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KASSEL (German pronunciation: ( listen ); spelled CASSEL until 1928) is a city located on the Fulda River
Fulda River
in northern Hesse
Hesse
, Germany. It is the administrative seat of the Regierungsbezirk Kassel and the Kreis of the same name and has 200,507 inhabitants in December 2015. The former capital of the state of Hesse- Kassel
Kassel
has many palaces and parks, including the Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe , which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site . Kassel
Kassel
is also known for the documenta exhibitions of contemporary art.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Culture * 3 Demographics

* 4 Sights

* 4.1 Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe * 4.2 Staatspark Karlsaue ( Karlsaue Park) * 4.3 Art museums * 4.4 Other museums

* 5 Sports * 6 Transport

* 7 Education and research

* 7.1 University of Kassel * 7.2 Other institutions

* 8 Associations * 9 Courts * 10 Famous people * 11 International relations * 12 References * 13 Bibliography * 14 External links

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Kassel Kassel, 16th century A map of Kassel
Kassel
in 1648. Königsstrasse, the main shopping street

The city's name is derived from the ancient Castellum Cattorum, a castle of the Chatti , a German tribe that had lived in the area since Roman times.

Kassel
Kassel
was first mentioned in 913 AD, as the place where two deeds were signed by King Conrad I . The place was called Chasella and was a fortification at a bridge crossing the Fulda
Fulda
river . A deed from 1189 certifies that Cassel had city rights, but the date when they were granted is not known.

In 1567, the Landgraviate of Hesse
Hesse
, until then centered in Marburg
Marburg
, was divided among four sons, with Hesse- Kassel
Kassel
(or Hesse-Cassel) becoming one of its successor states. Kassel
Kassel
was its capital and became a centre of Calvinist Protestantism in Germany. Strong fortifications were built to protect the Protestant stronghold against Catholic enemies. Secret societies, such as Rosicrucianism
Rosicrucianism
flourished, with Christian Rosenkreutz’s work Fama Fraternitis first published in 1617. In 1685, Kassel
Kassel
became a refuge for 1,700 Huguenots who found shelter in the newly established borough of Oberneustadt. Landgrave Charles , who was responsible for this humanitarian act, also ordered the construction of the Oktagon and of the Orangerie. In the late 18th Century, Hesse- Kassel
Kassel
became infamous for selling mercenaries (Hessians ) to the British crown to help suppress the American Revolution and to finance the construction of palaces and the Landgrave’s opulent lifestyle.

In the early 19th century, the Brothers Grimm lived in Kassel. They collected and wrote most of their fairy tales there. At that time, around 1803, the Landgraviate was elevated to a Principality and its ruler to Prince-elector . Shortly after, it was annexed by Napoleon and in 1807 it became the capital of the short-lived Kingdom of Westphalia under Napoleon's brother Jérôme . The Electorate was restored in 1813.

Having sided with Austria in the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
to gain supremacy in Germany, the principality was annexed by Prussia in 1866. The Prussian administration united Nassau , Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and Hesse-Kassel into the new Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau
Hesse-Nassau
. Kassel
Kassel
ceased to be a princely residence, but soon developed into a major industrial centre, as well as a major railway junction. Henschel "> Most of the casualties were civilians or wounded soldiers recuperating in local hospitals, whereas factories survived the attack generally undamaged. Karl Gerland replaced the regional Gauleiter , Karl Weinrich , soon after the raid.

The Allied ground advance into Germany
Germany
reached Kassel
Kassel
at the beginning of April 1945. The US 80th Infantry Division captured Kassel in bitter house-to-house fighting during 2–4 April 1945, which included numerous German panzer-grenadier counterattacks, and resulted in further widespread devastation to bombed and unbombed structures alike.

