Kedah (Malay pronunciation: [kəˈdɑh]; Jawi: قدح), also
known by its honorific Darul Aman or "Abode of Peace",[citation
needed] is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of
Peninsular Malaysia. The state covers a total area of over
9,000 km², and it consists of the mainland and Langkawi. The
mainland has a relatively flat terrain, which is used to grow rice.
Langkawi is an archipelago of islands, most of which are uninhabited.
Kedah was called Kadaram (Tamil: கடாரம்; kadāram) by
ancient and medieval Tamil people and
ไทรบุรี; RTGS: Sai Buri) by the Siamese when it was
under their influence.
To the north,
Kedah borders the state of
Perlis and shares an
international boundary with the Songkhla and Yala provinces of
Thailand. It borders the states of
Perak to the south and
The state's capital is
Alor Setar and the royal seat is in Anak Bukit.
Other major towns include Sungai Petani, and
Kulim on the mainland,
Kuah on Langkawi.
1.1 Early history
1.3 Incorporation into Malaya
Kedah State Assembly
4.2 Administrative divisions
6.1 Public universities and colleges
6.2 Private universities and colleges
6.3 Technical institutes
6.4 Boarding schools
7 Boarding school
7.1 Private and public schools
11 See also
13 External links
British Malaya and Early history of Kedah
Candi Bukit Batu Pahat of Bujang Valley.
Archaeological evidence found in
Bujang Valley (Malay:Lembah Bujang)
reveals that a Hindu–
Buddhist kingdom ruled ancient
as early as 110 A.D. The discovery of temples, jetty remains, iron
smelting sites, and clay brick monuments dating back to 110 A.D shows
that a maritime trading route with south Indian Tamil kingdoms was
already established since that time. The discoveries in Bujang
Valley also made the ancient
Kedah as the oldest civilisation of
Reference to ancient
Kedah was first mentioned in a Tamil poem
Paṭṭiṉappālai written at the end of the 2nd century A.D. It
described goods from Kadaram "heaped together in the broad streets" of
Chola capital. Other than Kadaram,
Kedah was known with different
names at varying times in Indian literature; Kataha-Nagara (in Kaumudi
Mahotsava drama), Anda-Kataha (in Agni Purana), Kataha-Dvipa (in
Samarāiccakahā), and Kataha (in Kathasaritsagara). In the middle
eastern literature, ancient
Kedah was referred as Qilah by Ibn
Khordadbeh in Kitāb al Masālik w'al Mamālik, Kalah-Bar by Soleiman
Siraf & Abu Zaid al Hassan in Silsilat-al-Tawarikh (travels in
Asia), and Kalah by Abu-Dulaf Misa'r Ibn Muhalhil in Al-Risalah
al-thaniyah. The famous
Buddhist monk, Yi Jing who
Malay archipelago between 688–695, also mentioned about a
kingdom known as Ka-Cha in the northern part of Malay peninsular,
which according to him was 30 days sail from Bogha (Palembang), the
capital of Sribogha (Srivijaya).
In the 7th and 8th centuries,
Kedah was under the loose control of
Srivijaya. Indian and Arab sources consider
Kedah to be one of the
two important sites during the
Srivijaya period, often calling the
king of the straits "the ruler of
Srivijaya and Kataha". In 1025,
Rajendra Chola, the
Chola king from Coromandel in South India,
Kedah in his invasion of
Srivijaya and occupied it for some
time. A second invasion was led by Virarajendra
Chola of the Chola
dynasty who conquered
Kedah in the late 11th century. During the
reign of Kulothunga
Chola overlordship was established over
the Sri Vijaya province
Kedah in the late 11th century.
Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa
Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa or the
founded by a
Hindu king named Merong Mahawangsa. According to the text
Sultanate of Kedah
Sultanate of Kedah started in year 1136 when King Phra
Ong Mahawangsa converted to
Islam and adopted the name Sultan Mudzafar
Shah. However, an Acehnese account gave a date of 1474 for the year of
Islam by the ruler of Kedah. This later date accords
with an account in the
Malay Annals where a raja of
Malacca during the reign of its last sultan seeking the honour of the
royal band that marks the sovereignty of a
It was later under Siam, until it was conquered by the Malay sultanate
Malacca in the 15th century. In the 17th century,
attacked by the Portuguese after their conquest of Malacca, and by
Aceh. In the hope that Great Britain would protect what remained of
Kedah from Siam, the sultan handed over
Penang and then Province
Wellesley to the British at the end of the 18th century. The Siamese
Kedah in 1821, and it remained under Siamese
control under the name of Syburi. In 1896,
Kedah along with
Setul was combined into the Siamese province of Monthon
lasted until transferred to the British by the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of
Incorporation into Malaya
See also: Si Rat Malai
In World War II,
Kedah (along with Kelantan) was the first part of
Malaya to be invaded by Japan. The Japanese returned
Kedah to their
Thai allies who had it renamed Syburi, but it returned to British rule
after the end of the war.
