Paya Laut Ulu Legong Hot Springs – The only 24-hours hot spring, located 22 km from Baling[29] Titi Hayun Waterfall Kulim Gunung Jerai Zahir Mosque
Zahir Mosque
(Masjid Zahir) – One of Kedah's most distinctive architectural landmarks, it is one of the oldest mosques in the country[30]

Langkawi[edit] See also: Langkawi
Langkawi
§ Tourism The Langkawi
Langkawi
International Airport is located at Padang Matsirat and it is also considered a tourist attraction as the Langkawi International Maritime and Aerospace Exhibition takes place every 2 years near the airport. The airport handled almost 1.2 million passengers and over 41,000 aircraft movements in 2008. It serves as the primary gateway into Langkawi. In 2007, Langkawi
Langkawi
Island was given a World Geopark status by UNESCO.[31] Places of interest[32]

Mount Mat Cincang (Gunung Mat Cincang) Field of Burnt Rice Hot Springs Telaga Tujuh (The Seven Wells) Beach of Black Sand Tasik Dayang Bunting (Lake of the Pregnant Maiden) Gua Cerita (Cave of Stories) Gua Langsir (Curtain Cave)

Sports[edit] In 2006, Kedah
Kedah
hosted the 11th Sukma Games. The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Darul Aman Stadium
Darul Aman Stadium
in Alor Setar. Football is the most favorite sport in kedah as well as sepak raga. Kedah FA
Kedah FA
is a professional football team in Malaysian that represent the state of Kedah
Kedah
and under the supervision of Kedah
Kedah
Football Association. Kedah FA currently play in the Malaysia
Malaysia
Super League, and they are the only team in the history of Malaysian football to ever achieved a double treble titles in 2006–07 and 2007–08 seasons. Bibliography[edit]

James C. Scott, Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance (1985)

See also[edit]

2005 Malaysian haze Breakdown of State Seats Representatives, elected in 2013 Kangkong, Kedah Kedah
Kedah
FA Kingdom of Kubang Pasu Darul Qiyam Kingdom of Setul
Setul
Mambang Segara Proclamation of Malaysia

References[edit]

^ a b "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. 27. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2011.  ^ a b "Population by States and Ethnic Group". Department of Information, Ministry of Communications and Multimedia, Malaysia. 2015. Archived from the original on 12 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2015.  ^ Cyril Skinner, The Civil War in Kelantan
Kelantan
in 1839, Kuala Lumpur: Monographs of the Malaysian Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, 1965. ^ New interest in an older Lembah Bujang, 2010/07/25 Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Asia Research News – USM discovers earliest civilisation in Southeast Asia". Researchsea.com. 10 March 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2014.  ^ "Kadaram and Kataha". Sabrizain. Retrieved 2 February 2014.  ^ "R.O Winstedt – ''History of Kedah'' – Extracted from No. 81 Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (SBRAS), March 1920" (PDF). Retrieved 2 February 2014.  ^ I-Tsing (2005). A Record of the Buddhist
Buddhist
Religion As Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago (A.D. 671–695). Asian Educational Services. pp. xl – xli. ISBN 978-81-206-1622-6.  ^ "Early Malay kingdoms". Sabrizain.org. Retrieved 21 June 2010.  ^ John Norman Miksic, Goh Geok Yian. Ancient Southeast Asia. p. 288. ISBN 9781317279044. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ A history of Malaya, Richard Winstedt, Marican, 1962, p. 36 ^ History of Asia by B.V. Rao p.211 ^ Singapore in Global History by Derek Thiam Soon Heng, Syed Muhd Khairudin Aljunied p.40 ^ Winstedt, Richard (December 1936). "Notes on the History of Kedah". Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 14 (3 (126)): 155–189.  ^ R. Bonney, Kedah
Kedah
1771–1821: The Search for Security and Independence (1971), Ch. VII. ^ Malay Kingship in Kedah: Religion, Trade, and Society by Maziar Mozaffari Falarti p.25 ^ "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. iv. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2011.  ^ a b "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia" (PDF). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. p. 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.  ^ "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia" (PDF) (in Malay and English). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. p. 84. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2012.  ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=W-BOAAAAIBAJ&sjid=0BMEAAAAIBAJ&pg=4077,2727286&dq=kedah+rice+bowl&hl=en ^ State News. Bernama.com.my (18 August 2005). Retrieved on 27 September 2013. ^ Archives The Star Online[permanent dead link]. Thestar.com.my (26 April 2008). Retrieved on 27 September 2013. ^ NCER To Push Up Kedah's Agriculture, Industrial, Tourism Sectors. Bernama.com (16 July 2007). Retrieved on 27 September 2013. ^ " Alor Setar
Alor Setar
Tower". Tourism Malaysia. Archived from the original on 19 May 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.  ^ " Bujang Valley
Bujang Valley
Archaeological Museum, Bukit Batu Pahat". Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved 19 May 2014.  ^ cite webtitle=Pantai Merdekaurl=https://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pantai_Merdeka ^ "Pekan Rabu". Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved 19 May 2014.  ^ "Tree Top Walk Sungai Sedim". Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved 19 May 2014.  ^ "Ulu Legong Hot Spring". Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved 19 May 2014.  ^ "Zahir Mosque". Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved 19 May 2014.  ^ " Langkawi
Langkawi
given geopark status". The Star Online. 8 June 2007. Archived from the original on 9 September 2007. Retrieved 5 December 2009.  ^ " Langkawi
Langkawi
Island". Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved 19 May 2014. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kedah.