Post-war , most of the ancient buildings were not restored, and large parts of the city area were completely rebuilt in the style of the 1950s. A few historic buildings, however, such as the Museum Fridericianum (see below), were restored. In 1949, the interim parliament (" Parlamentarischer Rat ") eliminated Kassel
Kassel
in the first round as a city to become the provisional capital of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
( Bonn
Bonn
won). In 1964, the town hosted the fourth Hessentag state festival (again in 2013). In 1972 the Chancellor of West Germany
Germany
Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
and the Prime Minister of the German Democratic Republic Willy Stoph met in Wilhelmshohe castle for negotiations between the two German states. In 1991 the central rail station moved from "Hauptbahnhof" (English: main station) (today only used for regional trains) to "Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe". Kassel 360° Panorama view from the Tower of the Lutherkirche.

CULTURE

Installation by Thomas Schütte during Documenta IX, 1992

In 1558, the first German observatory was built in Kassel, followed in 1604 by the Ottoneum, the first permanent German theatre building. The old building is today the Natural History Museum, and the now-called Staatstheater Kassel is located in a nearby building that was constructed in the 1950s. Since 1927, Kassel
Kassel
has been home to Bärenreiter , one of the world's most important music publishers.

Since 1955 the Documenta , an international exhibition of modern and contemporary art , has been held regularly in Kassel. The Documenta now takes place every 5 years. The most recent exhibition, documenta 14 is being held from June to September, 2017. As a result of the Documenta 6 (1977), Kassel
Kassel
became the first town in the world to be illuminated by laser beams at night (Laserscape, by artist Horst H. Baumann). This laser installation is nowadays still visible at weekends. Other Documenta remnants (mainly sculptures) can be found in many places in Kassel; among those the " 7000 Oaks ", a work of land art by the German artist Joseph Beuys
Joseph Beuys
.

DEMOGRAPHICS

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RANK NATIONALITY POPULATION (2017)

1 Turkey
Turkey
8,466

2 Poland
Poland
2,012

3 Bulgaria
Bulgaria
1,893

4 Syria
Syria
1,327

5 Italy
Italy
1,167

6 Croatia
Croatia
902

7 Bosnia the Brüderkirche and the Martinskirche are also, in part, of medieval origin. The towers of the Martinskirche are from the 1950s.

BERGPARK WILHELMSHöHE

Main article: Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe Herkules Monument and water running down the cascades during the water features. In the Bergpark of the Wilhelmshöhe Palace The Orangerie in the Karlsaue park

The complex includes Wilhelmshöhe Palace (with the Antiquities Collection and Old Masters), the Hercules
Hercules
monument, and the Lions Castle. Wilhelmshöhe Palace above the city, was built in 1786 by landgrave Wilhelm IX of Hesse-Kassel. The palace is now a museum and houses an important collection of Graeco-Roman antiques and a fine gallery of paintings comprising the second largest collection of Rembrandts in Germany. It is surrounded by the beautiful Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe with many appealing sights. The complex was named a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site in 2013.

The Hercules
Hercules
monument is a huge octagonal stone structure carrying a giant replica of Hercules
Hercules
"Farnese" (now at Museo Archeologico Nazionale in Naples, Italy). From its base down to Wilhelmshöhe Palace runs a long set of artificial cascades which delight visitors during the summer months. Every Sunday and Wednesday afternoon at 14:30 (from May until October) the famous water features take place. They start at the Oktagon and during a one-hour walk through the park visitors can follow the water's way until they reach the lake of the castle Wilhelmshöhe, where a fountain of about 50 metres (160 ft) marks the end of the spectacle.

The Löwenburg ("Lions Castle") is a replica of a medieval castle, also built during the reign of Wilhelm IX. After the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71 Napoléon III
Napoléon III
was imprisoned in Wilhelmshöhe. In 1918 Wilhelmshöhe became the seat of the German Army High Command (OHL): it was there that the military commanders Hindenburg and Ludendorff prepared the German capitulation.

STAATSPARK KARLSAUE (KARLSAUE PARK)

Another large park and also part of the European Garden Heritage Network is the Karlsaue along the Fulda
Fulda
River. Established in the 16th century, it is famous for the Orangerie , a palace built in 1710 as a summer residence for the landgraves. Today, the Orangerie contains the Museum of Astronomy and Technology, with a scale model of the Solar System spanning the entire park and beyond. In addition, the Park Schönfeld contains a small, municipal botanical garden , the Botanischer Garten Kassel .

