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KATOWICE /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ (Polish: ( listen ); Silesian : Katowicy, German : Kattowitz, officially MIASTO KATOWICE) is a city in southwestern Poland, with a population of 299,910 as of 2015 and the center of the Silesian Metropolis , with a population of 2.2 million.

Throughout the mid-18th century, Katowice
Katowice
had developed into a village upon the discovery of rich coal reserves in the area. In 1742 the First Silesian War transferred Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
, including Katowice, to Prussia
Prussia
. Subsequently, from the second half of the 18th century, many German or Prussian craftsmen, merchants and artists began to settle in the region, which had been inhabited mostly by Poles
Poles
over the past hundreds of years. Simultaneously Silesia experienced the influx of the first Jewish settlers. In the first half of the 19th century, intensive industrialization transformed local mills and farms into industrial steelworks, mines, foundries and artisan workshops. This also contributed to the establishment of companies and eventual rapid growth of the city. At the same time, Katowice
Katowice
became linked to the railway system with the first train arriving at the main station in 1847.

The outbreak of World War I
World War I
was favourable for Katowice
Katowice
due to the prospering steel industry. Following Germany's defeat and the Silesian Uprisings , Katowice
Katowice
and parts of Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
were annexed by the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
. Poland
Poland
was then backed by the Geneva Convention and the ethnic Silesian minority . On 3 May 1921, the Polish army entered Katowice
Katowice
and the Polish administration took control. The city became the capital of the autonomous Silesian Voivodeship as well as the seat of the Silesian Parliament and Committee of Upper Silesia. After the plebiscite many former German citizens emigrated, however a vibrant German community remained until the end of World War II
World War II
. In 1939, after the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
seized the town, Katowice
Katowice
and the provinces were incorporated into the Third Reich . The town was eventually liberated by the Allies on 27 January 1945.

Katowice
Katowice
is a center of science, culture, industry, business, trade, and transportation in Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
and southern Poland, and the main city in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region . Katowice
Katowice
lies within an urban zone , with a population of 2,746,460 according to Eurostat
Eurostat
, and also part of the wider Silesian metropolitan area
Silesian metropolitan area
, with a population of 5,294,000 according to the European Spatial Planning Observation Network .

Today, the city is considered as an emerging metropolis. The whole metropolitan area is the 16th most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union
European Union
with an output amounting to $114.5 billion.

Katowice
Katowice
is the seat of the Polish National Radio Symphony and Orchestra . It also hosts the finals of Intel Extreme Masters
Intel Extreme Masters
, an eSports video game tournament.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate * 2.2 Districts * 2.3 Demographics * 2.4 Conurbation

* 3 Architecture

* 3.1 Tourist attractions

* 4 Economy

* 5 Culture

* 5.1 Media * 5.2 Festivals and events * 5.3 Parks and squares

* 6 Nature reserves and ecological areas * 7 Education

* 8 Transport

* 8.1 Public transport * 8.2 Roads * 8.3 Airports * 8.4 Railways

* 9 Sports

* 9.1 Sports clubs * 9.2 Sports events

* 10 Notable residents * 11 Twin towns—Sister cities * 12 See also

* 13 References

* 13.1 Notes

* 14 External links

HISTORY

For more details on this topic, see History of Katowice . The Great Synagogue in Katowice
Katowice
was destroyed by the Nazis during the invasion of Poland
Poland
on 4 September 1939

The area around Katowice, in Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
, has been inhabited by ethnic Silesians
Silesians
from its earliest documented history. Initially it was ruled by the Polish Silesian Piast dynasty until its extinction. The settlement of the area surrounding Katowice
Katowice
dates back to the end of the 12th century. From 1138, the Bytom
Bytom
castellany encompassed territories where Katowice
Katowice
is located nowadays. In 1177 the lands were legally handed over by Duke Casimir II the Just
Casimir II the Just
to his nephew Mieszko I Tanglefoot ; this justified their incorporation into the medieval Silesian provinces. At the turn of the 14th century, new villages called Bogucice, Ligota, Szopenice and Podlesie were established, as well as the village of Dąb, mentioned in 1299 in a document issued by Duke Casimir of Bytom
Bytom
.

From 1327, the region was under Czech administration as part of the Kingdom of Bohemia . In historical documents dating from 1468 there was a reference to the settlement of Podlesie, which, at present, is one of the city districts, whereas the village of Katowice
Katowice
(or "Katowicze" in older records) was first mentioned in the year 1598. Historians assume that Katowice
Katowice
was founded on the right bank of the Rawa river by Andrzej Bogucki in around 1580. The Silesian Parliament in Katowice
Katowice

In 1598 a village called Villa Nova was also documented to stand in the area now occupied by the city of Katowice. By this time the territory had changed from the Bohemian Crown to the domain of the Austrian Habsburg dynasty .

Kattowitz gained city status in 1865 in the Prussian Province of Silesia . The city flourished due to large mineral (especially coal ) deposits in the nearby mountains. Extensive city growth and prosperity depended on the coal mining and steel industries , which took off during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
. The city was inhabited mainly by Germans
Germans
, Silesians
Silesians
, Jews and Poles
Poles
. In 1884, 36 Jewish Zionist delegates met here, forming the Hovevei Zion movement. Previously part of the Beuthen district, in 1873 it became the capital of the new Kattowitz district . On 1 April 1899, the city was separated from the district, becoming an independent city . 3 Maja Street is one of the main promenades in the city

Under the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
after World War I
World War I
, the Upper Silesia plebiscite was organised by the League of Nations
League of Nations
. Though Kattowitz proper voted 22,774 to remain in Germany
Germany
and 3,900 for Poland, it was attached to Poland
Poland
as the larger district voted 66,119 for Poland
Poland
and 52,992 for Germany. Following the Silesian Uprisings of 1918–21 Katowice
Katowice
became part of the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
with some autonomy for the Silesian Parliament as a constituency and the Silesian Voivodeship Council as the executive body).