Kedah was a reluctant
addition to the
Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya in 1948.
Since 1958, the hereditary
Sultan of Kedah
Sultan of Kedah has been Tuanku Abdul Halim
Mu'adzam Shah. The
Kedah Sultanate began when the 9th
Derbar Raja or Phra Ong Mahawangsa, converted to
Islam and changed his
name to Sultan Mudzafar Shah I. Since then there have been 27 Sultans
who ruled Kedah.
Alor Setar is the tallest tower in Kedah.
Kedah is the 8th largest state by land area and 8th most populated
state in Malaysia, with a total land area of 9,500 km2
(3,700 sq mi), and a population of 1,890,098.
Pedu Lake is the largest man-made lake in the state.
Kedah has a relatively heterogeneous populace constituted by three
major ethnic groups; the Malays, Chinese and Indians as well as some
Malaysian Siamese ethnic groups, similar to most of the other
Malaysian states. Prior to the formation of the Federation of Malaya,
there was an ethnic group known as the Sam Sam people. They are
Muslim but speak Siamese language. Most of these
communities are almost extinct due to assimilation with the Malays. In
some places in Kedah, the Sam Sam people still retain their Siamese
language as their mother tongue. These communities can be found in
Kuala Nerang District and Kubang Pasu District
(Changlun, Kodiang, Jitra, Wang Tepus, Guar Napai, Malau, Ason and
Kedah has a very small
Orang Asli community.
Orang Asli only
can be found in the
Baling district.
Like most parts of Malaysia,
Kedah is home to various languages and
dialects. The majority language of
Kedah Malay, known
natively by locals as Pelat Utagha (Northern dialect), it is a
distinct variety of Malay which also serves as the state's main lingua
franca and is used by almost all Kedahans regardless of race. Kedah
Malay has many sub-dialects which differs from district to district
and is also spoken outside of its boundaries such as Penang, Perlis,
Perak and even as far as
Kedah Malay, another distinct variety of Malay known
Baling Malay (Cakak Baling) is mainly spoken in
Baling district as
well as some parts of Sik and Yan districts. Baling, along with Grik
Malay is part of Reman Malay, an offshoot of
Kelantan-Pattani Malay of
which it was descended from the people of the
Kingdom of Reman
Kingdom of Reman of
which once ruled the
Baling and Grik regions before it was dissolved
and became part of three distinct political entities namely Kedah,
Perak and Yala (Thailand).
Besides Malay, there are also various minority languages spoken
Aslian languages such as Jahai, Kensiu and Kintaq
are spoken by the small
Orang Asli populations mostly in the inland
region. The Chinese in
Kedah also speaks various varieties of Chinese
such as Mandarin,
Hokkien (majority), Teochew,
Cantonese and so on.
There are also a small but well established Indian community mostly of
ethnic Tamil and
Punjabis and also smaller number of Telugus who speak
their own respective languages.
Kedah is also home to a large
community of ethnic Siamese of which it has its own distinct dialect
Thai language which is different from ones spoken in Kelantan
(which also has a large Siamese population) and Standard Thai.
The population of
Kedah in 2015 was 2,071,900. It was made up of 76%
Bumiputra (Malays and others), 12.7% Chinese, 6.9% Indian, 0.9% others
and 3.4% non-Malaysian. The following is based on 2015 figures from
the Department of Statistics Malaysia.
Ethnic groups in Kedah, 2015
Kedah – 2010 Census
Unknown / None
Chinese Ethnic Religion
As of 2010 the population of
Kedah is 77.2% Muslim, 14.2% Buddhist,
6.7% Hindu, 0.8% Christian, 0.6% unknown / none, 0.3% Taoist or
Chinese religion followers, 0.1% followers of other religions, and
Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 94.3% of the Chinese
population are identified as Buddhists, with significant minorities of
adherents identifying as Christians (2.4%), Chinese folk religions
(2.4%) and Muslims (0.4%). The majority of the Indian population are
Hindus (91.7%), with a significant minorities of numbers identifying
as Christians (3.7%), Muslims (2.4%) and Buddhists (1.3%). The
non-Malay bumiputera community are predominantly Christians (39.7%),
with significant minorities identifying as Muslims (26.9%) and
Buddhists (26.3%). All Malays are Muslims.
