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The KAZAKH KHANATE (Kazakh : Қазақ Хандығы, Qazaq Xandığı, قازاق حاندىعى) was a successor of the Golden Horde existing from the 15th to 19th century, located roughly on the territory of the present-day Republic of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
. At its height the khanate ruled from eastern Cumania
Cumania
(modern-day West Kazakhstan) to most of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
, Karakalpakstan
Karakalpakstan
and the Syr Darya
Syr Darya
river with military confrontation as far as Astrakhan
Astrakhan
and Khorasan Province , which is now in Iran. Slaves were also captured by frequent Kazakh raids into territory belonging to Russia
Russia
, Central Asia
Central Asia
, and Western Siberia
Siberia
( Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
) during the Kazakh Khanate. The Khanate was later weakened by a series of Oirat and Dzungar invasions, devastating raids and warfare. These resulted in decline and further disintegration into three Jüz
Jüz
-es, which gradually lost their sovereignty and were incorporated to the expanding Russian Empire
Russian Empire
. Its establishment marked the beginning of Kazakh statehood whose 550th anniversary was celebrated in 2015.

From the sixteenth through the early nineteenth century, the most powerful nomadic people were the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
and the Oirats.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Janybek Khan and Kerey Khan (1465–1480) * 1.2 Burunduk Khan (1480–1511) * 1.3 Kasym Khan (1511–1521) * 1.4 Expansion of the Kazakh Khanate
Kazakh Khanate
* 1.5 Mumash Khan (1521–1523) * 1.6 Tahir Khan (1523–1529) * 1.7 Buidash Khan (1529–1533) * 1.8 Togym Khan (1533–1538) * 1.9 Khak-Nazar Khan (1537–1580) * 1.10 Shygai Khan (1580–1582) * 1.11 Tauekel Khan (1582–1598) * 1.12 Esim Khan (1598–1628) * 1.13 Salqam-Jangir Khan (1629–1680) * 1.14 Tauke Khan (1680–1718) * 1.15 Ablai Khan
Ablai Khan
(1771–1781) * 1.16 Kenesary Khan (1841–1847)

* 2 Disintegration of Khanate and Russian conquest

* 3 Slavery

* 3.1 Kazakh Khanate
Kazakh Khanate
slave trade on Russian settlement * 3.2 Russian empire slave trade on Kazakh settlement * 3.3 Abolition of slavery

* 4 550th Anniversary * 5 See also * 6 References

HISTORY

The Kazakh Khanate
Kazakh Khanate
was founded in 1456-1465 by Janybek Khan and Kerey Khan , on the banks of Jetsu ("seven rivers") in the southeastern part of the present-day Republic of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
. The founding of the Kazakh Khanate is considered the ethnogenesis of the Kazakh nation. The formation of the independent Kazakh Khanate
Kazakh Khanate
began when several tribes under the rule of sultans Janybek and Kerey departed from the Khanate of Abu\'l-Khayr Khan . The sultans led their people toward Mogolistan , eventually settling and founding an independent state. The new Khanate soon became a buffer state between the Mongolians and the Khanate of Abu'l-Khayr. From the sixteenth through the early nineteenth century, the most powerful nomadic people were the Kazakhs and the Oirats.

JANYBEK KHAN AND KEREY KHAN (1465–1480)

Although both Janybek Khan and Kerey Khan were considered the founding rulers of the Kazakh Khanate, it was Kerei Khan who initially wielded the most power. Upon the death of Kerei Khan in 1470, Janybek Khan became the sole ruler. The early years of the Kazakh Khanate
Kazakh Khanate
were marked by struggles for control of the steppe against the Uzbek leader Muhammad Shaybani
Muhammad Shaybani
. In 1470, the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
defeated Muhammad Shaybani
Muhammad Shaybani
at the city of Turkistan , forcing the Uzbeks
Uzbeks
to retreat south to Samarkand
Samarkand
and Bukhara
Bukhara
.

BURUNDUK KHAN (1480–1511)

In 1480 Kerei Khan 's son Burunduk became khan. During his reign the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
were able to muster an army of 50,000 men and to repeatedly defeat the forces of Muhammad Shaybani
Muhammad Shaybani
along the Syr Darya
Syr Darya
river.

KASYM KHAN (1511–1521)

The manuscript of "Tarikh-Safavi", written in ancient Persian by Persian historians, wrote about Kasim Khan, ruler of Dasht-i-Kipchak. The manuscript describes how a Kazakh squad of soldiers helped Khan Sheibani of Bukhara
Bukhara
annex the Iranian city of Khorasan. Kasim Khan committed a squad of eight thousand dzhigits and Khorasan was taken.

EXPANSION OF THE KAZAKH KHANATE

Greatest extent of Kazakh Khanate.

