KASSEL (German pronunciation: ( listen ); spelled CASSEL until
1928) is a city located on the
Fulda River in northern
Germany. It is the administrative seat of the
and the Kreis of the same name and has 200,507 inhabitants in December
2015. The former capital of the state of Hesse-
Kassel has many palaces
and parks, including the
Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe , which is a UNESCO
World Heritage Site .
Kassel is also known for the documenta
exhibitions of contemporary art.
* 1 History
* 2 Culture
* 3 Demographics
* 4 Sights
* 4.2 Staatspark
* 4.3 Art museums
* 4.4 Other museums
* 5 Sports
* 6 Transport
* 7 Education and research
University of Kassel
* 7.2 Other institutions
* 8 Associations
* 9 Courts
* 10 Famous people
* 11 International relations
* 12 References
* 13 Bibliography
* 14 External links
Timeline of Kassel Kassel, 16th century A map
Kassel in 1648. Königsstrasse, the main shopping street
The city's name is derived from the ancient Castellum Cattorum, a
castle of the
Chatti , a German tribe that had lived in the area since
Kassel was first mentioned in 913 AD, as the place where two deeds
were signed by King Conrad I . The place was called Chasella and was a
fortification at a bridge crossing the
Fulda river . A deed from 1189
certifies that Cassel had city rights, but the date when they were
granted is not known.
In 1567, the Landgraviate of
Hesse , until then centered in
was divided among four sons, with Hesse-
Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel)
becoming one of its successor states.
Kassel was its capital and
became a centre of
Protestantism in Germany. Strong
fortifications were built to protect the Protestant stronghold against
Catholic enemies. Secret societies, such as
with Christian Rosenkreutz’s work Fama Fraternitis first published
in 1617. In 1685,
Kassel became a refuge for 1,700 Huguenots who found
shelter in the newly established borough of Oberneustadt. Landgrave
Charles , who was responsible for this humanitarian act, also ordered
the construction of the Oktagon and of the Orangerie. In the late 18th
Kassel became infamous for selling mercenaries
(Hessians ) to the British crown to help suppress the American
Revolution and to finance the construction of palaces and the
Landgrave’s opulent lifestyle.
In the early 19th century, the
Brothers Grimm lived in Kassel. They
collected and wrote most of their fairy tales there. At that time,
around 1803, the Landgraviate was elevated to a Principality and its
Prince-elector . Shortly after, it was annexed by Napoleon
and in 1807 it became the capital of the short-lived Kingdom of
Westphalia under Napoleon's brother Jérôme . The Electorate was
restored in 1813.
Having sided with Austria in the
Austro-Prussian War to gain
supremacy in Germany, the principality was annexed by
Prussia in 1866.
The Prussian administration united Nassau ,
Frankfurt and Hesse-Kassel
into the new Prussian province of
Kassel ceased to be a
princely residence, but soon developed into a major industrial centre,
as well as a major railway junction. Henschel "> Most of the
casualties were civilians or wounded soldiers recuperating in local
hospitals, whereas factories survived the attack generally undamaged.
Karl Gerland replaced the regional
Karl Weinrich , soon
after the raid.
The Allied ground advance into
Kassel at the
beginning of April 1945. The US 80th Infantry Division captured Kassel
in bitter house-to-house fighting during 2–4 April 1945, which
included numerous German panzer-grenadier counterattacks, and resulted
in further widespread devastation to bombed and unbombed structures
Post-war , most of the ancient buildings were not restored, and large
parts of the city area were completely rebuilt in the style of the
1950s. A few historic buildings, however, such as the Museum
Fridericianum (see below), were restored. In 1949, the interim
Parlamentarischer Rat ") eliminated
Kassel in the first
round as a city to become the provisional capital of the Federal
Bonn won). In 1964, the town hosted the fourth
Hessentag state festival (again in 2013). In 1972 the Chancellor of
Willy Brandt and the Prime Minister of the German
Willy Stoph met in Wilhelmshohe castle for
negotiations between the two German states. In 1991 the central rail
station moved from "Hauptbahnhof" (English: main station) (today only
used for regional trains) to "Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe". Kassel
360° Panorama view from the Tower of the Lutherkirche.