Kedah's Constitution was promulgated by its Ruler in July
1950. The various provisions laid down in the
Constitution include the role and powers of the Monarch, the State
Parliament and the State's Civil Service.
Sultan of Kedah
Sultan of Kedah is the constitutional ruler of the State. His
position is hereditary and he holds office for life. The Ruler is the
head of the religion of
Islam in the State and the executive power of
the state government is vested in him. The current Sultan is Tunku
Mahmud Sallehuddin, who has reigned on September 12, 2017 after his
Abdul Halim of Kedah
Abdul Halim of Kedah died on September 11, 2017.
The State Executive Council, which along with the Sultan is Kedah's
executive branch of government. It is composed of the Menteri Besar,
who is its chairman and Kedah's head of government, and ten other
Menteri Besar and other members of the council are
appointed by the
Sultan of Kedah
Sultan of Kedah from members of the Dewan Undangan
Negeri (State Assembly).
Kedah State Assembly
See Also:Breakdown of State Seats Representatives elected 2013
The state also has a legislative branch, called the State assembly. It
is similar to the Parliament but is limited to making laws relating to
the state. Its members are elected in elections which are usually held
simultaneously with federal elections. The term of each state assembly
member is limited to five years. The state assembly must be dissolved
before or once it expires its term for a fresh election to elect its
Kedah is divided into 12 administrative districts. These 12
districts, are further divided into administrative Municipal councils
(Majlis Bandaraya/Perbandaran and Daerah):
Bandar Baharu contains Serdang
Bandar Baharu (MDBB)
Kota Setar, contains Alor Setar
Alor Setar (MBAS)
Kuala Muda contains Sungai Petani
Sungai Petani (MPSPK)
Majlis Daerah Kubang Pasu (MDKP)
Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan Perindustrian Hi-Tech
Kulim (HI-TECH Kulim)
Langkawi contains Kuah
Langkawi Bandaraya Pelancongan (MPLBP)
Padang Terap (MDPT)
Alor Setar (MBAS)
Majlis Daerah Sik (MDS)
Majlis Daerah Yan (MDY)
A paddy field in Kedah.
Kedah is considered the "rice bowl" (Malay: Jelapang Padi) of
Malaysia, accounting for about half of Malaysia's total production of
rice. In 2008, the state government banned the conversion of paddy
fields to housing and industrial lots to protect the rice
Tourism, particularly on the island of
Langkawi is of growing
Kedah has forged its economy towards the automotive and
aerospace industries with
Modenas and Asian Composites setting up
bases here. One of the main advantages is the low
labour costs and the infrastructure in place with the North–South
Expressway and the
Penang International Airport close by. In 1996, the
Kulim Hi-Tech Park was officially opened as the first high technology
industrial park in Malaysia. The Park comprises a
total land area of approximately 14.5 square kilometres
According to the Ninth
Malaysia Plan, this economic area is part of
Northern Corridor Economic Region
Northern Corridor Economic Region (NCER). The Northern
Corridor Economic Region is one of three development regions formed in
Peninsular Malaysia; other development regions being the Iskandar
Malaysia (or South
Johor Economic Region) and the East Coast
Public universities and colleges
The state has a campus of Universiti Utara
Malaysia (UUM), which is
located in Bandar Baru Sintok. It was formally incorporated on 16
February 1984. The University was established with the specific
mission of providing a leadership role for management education in the
country. The academic establishments in UUM include College of
Business (COB), College of Law, Government and International Studies
(COLGIS) and College of Arts and Sciences (CAS).
Kedah also has several public universities and colleges such as
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) in Merbok, the Malaysian Spanish
Universiti Kuala Lumpur
Universiti Kuala Lumpur (UniKL MSI) and the Polytechnic
Institute of Sultanah Bahiyah (PSB) in Kulim, the Asian Institute of
Medicine, Science and Technology (AIMST University) in Bedong, Kolej
Universiti Insaniah (KUIN) in Mergong and the Polytechnic Institute of
Sultan Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah (POLIMAS) in Jitra.
There are 2 teacher training institution in Kedah, Institut Pendidikan
Guru Kampus Sultan Abdul Halim (IPGKSAH) in
Sungai Petani and Institut
Pendidikan Guru Kampus Darul Aman (IPGKDA) in
Bandar Darulaman that
are set up by the government to provide teaching courses for trainee
Private universities and colleges
Private universities and colleges that are located in
Open University of
Malaysia (OUM) Regional Learning Center for the
Perlis at Sungai Petani, the Albukhary
International University in Alor Setar, Pusat Bahasa Titian Jaya the
PTPL College and the Cosmopoint College.