ART MUSEUMS

Europe's first public museum, the Museum Fridericianum was founded in 1779. By the end of the 19th century the museum held one of the largest collections in the world of watches and clocks. Other art museums in Kassel
Kassel
include:

* Schloss Wilhelmshöhe (Antiquities Collection and Old Masters: Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer
, Rubens , Rembrandt
Rembrandt
, Frans Hals
Frans Hals
, Anthony van Dyck
Anthony van Dyck
) * New Gallery ( Tischbein family , Joseph Beuys
Joseph Beuys
) * Hessisches Landesmuseum closed, under renovation until 2012 (with a world-famous wallpaper collection).

OTHER MUSEUMS

* Museum of Natural History (in the Ottoneum-building) * Museum of physics and astronomy in the Orangerie * Marmorbad (marble bath) in the Orangerie * Caricatura (in the Hauptbahnhof Kassel) * Museum of Local History * Tram-Museum Kassel * Technical Museum and Henschel Museum * Louis Spohr
Louis Spohr
Museum (classical music composer) * Brothers Grimm Museum in the Bellevue Palace (closed) * Museum for Sepulchral Culture * Museum of the Brothers Grimm (known as Grimmwelt Kassel) * Museum of Modern Art (Neue Gallerie) * Gemaeldegallerie Kassel
Kassel
in the Castle of Wilhelmshoehe (Schloss Wilhelmshoehe) * Botanical Island (Insel Siebenbergen)

SPORTS

Hessen
Hessen
Kassel
Kassel
is the football club in the city, who plays in the Regionalliga Südwest in Germany. The city's own football stadium, the Auestadion was built in 1953 and is able to hold 18,737 people. It is located in the south of Kassel
Kassel
at the quarter Südstadt, next to the Karlsaue.

Kassel
Kassel
has a long ice hockey tradition. The team, the Kassel
Kassel
Huskies , was active from 1977 to 2010. They were founding members of the DEL in 1994, belonging to the league from 1994-2006 and again from 2008-2010. In 1997 , they were runners-up in the championship play-offs, losing to Adler Mannheim and reached the semi-finals on three more occasions. The Huskies ran into financial difficulties and dissolved in 2010. The "Young Huskies", which is a junior and youth hockey club, decided to enter a men's team in the Hessenliga. This is the fifth division and the lowest men's competition in the state of Hesse
Hesse
. The new club was expecting no more than 3,000 supporters for the first home game in the Hessenliga. However, they had over 5,000 supporters come to watch.

TRANSPORT

Trams in Kassel

Kassel
Kassel
has seven tram lines (1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8), with trams arriving usually every 15 minutes. The city also operates a light rail Stadtbahn
Stadtbahn
network called RegioTram using Regio Citadis low-floor trams which run on both tram and main line railway tracks with four lines (RT3, RT4, RT5, RT9). Moreover, a number of low-floor buses complete the Kassel
Kassel
public transport system. The introduction of low-floor buses led to the development of the Kassel kerb which improves the accessibility at bus stops .

The city is connected to the national rail network at two stations, Kassel
Kassel
Central , and Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe . The traditional central station (Hauptbahnhof) has been reduced to the status of a regional station since the opening of the Hanover- Würzburg
Würzburg
high-speed rail line in 1991 and its station (Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe) on the high-speed line at which the InterCityExpress (ICE) and InterCity
InterCity
services call.

Kassel
Kassel
is connected to the motorways A 7 , A 49 and A 44 .

The city is served by Kassel Calden Airport .

EDUCATION AND RESEARCH

University of Kassel

UNIVERSITY OF KASSEL

The University of Kassel was founded in 1971, and is the newest university in the state of Hessen
Hessen
. The University offers twelve international master's programs as well as two short-term international programs, the Summer University and the Winter University . The Kunsthochschule Kassel
Kunsthochschule Kassel
is also part of the university.

