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Kawi (from Sanskrit: कवि "kavi" lit. "poet") is a literary and prose language on the islands of Java, Bali, and Lombok. Kawi is a standardised form of Old Javanese, a language with a sizable vocabulary of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanwords. Kawi is also the direct ancestor language of modern Javanese. The name "kawi" is derived from the root ku, which in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
means “poet”, and, in derived forms, a “wise, educated man”. The syllabic meter of Kawi poetry is sekar kawi, which means “flowers of the language”, sekar itself deriving from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
"sekhara" (“garland”).[citation needed] All Javanese languages are hierarchical and stratified, with strict social conventions for appropriate language subsets to be used for one's superiors or social and cultural functions. Kawi is commonly considered the pinnacle language.[clarification needed]

Contents

1 Writing system 2 Usage 3 Literature

3.1 Prominent authors

4 Scholars 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

Writing system[edit] Kawi uses a unique script for writing commonly called hanacaraka; the more correct term is "Dentawiyanjana". It is a syllabic alphabet consisting of 20 letters and ten numbers and a number of vowel and consonant modifiers. The script of the island of Bali, heavily influenced by neighboring Java, has a unique sub-form called Tulisan Bali. Prince Aji Caka (an Indian migrant) is credited with establishing the first known kingdom of Java, called Java
Java
Dvipa (Swarna Dvipa) and also introducing the Kawi language was and the twenty letters of the syllabic hanacaraka script.[2] The Javanese also credit the language to Aji Saka, a legendary hero of Medang Kamulan Kingdom. The earliest known inscription of Kawi is found at Gunung Wukir Temple in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia. Usage[edit] Kawi is not truly extinct as a spoken language. It is commonly used in wayang golek, wayang wong and wayang kulit, in addition to high activities such as a Javanese wedding, especially for the stylised meeting ritual of bride's parents with groom's parents in the ceremonies of Peningsetan and Panggih. Archaically or for certain nobles very strongly attached to tradition, it is used for the Midodareni, Siraman and Sungkeman ceremonies of the Javanese wedding. The island of Lombok
Lombok
has adopted Kawi as its regional language, reflecting the very strong influence of neighbouring East Java. Today, it is taught in primary school education as part of the compulsory secondary language unit of National curriculum. Traditionally, Kawi is written on lontar prepared palm leaves. Kawi remains in occasional use as an archaic prose and literary language, in a similar fashion to Shakespeare-era English, which has such aesthetically and arguably more cultivated words as thy, thee, hast and so forth. Literature[edit] There are many important literary works written in Kawi, most notably Empu Tantular's epic poem, "Kakawin Sutasoma" (E.M. Uhlenbeck, 1964: "A Critical Survey of Studies on the Languages of Java
Java
and Madura", The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff), from which is taken the National motto of Indonesia: "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika". Although often glibly translated as "Unity in Diversity", it is more correctly rendered as "[although] scattered, remaining [as] one"— referring to the scattered islands of the archipelago nation, not as an expression of multicultural solidarity as may be perceived in modern times. A more modern work is the poem "Susila Budhi Dharma", by Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo, the founder of Subud. In this work, he provides a framework for understanding the experience of the latihan kejiwaan. Famous poems, epics and other literature include:

Kakawin Tertua Jawa, 856 Kakawin Ramayana
Kakawin Ramayana
~ 870 Kakawin Arjunawiwaha, mpu Kanwa, ~ 1030 Kakawin Kresnayana Kakawin Sumanasantaka Kakawin Smaradhana Kakawin Bhomakawya Kakawin Bharatayuddha, mpu Sedah dan mpu Panuluh, 1157 Kakawin Hariwangsa Kakawin Gatotkacasraya Kakawin Wrettasañcaya Kakawin Wrettayana Kakawin Brahmandapurana Kakawin Kunjarakarna, mpu "Dusun" Kakawin Nagarakretagama, mpu Prapanca, 1365 Kakawin Arjunawijaya, mpu Tantular Kakawin Sutasoma, mpu Tantular Kakawin Siwaratrikalpa, Kakawin Lubdhaka Kakawin Parthayajna Kakawin Nitisastra Kakawin Nirarthaprakreta Kakawin Dharmasunya Kakawin Harisraya Kakawin Banawa Sekar Tanakung

Prominent authors[edit] The following are notable authors of Kawi:

Candakarana Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan Kunjarakarna

Scholars[edit] The first scholar to address Kawi in a serious academic manner was Humboldt, who considered it the father of all Malay-Polynesian languages. Furthermore, he deprecated misconceptions about Kawi being wholly influenced by Sanskrit, finding that Kawi did not use verb inflexion, thus differing from Sanskrit's highly developed inflectional system. In Kawi language, the meaning of a sentence must be grasped through word order and context. Humboldt further noted that Kawi utilizes tense distinctions, with past, present, and future, and differentiated moods via the imperative and subjunctive. Numerous scholars have studied the language, including the Dutch expatriate Indonesian Prof. Dr. Petrus Josephus Zoetmulder
Petrus Josephus Zoetmulder
S.J., who contributed an enormous quantity of original texts and serious scholarly study to the language, and his pupil and associate, Father Dr. Ignatius Kuntara Wiryamartana. Other eminent Indonesian scholars of the language include Poedjawijatna, Sumarti Suprayitna, Poerbatjaraka and Tardjan Hadiwidjaja. See also[edit]

Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
for an example of this language Old Javanese language Johan Hendrik Caspar Kern Old Malay Laguna Copperplate Inscription
Laguna Copperplate Inscription
– A 10th-century document from the Philippines
Philippines
written in Kawi.

References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kawi". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ http://www.apu.ac.jp/~gunarto/lang/mileston.html

Bibliography[edit]

De Casparis, J. G., Indonesian Palaeography : A History of Writing in Indonesia
Indonesia
from the beginnings to c. AD 1500, Leiden/Koln, 1975 Florida, Nancy K., Javanese Literature in Surakarta Manuscripts: Introduction and Manuscripts of the Karaton Surakarta, Cornell Univ Southeast Asia, 1993 ISBN 0-87727-603-X Wilhelm von Humboldt’s "Über die Kawi-Sprache (On the Kawi Language)": 1836 Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3 Poerbatjaraka dan Tardjan Hadiwidjaja, 1952, Kepustakaan Djawa'. Djakarta/Amsterdam: Djambatan. Avenir Stepanovich Teselkin, Old Javanese (Kawi) Ithaca, N.Y., Modern Indonesia
Indonesia
Project, Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, 1972 E.M. Uhlenbeck, 1964, di dalam bukunya : "A Critical Survey of Studies on the Languages of Java
Java
and Madura", The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Mary S. Zurbuchen, Introduction to Old Javanese Language and Literature: A Kawi Prose Anthology The University of Michigan, 1976 P.J. Zoetmulder, S.O. Robson, Darusuprapta, 1995, Kamus Jawa Kuna–Indonesia, Jakarta: Gramedia dan Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (KITLV). Bekerja sama dengan S.O. Robson. Penerjemah: Darusuprapta dan Sumarti Suprayitna. ISBN 979-605-347-0 1992–1993, Bahasa parwa : tatabahasa Jawa Kuna: Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. Bekerja sama dengan I.J. Poedjawijatna. Cetakan ulang dari edisi tahun 1954

External links[edit]

About lontar (palmleaves manuscripts). http://www.christusrex.org/www1/pater/JPN-javanese-huruf.html http://www.joglosemar.co.id/hanacara

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