During the early stages of World War II
World War II
and the Poland
Poland
Campaign , Katowice
Katowice
was essentially abandoned, as the Polish Army
Polish Army
had to position itself around Kraków
Kraków
. While the shelling of Westerplatte
Westerplatte
on 1 September 1939 is recognised as the first involvement in the Second World War, Hitler
Hitler
actually ordered a silent sabotage mission a day earlier by dressing his SS officers as Polish soldiers. Hitler
Hitler
staged a mock attack on the Gliwice
Gliwice
radio mast, one of the tallest wooden structures in the world, which was just on the eastern border of Germany
Germany
at the time. The international press and reporters were rushed to the scene and instructed to view corpses dressed in Nazi
Nazi
uniforms, supposedly murdered by Poles
Poles
, at Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp
. It was Hitler's justification for his invasion of Poland, which occurred the next morning. As the infamous SMS Schleswig-Holstein battleship fired at the Polish defensive fortifications outside Danzig
Danzig
, Nazi
Nazi
troops were already advancing deep into Silesia. Katowice
Katowice
at the time was fiercely defended by an insignificant army mostly compiled of Polish scouts and volunteers.

Under the Nazi
Nazi
occupation many of the city's historical and iconic monuments were destroyed, most notably the Great Katowice
Katowice
Synagogue , which was burned to the ground on 4 September 1939. This was followed by the alteration of street names and the introduction of strict rules. Additionally, the use of Polish in public conversations was banned. The German administration was also infamous for organising public executions of civilians and by the middle of 1941, most of the Polish and Jewish population was expelled. Eventually Katowice
Katowice
was liberated by the Red Army
Red Army
in January 1945. Significant parts of the downtown and inner suburbs were demolished during the liberation. This, however, was incomparable to Warsaw
Warsaw
, where the level of destruction reached 85%. As a result, the authorities were able to preserve the central district in its former pre-war character. A historical Neo-Gothic
Neo-Gothic
school-building from the late 19th century

The post-war period of Katowice
Katowice
was characterised by the time of heavy industry development in the Upper Silesian region, which helped the city in regaining its status as the most industrialised Polish city and a major administrative centre. As the city developed so briskly, the 1950s marked a significant increase in its population and an influx of migrants from the Eastern Borderlands
Eastern Borderlands
, the so-called Kresy. The city area began to quickly expand by incorporating the neighbouring communes and counties. However, the thriving industrial city also had a dark period in its short but meaningful history. Most notably, between 7 March 1953 and 10 December 1956 Katowice
Katowice
was called Stalinogród in honour of Joseph Stalin , leader of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. The change was brought upon by an issued decree of the State Council. The date of the alteration of the city name was neither a coincidence or accidental as it happened on the day of Stalin's death. In this way the Polish Communist Party and the socialist authority wanted to pay tribute to the dictator. The new name never got accepted by the citizens and in 1956 the former Polish name was restored. Veturilo bicycles on Mariacka Street Central Katowice
Katowice
with its shopping district

The following decades were more memorable in the history of Katowice. Regardless of its industrial significance, it started to become an important cultural and educational centre in Central and Eastern Europe. In 1968 the University of Silesia , the largest and most valued college in the area, was founded. Simultaneously the construction of large housing estates began to evolve. Furthermore, a lot of representative structures were erected at that time, including the Silesian Insurgents\' Monument
Monument
(1967) and Spodek (1971), which have become familiar landmarks and tourist sights. The 1960s and 1970s saw the evolution of modernist architecture and functionalism . Katowice
Katowice
eventually developed into one of the most modernist post-war cities of Poland.

One of the most dramatic events in the history of the city occurred on 16 December 1981. It was then that 9 protesters died (7 were shot dead; 2 died from injury complications) and another 21 were wounded in the pacification of Wujek Coal
Coal
Mine . The Special
Special
Platoon of the Motorized Reserves of the Citizens\' Militia (ZOMO) was responsible for the brutal handling of strikers protesting against Wojciech Jaruzelski 's declaration of martial law and the arrest of Solidarity trade union officials. On the 10th anniversary of the event a memorial was unveiled by the President of Poland
Poland
Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
.

In 1990 the first democratic local elections that took place marked a new period in the city's history. The economy of Katowice
Katowice
has been transforming from the heavy industry of steel and coal mines into "one of the most attractive investment areas for modern economy branches in Central Europe". Recently, the city's efficient infrastructure, rapid progress in overall development and an increase in office space has made Katowice
Katowice
a popular venue for conducting business. The Katowice Expo Centre (Katowickie Centrum Wystawiennicze) organises trade fairs or exhibitions and attracts investors from all over the world.