Kedah houses three technical institutes that are affiliated with MARA,
that is Institut Kemahiran MARA Sungai Petani, Institut Kemahiran MARA
Alor Setar and Institut Kemahiran MARA Sik.
Merbok in Kedah
This state also has several boarding schools such as Sekolah Berasrama
MARA Junior Science College
MARA Junior Science College or MRSM.
Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Kubang Pasu
Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Langkawi
Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Merbok
Maktab Rendah Sains MARA PDRM Kulim
Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Pendang
Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Baling
Sekolah Menengah Sains Sultan Mohamad Jiwa (SAINS KEDAH)
Sekolah Menengah Sains
Pokok Sena (SAINA)
Sekolah Menengah Sultan Abdul Halim (SMSAH)
Sekolah Berasrama Penuh
Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Kubang Pasu (I-KUPA)
Sekolah Menengah Sains Kubang Pasu (KUPSIS)
Private and public schools
Chio Min Secondary School, Kulim, Kedah.
Consists of several private and public primary school or secondary
school. Public secondary school such as SMK Taman Jelutong, Keat Hwa
Secondary School, Convent Secondary School (Formerly known as St.
Nicholas Convent Secondary School), Kolej Sultan Abdul Hamid, Sekolah
Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Badlishah, Sin Min Secondary School, Chio
Min Secondary School, SMK Sultanah Asma, SMK Convent Father Barre, SMK
Khir Johari, SMK Aman Jaya, SMK Bedong, SMK Bakar Arang, SMK
Darulaman, SMK Ibrahim, K Jit, SMK Mahsuri, SMK Tunku Panglima Besar,
Keat Hwa Secondary School, SMK Guar Chempedak, SMK Yan etc. Private
secondary school such as Keat Hwa High School, Sin Min High School and
SM Sin Min.
Masjid Zahir built in 1912
Tourism is mainly concentrated on
Langkawi Island, the largest island
in the archipelago. There are some places of interest on the mainland
Bukit Kayu Hitam
Alor Setar Tower – One of the tallest telecommunications tower in
the world, standing tall at 165.5-metre in height
Bukit Kayu Hitam
Balai Seni Negeri
Batu Hampar Waterfall
Bujang Valley Archaeological Museum – The only museum in
display archaeological artefacts proving the existence of
international trade and development of the
Hindu Buddha religion in
South-East Asia in the 3rd – 12th century
Kota Kuala Kedah
Lata Mengkuang Waterfall
Lembah Bujang Archaeological Park
Pantai Merdeka –
Pantai Merdeka merupakan pantai percutian yang
terletak di tanah besar negeri Kedah.
Pantai Merdeka terletak di
Daerah Kuala Muda, 60 km ke selatan Alor Setar. Pantai merdeka
terletak di selatan muara Sungai Merbok. Dari pantai ini, pengunjung
boleh melihat pemandangan indah
Gunung Jerai dengan jelas, pengunjung
juga boleh melihat
Tanjung Dawai yang terletak di Utara Muara Sg.
Merbok.[better source needed]
Pantai Murni Waterfront
Pekan Rabu (Wednesday Market) – A multi-storey arcade selling a wide
range of traditional delicacies, handicraft products and apparel
Seri Perigi Waterfall
Merbok Recreation Park
Sungai Sedim Tree Top Walk – The longest canopy walk in the world
stretching 950m-long, visitors can enjoy the fabulous sight of rushing
streams and truly fascinating flora and fauna all from 50m up
Ulu Muda Eco Park
Ulu Paip Recreational Forest
Hutan Paya Laut
Ulu Legong Hot Springs – The only 24-hours hot spring, located
22 km from Baling
Titi Hayun Waterfall
Zahir Mosque (Masjid Zahir) – One of Kedah's most distinctive
architectural landmarks, it is one of the oldest mosques in the
Langkawi § Tourism
Langkawi International Airport is located at
Padang Matsirat and
it is also considered a tourist attraction as the Langkawi
International Maritime and Aerospace Exhibition takes place every 2
years near the airport. The airport handled almost 1.2 million
passengers and over 41,000 aircraft movements in 2008. It serves as
the primary gateway into Langkawi.