During the reign of Kasym Khan , the territories of the Kazakh Khanate expanded considerably. As Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat
Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat
later wrote in his Tarikh-i-Rashidi, " Kasym Khan now brought the Dasht-i-Kipchak under his absolute control, in a manner that no one, with the exception of Jochi
Jochi
, had ever done before. His army exceeded a thousand thousand". Kasym Khan instituted the first Kazakh code of laws in 1520, called "Қасым ханның қасқа жолы" (transliterated, "Qasım xannıñ qasqa jolı" — "Bright Road of Kasym Khan"). Kasym Khan also ratified his alliance with the Timurid leader Babur
Babur
, particularly after the fall of the Shaybanids , and was thus praised by the Mughals and the populace of Samarqand
Samarqand
.

MUMASH KHAN (1521–1523)

Manṣūr Khān led an expedition against the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
in 1521 in response to their raids from Sayram into the Farghana . Thereafter, Sayram remained out of the hands of the Uzbeks
Uzbeks
and came under control of the Kazakhs.

TAHIR KHAN (1523–1529)

BUIDASH KHAN (1529–1533)

TOGYM KHAN (1533–1538)

KHAK-NAZAR KHAN (1537–1580)

Under Khak-Nazar Khan, also known as Haq-Nazar Khan or Ak Nazar Khan, the Kazakh Khanate
Kazakh Khanate
faced competition from several directions: the Nogai Horde
Nogai Horde
in the west, the Khanate of Sibir
Khanate of Sibir
in the north, Moghulistan
Moghulistan
in the east and the Khanate of Bukhara
Bukhara
in the south. Initially, Khak-Nazar Khan led the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
in two major battles against Khanate of Bukhara
Bukhara
at Tashkent
Tashkent
, then against the Chagatai leader Abdur-Rashid Khan . In 1568, the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
successfully defeated the Nogai Horde
Nogai Horde
at the Emba River and reached Astrakhan
Astrakhan
, but were repelled by Russian forces.

SHYGAI KHAN (1580–1582)

TAUEKEL KHAN (1582–1598)

Tauekel Khan expanded control of the Kazakh Khanate
Kazakh Khanate
over Tashkent
Tashkent
, Fergana , Andijan
Andijan
and Samarkand
Samarkand
. In 1598, Kazakh forces approached Bukhara
Bukhara
and besieged it for 12 days, but afterwards the Bukharan leader Pir-Muhammad and reinforcements under the command of his brother Baki-Muhammad pushed back the Kazakhs. In that battle, Tauekel Khan was wounded, and died during the retreat back to Tashkent
Tashkent
.

ESIM KHAN (1598–1628)

After the death of Tauekel Khan came Esim Sultan, son of Sheehan Khan. His reign was the time of the next (third) strengthening of the Kazakh Khanate
Kazakh Khanate
after Kasim Khan and Khak-Nazar Khan. Esim Khan moved the capital of the khanate to Sygnak in Turkestan
Turkestan
and suppressed the revolts of the Karakalpaks.

There followed a 15-year period of calm between the Kazakh Khanate and the Khanate of Bukhara.

Esim Khan established peace with the Khanate of Bukhara
Bukhara
and returned control of Samarkand
Samarkand
to them. However, Bukhara
Bukhara
was still bitter about the loss of Tashkent
Tashkent
, which led to additional conflicts. Starting in 1607, the Khanate of Bukhara
Bukhara
engaged in several battles and eventually obtained control of Tashkent.

Esim Khan united the Kazakh army and began a campaign against the Tashkent
Tashkent
Khan Tursun Muhammad and Khan of Bukhara. In 1627, he defeated the enemy. Esim Khan abolished the Tashkent
Tashkent
Khanate and the war finally ended.

SALQAM-JANGIR KHAN (1629–1680)

During Salqam-Jangir Khan's reign, a new and powerful rival of the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
appeared in the east, known as the Zunghar Khanate . The Zunghar had recently converted to Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
and their Erdeni Batur believed he could reestablish the 13th-century empire of Genghis Khan . However, much had changed since the days of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
, and the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
, like the Kirghiz and the Tatars
Tatars
, had almost entirely converted to Islam
Islam
under the authority of Emir
Emir
Timur
Timur
, who also reestablished new centers of power such as Samarqand
Samarqand
and Bukhara , which had greatly influenced the founding of the Kazakh Khanate.

In 1652, the Zunghar leader Erdeni Batur attempted to eliminate the Kazakh Khanate
Kazakh Khanate
and its inhabitants; he dispatched more than 50,000 Zunghar warriors against the Kazakh Khanate, which refused to submit to him. The early stages of their ferocious conflict took place in the Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
and later battles were fought on the vast steppes. Unable to halt the advance of the Zunghars, the Kazakh Ghazis and their leader Salqam-Jangir Khan's forces were defeated. Unfortunately in the year 1680, Salqam-Jangir Khan died in battle, protecting his people against the Zunghars.