GEOGRAPHY

Katowice
Katowice
is a city in Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
in southern Poland
Poland
, on the Kłodnica and Rawa rivers (tributaries of the Oder
Oder
and the Vistula respectively). It is in the Silesian Highlands , about 50 km (31 mi) north of the Silesian Beskids
Silesian Beskids
(part of the Carpathian Mountains
Carpathian Mountains
) and about 100 km (62 mi) southeast of the Sudetes
Sudetes
Mountains . Katowice
Katowice
is in the Katowice
Katowice
Highlands, part of the Silesian Highlands , in the eastern part of Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
, in the central portion of the Upper Silesian Coal
Coal
Basin . Katowice
Katowice
is an urban community in the Silesian Voivodeship in south-west Poland. It is central district of the Silesian Metropolis —a metropolis with a population of two million. It borders the cities of Chorzów
Chorzów
, Siemianowice Śląskie , Sosnowiec , Mysłowice , Lędziny , Tychy , Mikołów , Ruda Śląska and Czeladź . It lies between the Vistula
Vistula
and Oder
Oder
rivers. Several rivers flow through the city, the major two being the Kłodnica and Rawa . Within 600 km (370 mi) of Katowice
Katowice
are the capital cities of six countries: Berlin
Berlin
, Vienna
Vienna
, Prague
Prague
, Bratislava
Bratislava
, Budapest
Budapest
and Warsaw .

CLIMATE

The climate is temperate -continental . The average temperature is 8.2 °Celsius (−1.5 °C (29 °F) in January and up to 18 °C (64 °F) in July). Yearly rainfall averages at 608.5 mm (23.96 in). Characteristic weak winds blow at about 2 m/s from the west, the Moravian Gate .

CLIMATE DATA FOR KATOWICE

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 1 (34) 3 (37) 7 (45) 13 (55) 19 (66) 21 (70) 23 (73) 23 (73) 18 (64) 13 (55) 6 (43) 2 (36) 12.4 (54.3)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −1.5 (29.3) −0.5 (31.1) 3.0 (37.4) 8.0 (46.4) 13.5 (56.3) 16.0 (60.8) 18.0 (64.4) 17.5 (63.5) 13.5 (56.3) 9.0 (48.2) 3.0 (37.4) −0.5 (31.1) 8.2 (46.8)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −4 (25) −4 (25) −1 (30) 3 (37) 8 (46) 11 (52) 13 (55) 12 (54) 9 (48) 5 (41) 0 (32) −3 (27) 4.0 (39.2)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 30.4 (1.197) 29.2 (1.15) 32.4 (1.276) 36.8 (1.449) 52.9 (2.083) 59.5 (2.343) 73.7 (2.902) 51.1 (2.012) 44.9 (1.768) 35.2 (1.386) 37.6 (1.48) 32.8 (1.291) 608.5 (23.957)

Source: MSN Weather

DISTRICTS

I. Central- City
City

* 1. Śródmieście * 2. Koszutka * 3. Bogucice * 4. Osiedle Paderewskiego - Muchowiec

II. North- City
City

* 5. Załęże * 6. Osiedle Witosa * 7. Osiedle Tysiąclecia * 8. Dąb * 9. Wełnowiec - Józefowiec

III. West- City
City

* 10. Ligota-Panewniki * 11. Brynów - Osiedle Zgrzebnioka * 12. Brynów - Załęska Hałda

IV. East- City
City

* 13. Zawodzie * 14. Dąbrówka Mała * 15. Szopienice - Burowiec * 16. Janów-Nikiszowiec * 17. Giszowiec

V. South- City
City

* 18. Murcki * 19. Piotrowice-Ochojec * 20. Zarzecze * 21. Kostuchna * 22. Podlesie

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1783 294 —

1845 1,326 +351.0%

1870 6,780 +411.3%

1897 25,000 +268.7%

1910 43,173 +72.7%

1924 112,822 +161.3%

1939 134,000 +18.8%

1945 107,735 −19.6%

1950 175,496 +62.9%

1955 199,907 +13.9%

1960 269,926 +35.0%

1970 305,000 +13.0%

1980 355,117 +16.4%

1987 368,621 +3.8%

1997 348,974 −5.3%

2009 308,724 −11.5%

2015 299,910 −2.9%

2016 299,012 −0.3%

2015 2016

At present, the city of Katowice
Katowice
is inhabited mostly by Poles
Poles
and ethnic Silesians
Silesians
, but also by several minorities of Germans, Czechs and Moravians
Moravians
. This also makes the region religiously and culturally diverse. Over the years this diversity has strongly reflected on local architecture such as tenement housing and state buildings. The recent Polish census showed that the Silesians
Silesians
are the largest ethnic minority in Poland, with Germans
Germans
being second on the list. Both of these minorities mostly live in the Silesian region. It is therefore the most multicultural province and voivodeship of Poland
Poland
.

Prior to the Second World War
Second World War
, Katowice
Katowice
was mainly inhabited by Poles
Poles
and Germans. The 1905 Silesian demographic census has shown that Germans
Germans
made up nearly 75% of the total population. Following Germany's defeat in 1945, the large German majority was forced to flee. Most pre-war citizens (excluding Poles) were violently expelled by the new authorities. This resulted in a large group of exiled Silesians
Silesians
living in present-day Germany, creating a new association of Landsmannschaft Schlesien. One of its most notable spokesmen and leaders is the Christian Democratic Union politician Herbert Hupka .

During the war, the Nazi
Nazi
occupant committed severe crimes against the local Gypsy and Jewish communities . Most of them were eventually killed or transported by cattle wagons to concentration camps such as Auschwitz
Auschwitz
for complete extermination. This led to a population drop between 1939 and 1945.