OTHER INSTITUTIONS

* Kassel
Kassel
School of Medicine (KSM) * Fraunhofer-Institut für Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), former Institut für Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET) * Fraunhofer-Institut für Bauphysik (IBP) Projektgruppe Kassel * Forschungszentrum für Informationstechnik-Gestaltung (ITeG) * International Center for Development and Decent Work (ICDD) * Internationales Zentrum für Hochschulforschung Kassel
Kassel
(INCHER) * Zentrum für Umweltbewusstes Bauen (ZUB) * Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT) * AG Friedensforschung

ASSOCIATIONS

* Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge German War Graves Commission * Gesellschaft für Christlich-Jüdische Zusammenarbeit Kassel * Spitzenverband der landwirtschaftlichen Sozialversicherung * Deutsche Rentenversicherung Hessen * Industrie- und Handelskammer Kassel
Kassel
(Chamber of Commerce Kassel)

COURTS

Several courts are located in Kassel, including:

* Federal Social Court
Court
of Germany
Germany
(Bundessozialgericht) * Hessischer Verwaltungsgerichtshof (Administration Court
Court
of Hesse) * Hessisches Finanzgericht * Sozialgericht Kassel
Kassel
(Social Court
Court
Kassel) * Arbeitsgericht Kassel
Kassel
(Employment Court
Court
Kassel) * Verwaltungsgericht Kassel * Oberlandesgericht Frankfurt/Main in Kassel * Landgericht Kassel
Kassel
(Regional Court
Court
Kassel) * Amtsgericht Kassel
Kassel
and Staatsanwaltschaft Kassel
Kassel
(Local Court Kassel)

FAMOUS PEOPLE

The Brothers Grimm and historic buildings of Kassel
Kassel
on the last 1000 DM banknote

* Valerius Cordus (1515-1544) physician and botanist, authored pharmacopoeias and herbals. * William IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1532-1592) * Landgravine Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel (1627-1686) * Maria Amalia of Courland (1653-1711), noblewoman, participated in creation of park at Karlsaue . * Simon Louis du Ry (1726-1799), architect. * Rudolf Erich Raspe
Rudolf Erich Raspe
(1736 – 1794), a University of Kassel librarian, who fled to England after embezzling significant funds from Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and wrote (or compiled) The Surprising Adventures of Baron Munchhausen. * Prince Charles of Hesse-Kassel (1744-1836). * Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel (1747-1837). * Gertrud Elisabeth Mara (1749-1833), operatic soprano. * Georg Friedrich Sartorius (1765-1828), research historian and economist. * Louis Spohr
Louis Spohr
(1784-1859), 19th-century composer and violinist, who is commemorated by a museum in the city. * Jérôme Bonaparte
Jérôme Bonaparte
(1784-1860), brother of Napoleon Bonaparte , while he was king of Westphalia . * The Brothers Grimm , Jacob (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859), academics, linguists, cultural researchers, and authors who collected folklore and published several collections of it as Grimm\'s Fairy Tales . * HSH Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel (1797-1889), Princess and Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel, consort to Field Marshal HRH The Prince Adolphus Frederick , Duke of Cambridge . * Friedrich Armand Strubberg (1806–1889), merchant, physician, colonist in North America, direct descendant of Frederick I of Sweden . * Albrecht Rosengarten (1809-1893), architect famous for synagogue buildings in central Europe. * Justus Carl Hasskarl (1809-1894), botanist specialising in Pteridophytes , Bryophytes
Bryophytes
and Spermatophytes . * Louise of Hesse-Kassel (1811-1898), Princess and the queen consort to King Christian IX of Denmark
Christian IX of Denmark
. * Helmut Kollars (born 1968), writer and illustrator. * Paul Reuter (1816–1899), founder of the Reuters
Reuters
news agency. * Israel Meyer Japhet (1818–1892) choir director in Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main . * Carl Friedrich Claus (1827-1900), chemist. * Adolf Eugen Fick (1829–1901), physiologist. * Hugo Wilhelm Arthur Nahl (1833-1899), artist who designed the Seal of California . * Lucien Scheler (1902–1999), French poet, writer and publisher. * Jakob Stilling (1842-1915), ophthalmologist, son of Benedict Stilling , surgeon, and brother of Heinrich Stilling, pathologist. * Philipp Scheidemann (1865–1939), briefly Germany's Chancellor after World War I. * Andreas Dippel (1866-1932), operatic tenor. * Carl Kaiserling (1869-1942), pathologist. * Franz Rosenzweig (1886–1929), philosopher. * F. W. Murnau (1888–1931), movie director in the silent era . * Helmut Hasse (1898–1979), who did fundamental work in algebra and number theory. * Arnold Bode (1900-1977), architect, painter, designer and founder of the documenta. * Leni Junker (1905-1997), athlete who competed mainly in the 100 metres. * Otto Sander (30 June 1941 – 12 September 2013), German film, theater, and voice actor. * Yona Melnik (born 1949), Israeli Olympic judoka * Hubertus Meyer-Burckhardt (born 1956), German television journalist and talk show host. * Barbara Rudnik (27 July 1958 - 23 May 2009), was a German actress. * Meryem Sahra Uzerli (born 1982), Turkish-German actress. * Annika Mehlhorn (born 1983), German butterfly and medley swimmer, who competed in the 2004 Summer Olympics . * Milky Chance (present), German folk duo. * Yunus Mallı
Yunus Mallı
(born 1992), Turkish footballer.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Germany
The city hall