TAUKE KHAN (1680–1718)

Tauke Khan was elected as the leader of the Kazakh Khanate immediately after the death of Salqam-Jangir Khan, and he led the battered Kazakh warriors across the steppes to resist the advance of the Zunghars . Unfortunately the already weakened Kazakhs
Kazakhs
were once again faced with defeat at Sayram and soon lost many major cities to the Zunghars.

Tauke Khan soon sought alliances with the Kirghiz in the southeast who were also facing a Zunghar invasion in their Issyk-Kul Lake
Issyk-Kul Lake
region and even the Uyghurs
Uyghurs
of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
. In 1687, Zunghars besieged Hazrat-e Turkestan and were forced to retreat after the arrival of Subhan Quli Khan.

In 1697, Tsewang Rabtan became the leader of the Zunghar Khanate , and he dispatched several of his commanders to subjugate Tauke Khan and many major wars between the Zunghars and the Kazakh Khanate continued into the following years: 1709, 1711—1712, 1714 and 1718. The Kazakh Khanate
Kazakh Khanate
had indeed been weakened by the confrontation and nearly one-third of their population had been lost by the ensuing conflict. With Tauke Khan's death in 1718, the Kazakh Khanate splintered into three Jüz
Jüz
— the Great jüz , the Middle jüz
Middle jüz
and the Little jüz
Little jüz
. Each Jüz
Jüz
had its own Khan from this time onward.

Tauke Khan is also known for refining the Kazakh code of laws, and reissuing it under the title "Жеті Жарғы" (transliterated, "Jeti Jarği"—"Seven Charters").

ABLAI KHAN (1771–1781)

Ablai Khan
Ablai Khan
was a khan of the Middle jüz
Middle jüz
or Horde who managed to extend his control over the other two jüzes to include all of the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
. Before he became khan, Ablai participated in the wars against the Zunghars and proved himself a talented organizer and commander. He led numerous campaigns against the Kokand Khanate and the Kyrgyz. In the latter campaign his troops liberated many cities in Southern Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and even captured Tashkent. During his actual reign, Ablai Khan
Ablai Khan
did his best to keep Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
as independent as possible from the encroaching Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and the Chinese Qing dynasty . He employed a multi-vector foreign policy to protect the tribes from Chinese and Dzungar aggressors. He also sheltered the Dzungar Oirat taishas Amursana
Amursana
and Dawachi
Dawachi
from attacks by the Khoshut -Orait King of Tibet
Tibet
, Lha-bzang Khan
Lha-bzang Khan
, as the Dzungar Khanate fractured following the death of Galdan Tseren in 1745. However, once Amursana
Amursana
and Dawachi
Dawachi
were no longer allies, Ablai Khan
Ablai Khan
took the opportunity to capture herds and territory from the Dzungars.

KENESARY KHAN (1841–1847)

Kenesary was the last Kazakh Khan , and the leader of national liberation movement that resisted the capture of Kazakh lands and segregation policies by the Russian Empire. He was the grandson of Ablai Khan
Ablai Khan
and is largely regarded as the last ruler of the Kazakh Khanate.

By the mid 19th century, the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
fell under the full control of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and were banned from electing their own leader or even given representation in the empire's legislative structures. All fiscal/tax collections were also taken away from local Kazakh representatives and given to Russian administrators. Kenesary Khan fought against the Russian imperial forces until his death in 1847.

In 1841, at an all-Kazakh Kurultai , Kenesary was elected as Khan (supreme leader) by all Kazakh representatives. The ceremony of coronation followed all Kazakh traditions.

As a freedom fighter and popular as a leading voice against the increasingly aggressive and forceful policies of the Russian Empire, Kenesary was ruthless in his actions and unpredictable as a military strategist. By 1846, however, his resistance movement had lost momentum as some of his rich associates had defected to the Russian Empire, having been bribed and been promised great riches. Betrayed, Kenesary Khan grew increasingly suspicious of the remaining members of the Resistance, possibly further alienating them. In 1847, the Khan of the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
met his death in Kyrgyz lands during his assault on northern Kyrgyz tribes. He was executed by Ormon Khan, the Kyrgyz khan who was subsequently rewarded by the Russians
Russians
with a larger estate and an official administrative role. Kenesary Khan's head was cut off and sent to the Russians.

Over the last decade, Kenesary Khan has been increasingly regarded as a hero in Kazakh literature and media. Kenesary Khan can be seen on the shore of the river Esil in the capital of Kazakhstan, Astana
Astana
.

DISINTEGRATION OF KHANATE AND RUSSIAN CONQUEST

Main article: Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
Approximate areas occupied by the three Kazakh Jüzes in the early 20th century. Green represents the Junior Jüz
Jüz
, orange represents the Middle jüz and red represents the Senior Jüz
Jüz
.