CONURBATION

Katowice
Katowice
lies in the centre of the largest conurbation in Poland, one of the largest in the European Union
European Union
, numbering about 2.7 million. The Katowice urban area consists of about 40 adjacent cities and towns, the whole Silesian metropolitan area
Silesian metropolitan area
(mostly within the Upper Silesian Coal
Coal
Basin ) over 50 cities or towns. The metropolitan area has a population of 5,294,000. In 2006, Katowice
Katowice
and 14 adjacent cities united as the Upper Silesian Metropolis . Its population is 2 million and its area is 1,104 km2. In 2006-2007 the union planned to unite these cities in one city under the name "Silesia", but this proved unsuccessful.

The Katowice
Katowice
conurbation comprises settlements which have evolved because of the mining of metal ores, coal and raw rock materials. The establishment of mining and heavy industry which have developed for the past centuries has resulted in the unique character of the cityscape; its typical aspects are the red brick housing estates constructed for the poorer working class, factory chimneys, manufacturing plants, power stations and quarries . The inhabitants of a large mining community like Katowice, and local administrations within the conurbation, which have only evolved due to mining, are a subject to overall decline after the liquidation of coal mines and factories. This is one of the reasons which led to the development of the service sector, including office spaces, shopping centres and tourism.

DISTRICT POPULATION AREA (KM²) DENSITY (KM²)

Katowice 299,910 164.67 1,896

Sosnowiec 214,488 91.06 2,444

Gliwice
Gliwice
186,347 133.88 1,474

Zabrze
Zabrze
179,452 80.40 2,352

Bytom
Bytom
170,059 69.44 2,661

Ruda Śląska 139,412 77.73 1,860

Tychy 128,415 81.64 1,590

Dąbrowa Górnicza 122,451 188.73 682

Chorzów
Chorzów
109,541 33.24 3,420

Jaworzno 92,618 152.67 626

Mysłowice 74,711 65.75 1,139

Siemianowice Śląskie 68,011 25.5 2,809

Piekary Śląskie 56,126 39.98 1,477

Świętochłowice 50,750 13.31 4,097

ARCHITECTURE

Neo-Renaissance Monopol Hotel opened in 1902 Neo-Gothic
Neo-Gothic
St. Mary\'s Church from the 19th century

Katowice
Katowice
did not originate as a medieval town. The city centre was beginning to form in the mid-19th century when it was part of the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
and had an ethnic German majority. The buildings of the time are decorated in an eclectic style (mostly Renaissance with elements of Baroque ) and elements of Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
style (Polish : secesja). By the end of the nineteenth century the centre was being referred to as a "little Paris" due to the presence of Parisian-styled tenement houses . Examples of Modernism
Modernism
, especially International Style and Bauhaus
Bauhaus
inspired architecture, still coexist with modern office buildings in central Katowice. Between the 1950s and 1980s many socialist apartment blocks were constructed around the inner suburbs. Notable examples from that period include a multipurpose arena complex called Spodek and parts of Koszutka district.

Katowice
Katowice
is one of the few cities in Poland
Poland
where nearly all architectural styles are present. For instance, the Market square in Katowice
Katowice
(Polish: Rynek Katowicki) is surrounded by a vast majority of buildings and edifices representing styles such as neoclassicism , modernism , socialist realism and contemporary-modern . Some tenements have neogothic elements, which are an outstanding example of this type in Central and Eastern Europe. The street outlines, especially within the older inner districts, closely resemble the ones in Paris
Paris
. Representational boulevards and promenades were established despite the city's strong industrial character. These, however, mostly adorned the city center and not working-class outer suburbs.

Unfortunately many old majestic buildings were demolished in the 1950s to make space for monumental modern blocks. Among other reasons for their destruction was the immense architectural detail which once represented the wealth of local industrialists and property owners. This particularly didn't fit in with the Socialist-Communist authority at the time.

Today, the marketplace and several nearby streets with shopping promenades are closed to traffic.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS

* Market square and adjacent streets: Warszawska , Teatralna, Dyrekcyjna, Staromiejska, Dworcowa, św. Jana, Pocztowa, Wawelska, 3 Maja, Stawowa, Mielęckiego, Starowiejska and Mickiewicza, the so-called "Great Market Square of Katowice" or "Old town of Katowice"—many historic (monument ) buildings. This is a group of functional-architectural. On the market square and most of the above-mentioned streets are prohibitions or restrictions on cars. Streets: Staromiejska, Dyrekcyjna, Wawelska, Stawowa and Warszawska is lined decorative cobblestone creating a pedestrian zone . The authority plans to Katowice—Quarter streets: św. Jana, Dworcowa, Mariacka, Mielęckiego, Stanisława and Starowiejska is to become so "small market square". * Nikiszowiec - historical settlement of Katowice, candidate to UNESCO * Cathedral of Christ the King * St Mary\'s Church * Church of the Resurrection , Evangelical-Augsburg, built in 1856-1858 * Church of St Michael Archangel , the oldest church in the city, built in 1510 * Drapacz Chmur , one of the first skyscrapers in Europe

Market square in Katowice Spodek and central roundabout at night

* Silesian Parliament , built in 1925-1929. For a very long time it was the biggest structure in Poland * Modernist old town * Spodek (a large sports centre /concert hall , whose name translates as the 'saucer', from its distinctive shape resembling a UFO flying saucer ) * Silesian Insurgents Monument
Monument
(Polish: Pomnik Powstańców Śląskich), the largest and heaviest monument in Poland. It is a harmonious combination of architecture and sculpture with appropriate symbolism: the wings symbolize the three Silesian Uprisings 1919 - 1920 - 1921 while the names of places that were battlefields are etched on the vertical slopes. The monument, which was funded by the people of Warsaw
Warsaw
for Upper Silesia, is considered Katowice's landmark. * Silesian Theater , built in 1907 * Rialto Cinetheater , built in 1912 * Silesian Museum , built in 1899 * Old train station in Katowice , built in 1906 * The Goldstein Palace * The Załęże Palace * Parachute Tower - a 50 m (160 ft) tall lattice tower built in 1937 for training parachutists. It was used in the first days of World War II and is the only parachute tower in Poland.