Kassel
Kassel
is twinned with:

* Pendle, Burnley, United Kingdom, since 1970s * Florence
Florence
, Italy
Italy
since 1952 * Kocaeli , Turkey
Turkey
since 1999 * Mulhouse , France
France
since 1965 * Ramat Gan , Israel
Israel
since 1990 * Rovaniemi , Finland
Finland
since 1972

* Västerås
Västerås
, Sweden
Sweden
since 1972 * Yaroslavl
Yaroslavl
, Russia
Russia
since 1988 * Berlin- Mitte , Germany
Germany
since 1962 * Arnstadt , Germany
Germany
since 1989 * Montana, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
since 2007

Wikimedia Commons has media related to KASSEL .

REFERENCES

* ^ "Bevölkerung der hessischen Gemeinden". Hessisches Statistisches Landesamt (in German). August 2016. * ^ Edward Victor. Alphabetical List of Camps, Subcamps and Other Camps.www.edwardvictor.com/Holocaust/List %20 of % 20 camps. htm * ^ Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939-1946, Stackpole Books (Revised Edition 2006), p. 150 * ^ "Sites in Germany
Germany
and Italy
Italy
bring to 19 the number of sites inscribed on the World Heritage List this year". UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Organization. 2013-06-23. Retrieved 9 July 2013. * ^ "Brueder Grimm-Museum Kassel". Retrieved 9 July 2013. * ^ "Startseite: GRIMMWELT". www.grimmwelt.de. Retrieved 4 May 2017. * ^ "neue galerie - Museumslandschaft Hessen
Hessen
Kassel". www.museum-kassel.de. Retrieved 4 May 2017. * ^ "schloss wilhelmshöhe - Museumslandschaft Hessen
Hessen
Kassel". www.museum-kassel.de. Retrieved 4 May 2017. * ^ "insel siebenbergen - Museumslandschaft Hessen
Hessen
Kassel". www.museum-kassel.de. Retrieved 4 May 2017. * ^ A B C D E F "German hockey team skates from financial brink back to rink". Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle
. March 20, 2011. Retrieved March 21, 2011. * ^ http://www.uni-kassel.de/einrichtungen/icdd/home.html * ^ " Ramat Gan Sister Cities". Archived from the original on March 7, 2008. Retrieved April 6, 2008. * ^ " Ramat Gan Sister Cities".

BIBLIOGRAPHY

See also: Bibliography of the history of Kassel
Kassel

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for KASSEL .

* Kassel
Kassel
City

.