Gradual decline, disintegration and accession of Kazakh territories into the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
began in the mid-18th and ended in the second part of the 19th century. By the mid-18th century, as a result of long-lasting armed conflicts with Dzungars and Oirats
Oirats
, the Kazakh Khanate had started to decline and further disintegrate into three Jüzes , which formerly constituted the Kazakh Khanate
Kazakh Khanate
in a confederate form.

The Russians
Russians
fabricated documention stating that: Battered by warfare, seeking external military support the Khan of the Junior Jüz , Abul Khair signs a protectorate agreement with the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
. Retaining his title as ruler and all other powers, he pledges allegiance to the Russian Crown. But in the original text there is no word about a protectorate or seeking external power. Abul Khair Khan wrote a letter to the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
asking them not to disturb relative of his nation's bashkorts.

By the mid-19th century some tribes of the Middle Jüz
Jüz
started war with the Russian occupiers. However the process was long and filled with lots of minor and major armed conflicts and resistance.

Russian colonial policies/strategies brought military fortresses, lots of settlements, and externally imposed rules into Kazakh lands. A series of laws were introduced by the Russian Empire, abolishing local indigenous government in the form of Khan rule, instituting segregative settlement policies, etc., resulting in numerous uprisings against colonial rule. Significant resistance movements were led by leaders such as Isatay Taymanuly (1836-1837), Makhambet Utemisuly (1836-1838) and Eset Kotibaruli (1847-1858).

Meanwhile, the Senior Jüz
Jüz
sided with the Emirate of Bukhara
Bukhara
and the Khanate of Kokand
Khanate of Kokand
from the south, and started opposing the expansion of the Russian Empire.

Full Russian rule over all Kazakh lands was established in the second half of the 19th century, after the southern towns of Aq-Meshit , Shymkent
Shymkent
, Aulie-Ata and others were taken by the Russian Imperial Army.

SLAVERY

The Kazakh-Russian relationship at the border regions was tense, which often resulted in mutual raids by Russian Cossacks
Cossacks
on Kazakh lands and Kazakhs
Kazakhs
on Russian settlements.

KAZAKH KHANATE SLAVE TRADE ON RUSSIAN SETTLEMENT

During the 18th century, raids by Kazakhs
Kazakhs
on Russia's territory of Orenburg
Orenburg
were common; the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
captured many Russians
Russians
and sold them as slaves in the Central Asian market. The Volga Germans
Volga Germans
were also victims of Kazakh raids; they were ethnic Germans living along the River Volga
River Volga
in the region of southeastern European Russia
Russia
around Saratov
Saratov
.

In 1717, 3,000 Russian slaves, men, women, and children, were sold in Khiva by Kazakh and Kyrgyz tribesmen.

In 1722, they stole cattle, robbed from Russian villages and people trapped in captivity and sold in the slave markets of Central Asia
Central Asia
(in 1722 in Bukhara
Bukhara
were over 5,000 Russian prisoners). In the middle of the 17th century, 500 Russians
Russians
were annually sold to Khiva by Kazakhs.

In 1730, the Kazakhs' frequent raids into Russian lands were a constant irritant and resulted in the enslavement of many of the Tsar's subjects, who were sold on the Kazakh steppe.

In 1736, urged on by Kirilov, the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
of the Lesser and Middle Hordes launched raids into Bashkir lands, killing or capturing many Bashkirs
Bashkirs
in the Siberian and Nogay districts.

In 1743, an order was given by the senate in response to the failure to defend against the Kazakh attack on a Russian settlement, which resulted in 14 Russians
Russians
killed, 24 wounded. In addition 96 Cossacks were captured by Kazakhs.

In 1755 Nepliev tried to enlist Kazakh support by ending the reprisal raids and promising that the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
could keep the Bashkir women and children, and organized the massacre of 10,000 Bashkirs
Bashkirs
by the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
during the Bashkir rising.

In the period between 1764 and 1803, according to data collected by the Orenburg
Orenburg
Commission, twenty Russian caravans were attacked and plundered. Kazakh raiders attacked even big caravans which were accompanied by numerous guards.

In spring 1774, the Russians
Russians
demanded the Khan return 256 Russians captured by a recent Kazakh raid.

In summer 1774, when Russian troops in the Kazan region were suppressing the rebellion led by the Cossack
Cossack
leader Pugachev
Pugachev
, the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
launched more than 240 raids and captured many Russians
Russians
and herds along the border of Orenburg
Orenburg
.