Other:

* Franciscan Monastery in Panewniki * Church of St Joseph (Załęże) * St Stephen\'s Church * Church of Christ Resurrection * The Monument
Monument
to Marshal Piłsudski by Croatian sculptor Antun Augustinčić , 1937-39. It was commissioned in 1936 but brought to Poland
Poland
in 1991 * Monopol Hotel * Katowice
Katowice
Rondo , the large square /roundabout , reconstructed recently, with the semi-circular Galeria Rondo Sztuki in the centre. * The Altus Skyscraper , the tallest skyscraper

ECONOMY

Silesia City
City
Center - Large shopping mall in Katowice. Located over former coal mine "Gottwald"

Katowice
Katowice
is a large coal and steel center. It has several coal mines (Wujek Coal
Coal
Mine , Mysłowice-Wesoła Coal
Coal
Mine, Wieczorek Coal
Coal
Mine, Murcki Coal
Coal
Mine, Staszic Coal
Coal
Mine) organized into unions—Katowice Coal
Coal
Holding company (pl: Katowicki Holding Węglowy), two steelworks (Huta Baildon, Huta Ferrum), and one foundry of non-ferrous metals (Huta Metali Nieżelaznych Szopienice).

Katowice
Katowice
is a large business and trade fair center. Every year in Katowice International Fair and Spodek , tens of international trade fairs are organized. Katowice
Katowice
has the second largest business centre in Poland
Poland
(after Warsaw
Warsaw
Business Centre). Skyscrapers stand along Chorzowska, Korfantego and Roździeńskiego street in the centre. The newest office buildings (A-class) are the Chorzowska 50, Altus Skyscraper and Silesia Towers (under construction).

Katowice
Katowice
is the seat of Katowice
Katowice
Special Economic Zone (Katowicka Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna).

The unemployment rate is one of the lowest in Poland, at 2% (2008). The city is still characterized by its working class strength and attracts many people from neighbouring cities (other districts USMU seeking jobs.

CULTURE

Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra building The Main Concert Hall

Katowice
Katowice
is the cultural centre of the entire Silesian agglomeration inhabited by over two million people and one of the leading cultural spots in Poland. Most importantly, it is a host city to some of the biggest theatrical and stage events. This also includes hosting gatherings and exhibitions well as film and musical events. Annual musical festivals such as the Rawa Blues , the Tauron New Music Festival, the Silesian Jazz Festival, the Mayday Festival and other concerts, which attract yearly hundreds of thousands of tourists from the entire country. Katowice
Katowice
also temporarily hosts the OFF Festival , the most important alternative event in Poland.

Katowice
Katowice
is the seat of an internationally renowned Karol Szymanowski Academy of Music , as well as the Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra . The Silesian Philharmonic also has its seat in Katowice. The opening of a new architectural complex of the National Polish Radio Orchestra took place in 2014.

A showcase for Katowice
Katowice
is the "Camerata Silesia" - an ensemble aimed at promoting the city in Poland
Poland
and overseas. Classical music also plays significant role in Katowice
Katowice
and the city annually becomes a venue for numerous classical concerts and festivals. The list includes an International Festival of Young Music Competition Laureates, the Grzegorz Fitelberg International Competition for Conductors, Chamber Music Festival, Ars Cameralis Festival and Katowice's opera, operettas and most of all ballet. In 2010, as part of the Chopin Year Celebrations , Katowice
Katowice
held the International Chopin Knowledge Challenge, which took place at the Spodek hall.

The BWA Contemporary Art Gallery in Katowice, established in 1949, is a notable institution concerning the contemporary arts . Every three years, it is responsible for the organisation of the Polish Graphic Art Triennial. Several other galleries feature exhibitions of the works by artists from abroad alongside with film screenings, workshops for children and public fairs. The Silesian Museum in Katowice, opened in 1929, exhibits works by famous and renowned Polish artists like Józef Chełmoński , Artur Grottger , Tadeusz Makowski , Jacek Malczewski , Jan Matejko
Jan Matejko
, Józef Mehoffer
Józef Mehoffer
and Stanisław Wyspiański .

List of notable attractions: New complex of the Silesian Museum with an original mine headframe Exhibition hall of the museum

* Silesian Theatre , named after the Polish writer and painter Stanisław Wyspiański , is the largest theatre in Silesia. It is located exactly in the central part of the market square facing westward. The complex was originally built as a German theatre between 1905 and 1907 by architect Carl Moritz . * Silesian Museum , founded in 1929 by the Silesian Sejm , while the region was recovering from the Silesian Uprisings . In the Polish interbellum (1918-1939), the Silesian Museum was one of the prime institutions within the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
. * Silesian Philharmonic , originally established in 1945, its most notable members included Witold Małcużyński , Igor Oistrakh , Sviatoslav Richter and Adam Taubitz . * Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra , created in 1935 and led by Grzegorz Fitelberg until the outbreak of World War II, has recorded nearly 200 compact discs for many domestic and foreign labels. * Off Festival , a music festival, which also supports a variety of independent arts and cultural events such as exhibitions, workshops and film screenings. * Rawa Blues Festival , the world's largest indoor blues festival named after the Rawa River , which flows through Katowice.