Langkawi Island was given a World Geopark status by
Places of interest
Mount Mat Cincang (Gunung Mat Cincang)
Field of Burnt Rice
Telaga Tujuh (The Seven Wells)
Beach of Black Sand
Tasik Dayang Bunting (Lake of the Pregnant Maiden)
Gua Cerita (Cave of Stories)
Gua Langsir (Curtain Cave)
Kedah hosted the 11th Sukma Games. The opening and closing
ceremonies were held at the
Darul Aman Stadium
Darul Aman Stadium in Alor Setar. Football
is the most favorite sport in kedah as well as sepak raga.
Kedah FA is
a professional football team in Malaysian that represent the state of
Kedah and under the supervision of
Kedah Football Association. Kedah
FA currently play in the
Malaysia Super League, and they are the only
team in the history of Malaysian football to ever achieved a double
treble titles in 2006–07 and 2007–08 seasons.
James C. Scott, Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant
2005 Malaysian haze
Breakdown of State Seats Representatives, elected in 2013
Kingdom of Kubang Pasu Darul Qiyam
Setul Mambang Segara
Proclamation of Malaysia
^ a b "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia.
p. 27. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 24
^ a b "Population by States and Ethnic Group". Department of
Information, Ministry of Communications and Multimedia, Malaysia.
2015. Archived from the original on 12 February 2016. Retrieved 12
^ Cyril Skinner, The Civil War in
Kelantan in 1839, Kuala Lumpur:
Monographs of the Malaysian Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, 1965.
^ New interest in an older Lembah Bujang, 2010/07/25 Archived 29 June
2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Asia Research News – USM discovers earliest civilisation in
Southeast Asia". Researchsea.com. 10 March 2010. Retrieved 2 February
^ "Kadaram and Kataha". Sabrizain. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
^ "R.O Winstedt – ''History of Kedah'' – Extracted from No. 81
Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (SBRAS), March 1920"
(PDF). Retrieved 2 February 2014.
^ I-Tsing (2005). A Record of the
Buddhist Religion As Practised in
India and the Malay Archipelago (A.D. 671–695). Asian Educational
Services. pp. xl – xli. ISBN 978-81-206-1622-6.
^ "Early Malay kingdoms". Sabrizain.org. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
^ John Norman Miksic, Goh Geok Yian. Ancient Southeast Asia.
p. 288. ISBN 9781317279044. CS1 maint: Uses authors
^ A history of Malaya, Richard Winstedt, Marican, 1962, p. 36
^ History of Asia by B.V. Rao p.211
^ Singapore in Global History by Derek Thiam Soon Heng, Syed Muhd
Khairudin Aljunied p.40
^ Winstedt, Richard (December 1936). "Notes on the History of Kedah".
Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 14 (3
^ R. Bonney,
Kedah 1771–1821: The Search for Security and
Independence (1971), Ch. VII.
^ Malay Kingship in Kedah: Religion, Trade, and Society by Maziar
Mozaffari Falarti p.25
^ "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia.
p. iv. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 24
^ a b "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia" (PDF).
Department of Statistics, Malaysia. p. 13. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
^ "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia" (PDF) (in Malay and
English). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. p. 84. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 17 June
^ State News. Bernama.com.my (18 August 2005). Retrieved on 27
^ Archives The Star Online[permanent dead link]. Thestar.com.my (26
April 2008). Retrieved on 27 September 2013.
^ NCER To Push Up Kedah's Agriculture, Industrial, Tourism Sectors.
Bernama.com (16 July 2007). Retrieved on 27 September 2013.
Alor Setar Tower". Tourism Malaysia. Archived from the original on
19 May 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
Bujang Valley Archaeological Museum, Bukit Batu Pahat". Tourism
Malaysia. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
^ cite webtitle=Pantai
^ "Pekan Rabu". Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
^ "Tree Top Walk Sungai Sedim". Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved 19 May
^ "Ulu Legong Hot Spring". Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved 19 May
^ "Zahir Mosque". Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
Langkawi given geopark status". The Star Online. 8 June 2007.
Archived from the original on 9 September 2007. Retrieved 5 December
Langkawi Island". Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kedah.
Kedah – Virtual
Malaysia Social Travel Channel
Malaysia – Kedah
Places adjacent to Kedah
Straits of Malacca
Betong District of Yala Province
State of Kedah
Capital: Alor Setar
Coats of arms
Bandar Baharu District
Kota Setar District
Kuala Muda District
Kubang Pasu District
Padang Terap District
Pokok Sena District
Bukit Kayu Hitam
Kota Sarang Semut
Bandar Laguna Merbok
Bandar Puteri Jaya
Bandar Baru Mergong
States and federal territories of Malaysia