Darrel P. Kaiser wrote, "Kazakh -Kirghiz tribesmen kidnapped 1573 German settlers in Russia. In 1774 alone and only half were successfully ransomed. The rest were killed or enslaved. "

Caesarfeld, founded in 1774, was attacked by Kazakh or Kirghiz tribesmen and destroyed. The Catholic village of Chaisol was destroyed in 1774. The second attack on the Karaman in the colony of Mariental took place in August 1774. All the livestock and the people and property were stolen and carried across the Ural River
Ural River
into the Russian steppe. The total number of captives taken away from Mariental was about 300, of whom very few came back. Those captives that survived (mostly women and children) were eventually sold by the Kirghiz into the harems of wealthy Muslims in areas under the control of Turkey.

In October 24, 1774, the Kazakh or Kirghiz attacked the colonies of Seelmann, Leitsinger, Keller, and Holzel, and carried away 317 persons into slavery.

In 1776, the colony of the Mariental was attacked and its inhabitants were enslaved. One story tells that someone (probably Pastor Werboner) had his tongue cut out and that hundreds of people were beheaded.

In August 16, 1785 was the last attack on the colonies by the Kazakh-Kyrgyz; a woman, a child and four elders were killed and 130 people taken as prisoners during the attack. Government forces quickly caught the attackers while the latter were moving the prisoners. In the battle, 70 Kazakhs
Kazakhs
and Kyrgyz were killed and all the prisoners were freed.

In 1799, the biggest Russian caravan which was plundered at that time lost goods worth 295,000 rubles.

By 1830, the Russian government estimated that two hundred Russians were kidnapped and sold into slavery in Khiva every year.

RUSSIAN EMPIRE SLAVE TRADE ON KAZAKH SETTLEMENT

In 1737, Empress of Russia
Russia
Anna Ioannovna issued an order that legalized slave trade in Siberia
Siberia
. According to some artifacts, price of a Kazakh male was 10 rubles , and Kazakh female was 6 rubles .

There were many accounts of Russian Cossack
Cossack
raids that captured Kazakh families, which were then taken to Petropavlovsk and Omsk
Omsk
, where they were sold to wealthy Russian land owners into serfdom .

By the end of 18th century, the lands of Kazakh Junior Jüz
Jüz
(or Junior Horde) were incorporated into the Russian Empire, and raids by Kazakhs
Kazakhs
on Russian colonies has gradually declined and stopped. And on May 23rd 1808, Governor Peter Kaptzevich signed an order that freed all slave or serf Kazakhs
Kazakhs
of both genders if they reached the age of 25.

ABOLITION OF SLAVERY

The Russian administration liberated the slaves of the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
in 1859. However, isolated abductions of Russians
Russians
or Ukrainians by Kazakhs
Kazakhs
for the slave markets of Central Asia
Central Asia
continued until the Tsars' conquest of Khiva and Bukhara
Bukhara
in the 1860s. At major markets in Bukhara, Samarkand, Karakul, Karshi and Charju, slaves consisted mainly of Iranians and Russians, and some Kalmuks; they were brought there by Turkmen, Kazakh and Kyrgyz. A notorious slave market for captured Russian and Persian slaves was centered in the Khanate of Khiva from the 17th to the 19th century. During the first half of the 19th century alone, some one million Persians, as well as an unknown number of Russians, were enslaved and transported to Central Asian khanates. When Russian troops took Khiva in 1873 there were 29,300 Persian slaves, captured by Turkoman raiders. According of Josef Wolff (Report of 1843–1845) the population of the Khanate of Bukhara
Bukhara
was 1,200,000, of whom 200,000 were Persian slaves.

550TH ANNIVERSARY

2015 marked the 550th anniversary of the establishment of Kazakh Khanate.

* v * t * e

Armed conflicts involving Russia
Russia
(incl. Imperial and Soviet times)

INTERNAL

* Razin\'s Rebellion * Bulavin Rebellion
Bulavin Rebellion
* Pugachev\'s Rebellion * Decembrist revolt
Decembrist revolt
* Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
* August Uprising
August Uprising
* Coup d\'état attempt (1991) * 1993 Russian constitutional crisis
1993 Russian constitutional crisis
* First Chechen War
First Chechen War
* War of Dagestan
War of Dagestan
* Second Chechen War
Second Chechen War
* Insurgency in the North Caucasus

Pre-17th century

* Muscovite–Volga Bulgars war (1376) * Battle on Pyana River (1377) * Battle of the Vozha River
Battle of the Vozha River
(1378) * First Muscovite–Lithuanian War
First Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1492–94) * Russo-Swedish War (1495–97)
Russo-Swedish War (1495–97)
* Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War
Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1500–03) * Battle of the Siritsa River (1501) * Third Muscovite–Lithuanian War
Third Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1507–08) * Fourth Muscovite–Lithuanian War
Fourth Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1512–22) * Fifth Muscovite–Lithuanian War
Fifth Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1534–37) * Russo-Crimean Wars
Russo-Crimean Wars
* Russo-Kazan Wars
Russo-Kazan Wars
* Russo-Swedish War (1554–57) * Livonian War
Livonian War
* Russian Conquest of Siberia
Siberia
(1580-1747) * Russo-Swedish War (1590–95) * Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18)
Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18)
and the Time of Troubles
Time of Troubles
* Ingrian War
Ingrian War
* Smolensk War
Smolensk War
* Russo-Persian War (1651–53)
Russo-Persian War (1651–53)
* Sino-Russian border conflicts
Sino-Russian border conflicts
(1652–89) * Russo-Polish War (1654–67)
Russo-Polish War (1654–67)
* Second Northern War
Second Northern War
* Russo-Turkish War (1676–81)
Russo-Turkish War (1676–81)
* Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700)
Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700)