MEDIA

TV stations:

* TVP 3 Katowice * TVS (TV Silesia) * TVN24 - department Katowice
Katowice
( TVN24 - oddział Katowice)

radio stations:

* Radio Katowice * Antyradio

newspapers:

* Dziennik Zachodni * Gazeta Wyborcza - Katowice
Katowice
section * Fakt
Fakt
- Katowice
Katowice
section * Metro International - Katowice * Nowy Przegląd Katowicki

Karol Szymanowski Academy of Music Tenement
Tenement
house at Kościuszko Street International Conference Centre Katowice, Spodek Historic tenement house at Mickiewicza Street 22 PKO BP Building in Katowice
Katowice

FESTIVALS AND EVENTS

* Rawa Blues Festiwal - Spodek * Metalmania - Spodek * Off Festival * Mayday - Spodek * International Competition of Conductors by Fitelberg * International Festival of Military Orchestras * International Exhibition of Graphic arts "Intergrafia" * The ESL One Katowice
Katowice
Tournament, for the popular FPS Counter-Strike: Global Offensive, League of Legends, and Starcraft II was held March 12–15, 2015. * Tauron New Music Festival * Intel Extreme Masters
Intel Extreme Masters
World Championship, one of the biggest eSports events in the world

Tauron New Music Festival

PARKS AND SQUARES

Parachute Tower in Tadeusz Kościuszko Park parks:

* Silesian Park (Wojewódzki Park Kultury i Wypoczynku) * Kościuszko Park (Park im. Tadeusza Kościuszki) * Forest Park of Katowice (Katowicki Park Leśny) * Valley of Three Ponds (Dolina Trzech Stawów) * Zadole Park

squares:

* Katowice market square (Rynek w Katowicach) * Freedom Square (Plac Wolności) * Andrzej Square (Plac Andrzeja) * Miarka Square (Plac Miarki) * Council of Europe Square (Plac Rady Europy) * Alfred Square (Plac Alfreda) * A. Budniok Square (Plac A. Brudnioka) * J. Londzin Square (Plac J. Londzina) * A. Hlond Square (Plac A. Hlonda)

NATURE RESERVES AND ECOLOGICAL AREAS

* Nature reserve Las Murckowski * Nature reserve Ochojec * Szopienice-Borki * Źródła Kłodnicy * Staw Grunfeld * Stawy Na Tysiącleciu * Płone Bagno

EDUCATION

Scientific Information Centre and Academic Library
Library
Silesian Library in Katowice
Katowice
Main article: List of schools of higher education in Katowice
Katowice

Katowice
Katowice
is a large scientific centre. It has over 20 schools of higher education , at which over 100,000 people study.

There are also:

* around 80 high schools * around 35 gimnasia * around 55 primary schools * around 50 libraries , including the Silesian Library

TRANSPORT

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

Tram
Tram
in Katowice
Katowice
National road 79 in Katowice
Katowice

The public transportation system of the Katowice
Katowice
and Upper Silesian Metropolis consists of four branches—buses and trams united in the KZK GOP and the regional rail . Additional services are operated by private companies and the state-owned railways. Trams

Silesian Interurbans - one of the largest tram systems in the world, in existence since 1894. It spreads for more than 50 kilometres (31 miles) (east-west) and covers 14 districts of the Upper Silesian Metropolis . Buses

THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (April 2009)

ROADS

* European route E40 ( France
France
- Belgium - Germany
Germany
- Poland
Poland
- Ukraine - Russia - Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
- Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
) * European route E75 ( Vardø
Vardø
, Norway
Norway
- Finland
Finland
- Poland
Poland
- Slovakia - Hungary
Hungary
- Serbia
Serbia
- Macedonia - Greece
Greece
) * European route E462 ( Czech Republic
Czech Republic
- Poland) * Motorway A4 (German/Polish border – Wrocław
Wrocław
Katowice
Katowice
Kraków
Kraków
Rzeszów – Polish/Ukrainian border) * National road 79 * National road 81 * National road 86

Several important roads in neighbourhoods of Katowice
Katowice
( USMU ):

* Motorway A1 ( Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Toruń Łódź
Łódź
Gliwice
Gliwice
– Polish /Czech border) * Expressway S1 * National road 11 * National road 44 * National road 78 * National road 88 * National road 94

AIRPORTS

Lobby from the upper level in terminal B in Katowice International Airport

The city and the area are served by the Katowice
Katowice
International Airport , about 30 km (19 mi) from the city center. With over 20 international and domestic flights daily, it is by far the biggest airport in Silesia (~2,5 million passengers served in 2008; 2 terminals, A and B).

Because of the long distance to the airport, there is a proposal to convert the much closer sport aviation Katowice- Muchowiec Airport into a city airport for smaller, business-oriented traffic.

RAILWAYS

Upper Silesian Railway reached the area in 1846. Katowice
Katowice
Central Station is one of the main railway nodes and exchange points in Poland. It has replaced the old Katowice historic train station .

SPORTS

Katowice
Katowice
has a long sporting tradition and hosted the final of EuroBasket 2009 and 1975 European Athletics Indoor Championships , 1975 European Amateur Boxing Championships , 1976 World Ice Hockey Championships , 1957, 1985 European Weightlifting Championships , 1974, 1982 World Wrestling Championships , 1991 World Amateur Bodybuilding Championships , 2011 Women\'s European Union
European Union
Amateur Boxing Championships , 2014 FIVB Men\'s World Championship and others.