Installation by Thomas Schütte during
Documenta IX, 1992
In 1558, the first German observatory was built in Kassel, followed
in 1604 by the Ottoneum, the first permanent German theatre building.
The old building is today the Natural History Museum, and the
Staatstheater Kassel is located in a nearby building that
was constructed in the 1950s. Since 1927,
Kassel has been home to
Bärenreiter , one of the world's most important music publishers.
Since 1955 the
Documenta , an international exhibition of modern and
contemporary art , has been held regularly in Kassel. The Documenta
now takes place every 5 years. The most recent exhibition, documenta
14 is being held from June to September, 2017. As a result of the
Documenta 6 (1977),
Kassel became the first town in the world to be
illuminated by laser beams at night (Laserscape, by artist Horst H.
Baumann). This laser installation is nowadays still visible at
Documenta remnants (mainly sculptures) can be found in
many places in Kassel; among those the "
7000 Oaks ", a work of land
art by the German artist
Joseph Beuys .
This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed . (April 2016) (Learn how and when to
remove this template message )
Bosnia the Brüderkirche and the Martinskirche are also, in part,
of medieval origin. The towers of the Martinskirche are from the
Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe Herkules Monument and
water running down the cascades during the water features. In the
Bergpark of the Wilhelmshöhe Palace The Orangerie in the
The complex includes Wilhelmshöhe Palace (with the Antiquities
Collection and Old Masters), the
Hercules monument, and the Lions
Castle. Wilhelmshöhe Palace above the city, was built in 1786 by
landgrave Wilhelm IX of Hesse-Kassel. The palace is now a museum and
houses an important collection of Graeco-Roman antiques and a fine
gallery of paintings comprising the second largest collection of
Rembrandts in Germany. It is surrounded by the beautiful Bergpark
Wilhelmshöhe with many appealing sights. The complex was named a
World Heritage Site in 2013.
Hercules monument is a huge octagonal stone structure carrying a
giant replica of
Hercules "Farnese" (now at Museo Archeologico
Nazionale in Naples, Italy). From its base down to Wilhelmshöhe
Palace runs a long set of artificial cascades which delight visitors
during the summer months. Every Sunday and Wednesday afternoon at
14:30 (from May until October) the famous water features take place.
They start at the Oktagon and during a one-hour walk through the park
visitors can follow the water's way until they reach the lake of the
castle Wilhelmshöhe, where a fountain of about 50 metres (160 ft)
marks the end of the spectacle.
The Löwenburg ("Lions Castle") is a replica of a medieval castle,
also built during the reign of Wilhelm IX. After the Franco-Prussian
War of 1870/71
Napoléon III was imprisoned in Wilhelmshöhe. In 1918
Wilhelmshöhe became the seat of the German Army High Command (OHL):
it was there that the military commanders Hindenburg and Ludendorff
prepared the German capitulation.
STAATSPARK KARLSAUE (KARLSAUE PARK)
Another large park and also part of the European Garden Heritage
Network is the
Karlsaue along the
Fulda River. Established in the 16th
century, it is famous for the Orangerie , a palace built in 1710 as a
summer residence for the landgraves. Today, the Orangerie contains the
Museum of Astronomy and Technology, with a scale model of the Solar
System spanning the entire park and beyond. In addition, the Park
Schönfeld contains a small, municipal botanical garden , the
Botanischer Garten Kassel .
Europe's first public museum, the Museum
Fridericianum was founded in
1779. By the end of the 19th century the museum held one of the
largest collections in the world of watches and clocks. Other art
Schloss Wilhelmshöhe (Antiquities Collection and Old Masters:
Albrecht Dürer , Rubens ,
Frans Hals ,
Anthony van Dyck
Anthony van Dyck )
* New Gallery (
Tischbein family ,
Joseph Beuys )
* Hessisches Landesmuseum closed, under renovation until 2012 (with
a world-famous wallpaper collection).