18th–19th century

* Great Northern War
Great Northern War
* Russo-Turkish War (1710–11)
Russo-Turkish War (1710–11)
* Russo-Persian War (1722–23)
Russo-Persian War (1722–23)
* War of the Polish Succession
War of the Polish Succession
(1733–38) * Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–39)
Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–39)
* War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession
(1740–48) * Russo-Swedish War (1741–43) * Seven Years\' War * Russo-Turkish War (1768–74)
Russo-Turkish War (1768–74)
* Bar Confederation
Confederation
* Russo-Turkish War (1787–92)
Russo-Turkish War (1787–92)
* Russo-Swedish War (1788–90)
Russo-Swedish War (1788–90)
* Russo-Polish War (1792) * Kościuszko Uprising
Kościuszko Uprising
* Russo-Persian War (1796) * War of the Second Coalition
War of the Second Coalition
* War of the Third Coalition
War of the Third Coalition
* Russo-Persian War (1804–13)
Russo-Persian War (1804–13)
* War of the Fourth Coalition
War of the Fourth Coalition
* Russo-Turkish War (1806–12)
Russo-Turkish War (1806–12)
* Anglo-Russian War * Finnish War
Finnish War
* War of the Fifth Coalition
War of the Fifth Coalition
* French invasion of Russia
Russia
* War of the Sixth Coalition
War of the Sixth Coalition
* War of the Seventh Coalition
War of the Seventh Coalition
* Russian conquest of the Caucasus
Russian conquest of the Caucasus

* Caucasian War
Caucasian War

* Russo-Circassian War
Russo-Circassian War
* Murid War
Murid War

* Russo-Persian War (1826–28)
Russo-Persian War (1826–28)
* Russo-Turkish War (1828–29)
Russo-Turkish War (1828–29)
* November Uprising
November Uprising
* Russian conquest of Bukhara
Bukhara
* Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
* Crimean War
Crimean War
* January Uprising
January Uprising
* Russo-Turkish War (1877–78)
Russo-Turkish War (1877–78)

* Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion

* Russian invasion of Manchuria
Russian invasion of Manchuria

20th century

* Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
* Russian Invasion of Tabriz, 1911
Russian Invasion of Tabriz, 1911
* World War I
World War I
* Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
* Ukrainian–Soviet War
Ukrainian–Soviet War
* Finnish Civil War
Finnish Civil War
* Heimosodat
Heimosodat

* Soviet westward offensive of 1918–19
Soviet westward offensive of 1918–19

* Estonian War of Independence
Estonian War of Independence
* Latvian War of Independence
Latvian War of Independence
* Lithuanian–Soviet War
Lithuanian–Soviet War

* Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
* Red Army invasion of Azerbaijan
Red Army invasion of Azerbaijan
* Red Army invasion of Armenia
Red Army invasion of Armenia
* Red Army invasion of Georgia
Red Army invasion of Georgia
* Red Army intervention in Mongolia
Mongolia
* Sino-Soviet conflict (1929)
Sino-Soviet conflict (1929)
* Soviet–Japanese border conflicts
Soviet–Japanese border conflicts
* Soviet invasion of Xinjiang * Xinjiang
Xinjiang
War (1937)

* World War II
World War II

* Soviet invasion of Poland
Soviet invasion of Poland
* Winter War
Winter War
* Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940)
Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940)
* Eastern Front (World War II)
Eastern Front (World War II)
* Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
* Soviet-Japanese War (1945)
Soviet-Japanese War (1945)

* Guerrilla war in the Baltic states
Guerrilla war in the Baltic states
* Ili Rebellion * First Indochina War
First Indochina War
* Korean War
Korean War
* Hungarian Revolution of 1956
Hungarian Revolution of 1956
* Eritrean War of Independence * War of Attrition
War of Attrition
* Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia
Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia
* Sino-Soviet border conflict
Sino-Soviet border conflict
* Vietnam War
Vietnam War
* Ethio-Somali (Ogaden) War * Soviet–Afghan War
Soviet–Afghan War

POST-SOVIET

* Nagorno-Karabakh War
Nagorno-Karabakh War
* Transnistria War
Transnistria War
* Georgian Civil War
Georgian Civil War
* Tajikistani Civil War
Tajikistani Civil War
* Russo-Georgian War
Russo-Georgian War