The Silesian Stadium is between Chorzów
Chorzów
and Katowice. It was a national stadium of Poland, with more than 50 international matches of the Poland
Poland
national football team played here and around 30 matches in UEFA
UEFA
competitions. There were also a Speedway World Championship , Speedway Grand Prix of Europe and many concerts featuring international stars.

Tourists can relax playing tennis or squash, doing water sports also sailing (for example—in Dolina Trzech Stawów), horse-riding (in Wesoła Fala and Silesian culture and refreshment park ), cycling or going to one of numerous excellently equipped fitness clubs. Near the city center are sporting facilities like swimming pools (for example "Bugla", "Rolna") and in neighbourhood—golf courses (in Siemianowice Śląskie ).

SPORTS CLUBS

* GKS Katowice - men's football , ( Polish Cup winner: 1986, 1991, 1993; Polish SuperCup winner: 1991, 1995; 1st league in 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 seasons). ice hockey team Champion :1958,1960,1962 Gòrnik Katowice
Katowice
/ GKS 1965,1968,1970. * 1. FC Kattowitz - football club, vice-champion of Poland: 1927; champion of Upper Silesia: 1907, 1908, 1909, 1913, 1922, 1932, 1945 * AZS AWF Katowice - various sports, women's handball team playing in Polish Women\'s Handball Superleague , men's basketball team playing in Second league, fencing section - a lot of medals in the Polish Championship * Naprzód Janów Katowice
Katowice
- hockey club playing in Polish Hockey Superleague , vice-champion of Poland
Poland
(5x): 1971, 1973, 1977, 1989, 1992; bronze medal (7x): 1972, 1974, 1976, 1978, 1982, 1986, 1987; Polish Cup (1x): 1970. * AZS US Katowice
Katowice
- various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship in various sports * HKS Szopienice - various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish and Europe and World Championship in weightlifting * Silesia Miners - American football
American football
club playing in Polish American Football League , Polish champion in 2009, vice-champion in 2007 * Jango Katowice
Katowice
- futsal club playing in Polish Futsal
Futsal
Superleague; Polish Cup (1x): 2007; bronze medal Polish Championship (2x): 2001, 2007 * Rozwój Katowice - football club playing in Polish Third League * MK Katowice
Katowice
- football club playing in Polish Fourth League * Hetman Szopienice - chess club, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship * Sparta Katowice
Katowice
- various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship in various sports * Policyjny Klub Sportowy Katowice - various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship in various sports * AWF Mickiewicz Katowice
Katowice
- basketball club * Silesian Flying Club (Aeroklub Śląski)

Defunct sports clubs:

* Diana Kattowitz - football club * Germania Kattowitz - football club * KS Baildon Katowice
Katowice
- various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship in various sports * Pogoń Katowice
Katowice
- various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship in various sports

SPORTS EVENTS

* 1975 European Athletics Indoor Championships * 1976 World Ice Hockey Championships * FIVB World League 2001 * FIVB World League 2007 * Eurobasket 2009 * Tour de Pologne 2010 * BNP Paribas Katowice Open * EMS One Katowice
Katowice
CS:GO Championship 2014 * Intel Extreme Masters
Intel Extreme Masters
Season IX - World Championship Katowice League of Legends and StarCraft 2 Championship 2014 * ESL One Katowice
Katowice
CS:GO Championship 2015 * IEM Katowice
Katowice
CS:GO Championship 2016 * IEM Katowice
Katowice
CS:GO Championship 2017 * Overwatch World Cup 2017 Qualifier (eSports Tournament)

NOTABLE RESIDENTS

Main page: Category:People from Katowice
Katowice
University of Silesia in Katowice
Katowice
- Faculty of Law and Administration

* Hans Sachs (1877–1945), serologist * Kurt Goldstein (1878–1965), neurologist * Erich Przywara (1889-1972), priest * Hans Mikosch (1898-1993), general * Hans Källner (1898-1945), general * Franz Leopold Neumann (1900–1954), politician * Willy Fritsch
Willy Fritsch
(1901-1973), actor * Hans Bellmer
Hans Bellmer
(1902–1975), surrealist photographer * Hans-Christoph Seebohm (1903-1967), politician * Maria Goeppert-Mayer
Maria Goeppert-Mayer
(1906–1972), physicist, Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winner * Kurt Schwaen (1909-2007), composer * Rudolf Schnackenburg (1914-2002), priest * Georg Thomalla (1915-1999), actor * Ernst Wilimowski (1916-1997), football player * Ernst Plener (1919-2007), football player * Anneli Cahn Lax (1922-1999), mathematician * Richard Herrmann (1923-1962), football player * Chaskel Besser (1923–2010), Orthodox rabbi * Kazimierz Kutz (born 1929), film director and politician * Waldemar Świerzy (1931-2013), artist, illustrator and cartoonist * Wojciech Kilar
Wojciech Kilar
(1932-2013), classical and film music composer * Henryk Górecki (1933–2010), classical composer * Josef Kompalla (born 1936), ice hockey player and referee * Henryk Broder (born 1946), journalist * Jerzy Kukuczka (1948–1989), alpine and high altitude climber * Grzegorz Kosok (born 1986), volleyball player

TWIN TOWNS—SISTER CITIES

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland
Poland

Katowice
Katowice
is twinned with:

* COLOGNE , Germany
Germany
* GRONINGEN , Netherlands
Netherlands
* KOšICE , Slovakia
Slovakia
, since 2009 * MISKOLC , Hungary
Hungary
* MOBILE , Alabama
Alabama
, United States
United States