Kedah
Kedah
– Virtual Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia
Social Travel Channel Tourism Malaysia
Malaysia
– Kedah Official Langkawi
Langkawi
Website

Places adjacent to Kedah

 Perlis Songkhla Province Yala Province

Straits of Malacca

Kedah, Malaysia

Betong District
Betong District
of Yala Province

 Penang

 Perak

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State of Kedah

Capital: Alor Setar

Topics

Index History Menteris Besar Constitution Elections Geography Monarchy

monarchs

Judiciary Law Legislative Music Kedahans Symbols

Coats of arms Flag

Tourist attractions

Society

Culture Crime Cuisine Demographics Economy Education Politics Language People

Administrative divisions

Districts

Baling
Baling
District Bandar Baharu
Bandar Baharu
District Kota Setar
Kota Setar
District Kuala Muda
Kuala Muda
District Kubang Pasu District Kulim
Kulim
District Langkawi
Langkawi
District Padang Terap
Padang Terap
District Pendang
Pendang
District Pokok Sena
Pokok Sena
District Sik District Yan District

Towns

Alor Tajar Anak Bukit Baling Bedong Bukit Kayu Hitam Bukit Pinang Bukit Selambau Changlun Durian Burung Guar Chempedak Gurun Jeniang Jitra Kepala Batas Kodiang Kota Sarang Semut Kuah Kuala Kedah Kuala Ketil Kuala Nerang Kuala Pegang Kulim Kupang, Kedah Langgar Lunas Merbok Padang Matsirat Padang Serai Pendang Pokok Sena Semeling Serdang Sik Siong, Kedah Sintok Sungai Lalang Sungai Limau Sungai Petani Sungai Seluang Tanjung Dawai Tawar, Baling Tokai Yan

Townships

Bandar Laguna Merbok Bandar Puteri Jaya Bandar Darulaman Lagenda Height Bandar Baru Mergong Tandop Baru Bandar Amanjaya Bandar Stargate Bandar Starcity Bandar Sejahtera Bandar Ambangan

Commons Wikisource Category

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States and federal territories of Malaysia

States

 Johor  Kedah  Kelantan  Melaka  Negeri Sembilan  Pahang  Penang  Perak  Perlis  Sabah  Sarawak  Selangor  Terengganu

Federal Territories

 Kuala Lumpur  Labu

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