* Intervention in Ukraine

* Annexation of Crimea * War in Donbass
War in Donbass

* Intervention in Syria

* Military history of Russia
Russia
* Russian Winter
Russian Winter
* Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
* Cold War
Cold War
* Sphere of influence
Sphere of influence

SEE ALSO

* Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
portal

* List of Turkic dynasties and countries
List of Turkic dynasties and countries
* History of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* List of Kazakh khans
List of Kazakh khans
* List of Sunni Muslim dynasties * Nomad (2006 film)

REFERENCES

* ^ Eastern Destiny: Russia
Russia
in Asia and the North Pacific By G. Patrick March * ^ The Kazakhs
Kazakhs
By Martha Brill Olcott * ^ Studies in History, Volume 4 * ^ Russia's Steppe
Steppe
Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire, 1500-1800 By Michael Khodarkovsky * ^ " Kazakh Khanate
Kazakh Khanate
– 550th anniversary". http://e-history.kz. External link in website= (help ) * ^ " Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
to Celebrate 550th Kazakh Statehood Anniversary in 2015". http://astanatimes.com. External link in publisher= (help ) * ^ A B Middle East, western Asia, and northern Africa. By Ali Aldosari * ^ In the Persian manuscript of the "Tarikh-Safavi" revealed new information about the "king of Dasht-i-Kipchak" Kazakh Khan Kasymov * ^ Tārīkh-i Rashīdī, tr. Elias and Ross, 79, 358 * ^ A B "Haqq Nazar Kazakh ruler". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2016-02-02. * ^ A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia: The Tarikh-i-Rashidi * ^ A History of the Moghuls of Central Asi: The Tarikh-i-Rashidi By Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlt, N. Elias, Sir E Denison Ross page 121 * ^ A History of the Moghuls of Central Asi: The Tarikh-i-Rashidi - Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlt - Google Books. Books.google.com.pk. Retrieved 2016-02-02. * ^ Perdue, Peter C (2009). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Harvard University Press. p. 274. ISBN 978-0-674-04202-5 . * ^ The History of the Central Asian Republics By Peter Roudik * ^ Eastern Destiny: Russia
Russia
in Asia and the North Pacific by G. Patrick March * ^ Russia's Steppe
Steppe
Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire 1500-1800 by Michael Khodarkovsky * ^ Formation of a Borderland Culture: Myths and Realities of Cossack-Kazakh By Yuriy Anatolyevich Malikov * ^ The Kazakhs
Kazakhs
by Martha Brill Olcott * ^ gStudies in History, Volume 4 * ^ Formation of a Borderland Culture: Myths and Realities of Cossack-Kazakh * ^ A B Russia's Steppe
Steppe
Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire, 1500-1800 By Michael Khodarkovsky * ^ Darrel P. Kaiser (2006). Origin & Ancestors Families Karle & Kaiser Of the German-Russian Volga Colonies. Darrel P. Kaiser. ISBN 978-1-4116-9894-9 . Retrieved May 31, 2012. * ^ A B C D E F Origin & Ancestors Families Karle & Kaiser of the German-Russian Volga Colonies By Darrel P. Kaiser * ^ Pilgrims on the Silk Road: A Muslim-Christian Encounter in Khiva By Walter R. Ratliff * ^ A B C D История Казахстана Работорговля Казахами в Сибири History Of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Slave Trade in Siberia * ^ "Traditional Institutions in Modern Kazakhstan". Src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp. Retrieved 4 December 2011. * ^ Commissar and Mullah: Soviet-Muslim Policy from 1917 To 1924 By Glenn L Roberts * ^ Vol. VI: Towards Contemporary Civilization: From the Mid-Nineteenth Century ... edited by Chahryar Adle, Madhavan K.. Palat, Anara Tabyshalieva * ^ "Adventure in the East – TIME". Time. 6 April 1959. Retrieved 4 December 2011. * ^ Ichan-Kala, Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ Mayhew, Bradley. "Fabled Cities of Central Asia: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva: Robin Magowan, Vadim E. Gippenreiter". Amazon.com. Retrieved 4 December 2011. * ^ Report of Josef Wolff 1843–1845 * ^ "Kazakh statehood is 550 years old: Nazarbayev". TengriNews.