* ODENSE , Denmark
Denmark
* OSTRAVA , Czech Republic
Czech Republic
* SAINT-ÉTIENNE , France
France
* SAINT FRANCIS , Wisconsin
Wisconsin
, United States
United States
* SHENYANG , China
China

SEE ALSO

* List of mayors of Katowice * List of tallest buildings in Katowice

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ A B "Ludność. Stan i struktura ludności oraz ruch naturalny w przekroju terytorialnym w 2014 r. Stanu w dniu 31 XII 2015 r." (in Polish). Warszawa: Główny Urząd Statystyczny. 2015. * ^ A B "Study on Urban Functions (Project 1.4.3)" - European Spatial Planning Observation Network , 2007 * ^ A B "Katowice, Poland
Poland
- A City
City
Guide - Cracow Life". Retrieved 15 March 2017. * ^ "Local history - Information about the town - Katowice
Katowice
- Virtual Shtetl". Retrieved 15 March 2017. * ^ o.o., Stay Poland
Poland
Sp. z. "History of Katowice". Retrieved 15 March 2017. * ^ "History". Retrieved 15 March 2017. * ^ "Liberation Memorial Katowice
Katowice
- Katowice
Katowice
- TracesOfWar.com". Retrieved 15 March 2017. * ^ "CityProfiles: Katowice". The Urban Audit. Retrieved 15 August 2012. * ^ Interim Territorial Cohesion Report - Preliminary results of ESPON and EU Commission studies * ^ "Global city GDP 2011". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2012. * ^ A B silnet.pl. "Historia miasta i dzielnic - Katowice". Retrieved 25 January 2017. * ^ "History - Katowice". Retrieved 15 March 2017. * ^ Von Krakau bis Danzig
Danzig
(in German). Thomas Urban. 2004. Retrieved 2009-03-21. * ^ Documents on British foreign policy, 1919-1939 Great Britain
Great Britain
. Foreign Office, Ernest Llewellyn Woodward page 44 * ^ "In Defence of Katowice
Katowice
- Katowice". Retrieved 15 March 2017. * ^ "Katowice, Poland". Retrieved 17 March 2017. * ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Historic Centre of Warsaw". Retrieved 17 March 2017. * ^ Woźniczka, Zygmunt. " Katowice
Katowice
zniknęły. Powstał Stalinogród. To już 61 lat". Retrieved 15 March 2017. * ^ "Jak Katowice
Katowice
Stalinogrodem się stały - HISTORIA.org.pl - historia, kultura, muzea, matura, rekonstrukcje i recenzje historyczne". 10 December 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2017. * ^ "Jak Katowice
Katowice
zamieniono na Stalinogród". Retrieved 15 March 2017. * ^ www.wirtualnyturysta.com, Wirtualny Turysta,. " Katowice
Katowice
Online - Stalinogrod - Post-War History of Katowice". Retrieved 15 March 2017. * ^ Witosławska, Agata. " Katowice
Katowice
- the capital city of Upper Silesia". Retrieved 15 March 2017. * ^ " Katowice
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- IFMSA SCOPE Wiki". Retrieved 16 March 2017. * ^ "Local weather forecast: Katowice". * ^ olsztyn.stat.gov.pl/. "Wyniki badań bieżących - Baza Demografia - Główny Urząd Statystyczny". Retrieved 16 March 2017. * ^ " Katowice
Katowice
» mapy, nieruchomości, GUS, szkoły, kody pocztowe, wynagrodzenie, bezrobocie, zarobki, edukacja, tabele". Retrieved 16 March 2017. * ^ A B "Silesia". Retrieved 16 March 2017. * ^ " Holocaust
Holocaust
– oshpitzin.pl". Retrieved 16 March 2017. * ^ (in Polish) dziennik.pl - "17 śląskich miast chce się połączyć w Silesię", 11 December 2006) * ^ Lamparska, Marzena (1 June 2013). "Post-industrial Cultural Heritage Sites in the Katowice
Katowice
conurbation, Poland". 1 (2). doi :10.1515/environ-2015-0011 . Retrieved 16 March 2017. * ^ o.o., Stay Poland
Poland
Sp. z. " Katowice
Katowice
- Tourism - Tourist Information - Katowice, Poland
Poland
-". Retrieved 16 March 2017. * ^ "Wydawnictwo Muzeum Śląskiego: Lech Szaraniec " Katowice
Katowice
w dawnej i współczesnej fotografii". * ^ "When did a "Flying Saucer" arrive in Katowice? - Katowice". 20 October 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2017. * ^ Dziennik Zachodni Katowice
Katowice
- "Będą dwie Mariackie", 3 sierpnia 2007 * ^ "Bezrobotni oraz stopa bezrobocia wg województw, podregionów i powiatów (stan w końcu lipca 2008 r.)". * ^ A B C j., Media Partner Sp. "Culture: People: Invest in Katowice.". * ^ "Galeria Sztuki Współczesnej BWA w Katowicach - Miejsce - Culture.pl". * ^ Fortune Magazine (March 3, 2016) Poland
Poland
Is Home to the Biggest eSports Event in the World http://fortune.com/2016/03/03/poland-is-home-to-the-biggest-esports-event-in-the-world/ * ^ "Partnerstädte". Retrieved 2009-06-22. * ^ "Groningen - Partner Cities". © 2008 Gemeente Groningen, Kreupelstraat 1,9712 HW Groningen. Archived from the original on 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2008-12-08. * ^ "Twin cities of the City
City
of Kosice". Magistrát mesta Košice, Tr. Retrieved 2013-07-27. * ^ "Mobile\'s Sister Cities". City
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