* v * t * e

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Yueban

POLITICS

* Grey Wolves * Kemalism
Kemalism
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Burkhanism
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Pan-Turkism
* Turanism
Turanism

ORIGINS

* Turkestan
Turkestan
* History

* Timeline of the Göktürks

* Timeline 500–1300 * migration

* Nomadic empire
Nomadic empire
* Tian Shan
Tian Shan
/ Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Otuken

LOCATIONS

SOVEREIGN STATES

* Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
* Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
1 * Turkey
Turkey
* Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
* Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan

AUTONOMOUS AREAS

* Altai Republic
Altai Republic
* Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
* Chuvashia
Chuvashia
* Gagauzia
Gagauzia
* Kabardino-Balkaria
Kabardino-Balkaria
* Karachay-Cherkessia
Karachay-Cherkessia
* Karakalpakstan
Karakalpakstan
* Khakassia
Khakassia
* Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic
* Sakha Republic
Sakha Republic
* Tatarstan
Tatarstan
* Tuva
Tuva
* Xinjiang
Xinjiang

STUDIES

* Old Turkic alphabet
Old Turkic alphabet
* Proto-Turkic language * Turkology

RELIGIONS

* Turkic mythology
Turkic mythology
* Tengrism
Tengrism
* Shamanism * Islam
Islam
* Alevism
Alevism
* Batiniyya * Bayramiye
Bayramiye
* Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
* Christianity
Christianity
* Hurufism
Hurufism
* Kadiri
Kadiri
* Khalwati order
Khalwati order
* Malamatiyya
Malamatiyya
* Qalandariyya
Qalandariyya
* Qizilbash
Qizilbash
* Rifa\'i * * Safaviyya
Safaviyya
* Zahediyeh
Zahediyeh
* Vattisen Yaly
Vattisen Yaly

TRADITIONAL SPORTS

* Kyz kuu
Kyz kuu
* Jereed * Kokpar * Dzhigit
Dzhigit
* Chovgan
Chovgan

ORGANIZATIONS

* Turkic Council
Turkic Council
* International Organization of Turkic Culture
International Organization of Turkic Culture
(TÜRKSOY) * Organization of the Eurasian Law Enforcement Agencies with Military Status (TAKM)

1 State with limited international recognition .

* v * t * e

Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
articles

HISTORY

PREHISTORY

* Saka
Saka
* Kangju
Kangju
* Wusun
Wusun
* Huns
Huns

EARLY HISTORY

* Tele * Rouran Khaganate
Rouran Khaganate
* Göktürks * Kangar union
Kangar union
* Kimek Khanate
Kimek Khanate
* Karluks
Karluks
* Oghuz Yabgu State
Oghuz Yabgu State
* Xueyantuo
Xueyantuo
Khaganate * Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur Khaganate
* Kyrgyz Khaganate * Kara-Khanid Khanate
Kara-Khanid Khanate
* Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
* Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
* Golden Horde
Golden Horde
* White Horde

SINCE 1456

* Kazakh Khanate * List of Kazakh khans
List of Kazakh khans
* Jüz
Jüz
* Russian Turkestan
Russian Turkestan
* Alash Autonomy
Alash Autonomy
* Kazakh ASSR * Kazakh SSR * Republic of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan

BY TOPIC

* Postal

GEOGRAPHY

* Altay (Altai) Mountains * Aral Karakum Desert * Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
* Sharyn Canyon
Sharyn Canyon
* Kazakh Steppe
Steppe
* Khan Tangiri Shyngy * Kyzylkum Desert
Kyzylkum Desert
* Lake Balkhash
Lake Balkhash
* Syr Darya
Syr Darya
* Tien (Tian) Shan * Ural River
Ural River
* Zhetysu
Zhetysu

SUBDIVISIONS

* Cities and towns * Districts * Regions

POLITICS

* Constitution * Elections * Foreign relations

* Government

* President * Prime Minister

* Human rights

* LGBT

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* Parliament

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Mazhilis
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* Political parties

ECONOMY

* Agriculture * Energy policy * National Bank * Stock Exchange * Telecommunications * Tenge (currency) * Transport

CULTURE

* Alphabet * Anthem * Clothing * Coat of arms * Cuisine * Flag * Kaznet (Internet) * Kazakhs
Kazakhs
* Media * Music * Sport * Television * Wedding ceremony

DEMOGRAPHICS

* Education * Health * Language

PEOPLES

* Armenians * Azerbaijanis
Azerbaijanis
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Uyghurs

RELIGION

* Islam
Islam
* Christianity
Christianity
* Hinduism * Tengrism
Tengrism
* Religious freedom

* Outline * Index

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

State successors of Golden Horde
Golden Horde

WHITE HORDE

* Great Horde
Great Horde

* Khanate of Kazan
Khanate of Kazan

* Qasim Khanate
Qasim Khanate

* Khanate of Astrakhan
Astrakhan
* Khanate of Crimea

BLUE HORDE

* Nogai Horde
Nogai Horde
* Khanate of Sibir
Khanate of Sibir
* Kazakh Khanate

* Uzbek Khanate

* Khanate of Khiva
Khanate of Khiva

OTHER

* Genghisids * Moscow State Expansion * History of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* History of Crimea
History of Crimea
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Tatarstan
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Bashkortostan
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Uzbekistan
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Siberia
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Kyrgyzstan

* Crimea portal

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