* Museum of Natural History (in the Ottoneum-building)
* Museum of physics and astronomy in the Orangerie
* Marmorbad (marble bath) in the Orangerie
* Caricatura (in the Hauptbahnhof Kassel)
* Museum of Local History
* Tram-Museum Kassel
* Technical Museum and Henschel Museum
Louis Spohr Museum (classical music composer)
Brothers Grimm Museum in the Bellevue Palace (closed)
* Museum for Sepulchral Culture
* Museum of the
Brothers Grimm (known as Grimmwelt Kassel)
* Museum of Modern Art (Neue Gallerie)
Kassel in the Castle of Wilhelmshoehe (Schloss
* Botanical Island (Insel Siebenbergen)
Kassel is the football club in the city, who plays in the
Regionalliga Südwest in Germany. The city's own football stadium, the
Auestadion was built in 1953 and is able to hold 18,737 people. It is
located in the south of
Kassel at the quarter Südstadt, next to the
Kassel has a long ice hockey tradition. The team, the
, was active from 1977 to 2010. They were founding members of the DEL
in 1994, belonging to the league from 1994-2006 and again from
2008-2010. In 1997 , they were runners-up in the championship
play-offs, losing to
Adler Mannheim and reached the semi-finals on
three more occasions. The Huskies ran into financial difficulties and
dissolved in 2010. The "Young Huskies", which is a junior and youth
hockey club, decided to enter a men's team in the Hessenliga. This is
the fifth division and the lowest men's competition in the state of
Hesse . The new club was expecting no more than 3,000 supporters for
the first home game in the Hessenliga. However, they had over 5,000
supporters come to watch.
Trams in Kassel
Kassel has seven tram lines (1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8), with trams
arriving usually every 15 minutes. The city also operates a light rail
Stadtbahn network called RegioTram using Regio Citadis low-floor trams
which run on both tram and main line railway tracks with four lines
(RT3, RT4, RT5, RT9). Moreover, a number of low-floor buses complete
Kassel public transport system. The introduction of low-floor
buses led to the development of the
Kassel kerb which improves the
accessibility at bus stops .
The city is connected to the national rail network at two stations,
Kassel Central , and Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe . The traditional central
station (Hauptbahnhof) has been reduced to the status of a regional
station since the opening of the Hanover-
Würzburg high-speed rail
line in 1991 and its station (Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe) on the high-speed
line at which the
InterCityExpress (ICE) and
InterCity services call.
Kassel is connected to the motorways A 7 , A 49 and A 44 .
The city is served by
Kassel Calden Airport .
EDUCATION AND RESEARCH
University of Kassel
UNIVERSITY OF KASSEL
University of Kassel was founded in 1971, and is the newest
university in the state of
Hessen . The University offers twelve
international master's programs as well as two short-term
international programs, the Summer University and the Winter
University . The
Kunsthochschule Kassel is also part of the
Kassel School of Medicine (KSM)
* Fraunhofer-Institut für Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik
(IWES), former Institut für Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET)
* Fraunhofer-Institut für Bauphysik (IBP) Projektgruppe Kassel
* Forschungszentrum für Informationstechnik-Gestaltung (ITeG)
* International Center for Development and Decent Work (ICDD)
* Internationales Zentrum für Hochschulforschung
* Zentrum für Umweltbewusstes Bauen (ZUB)
* Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology
* AG Friedensforschung
* Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge German War Graves
* Gesellschaft für Christlich-Jüdische Zusammenarbeit Kassel
* Spitzenverband der landwirtschaftlichen Sozialversicherung
* Deutsche Rentenversicherung Hessen
* Industrie- und Handelskammer
Kassel (Chamber of Commerce Kassel)
Several courts are located in Kassel, including:
* Federal Social
* Hessischer Verwaltungsgerichtshof (Administration
Court of Hesse)
* Hessisches Finanzgericht
* Verwaltungsgericht Kassel
* Oberlandesgericht Frankfurt/Main in Kassel
Kassel and Staatsanwaltschaft
Kassel (Local Court
Brothers Grimm and historic buildings of
Kassel on the last
1000 DM banknote
Valerius Cordus (1515-1544) physician and botanist, authored
pharmacopoeias and herbals.
William IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1532-1592)
Landgravine Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel (1627-1686)
Maria Amalia of Courland (1653-1711), noblewoman, participated in
creation of park at
Simon Louis du Ry (1726-1799), architect.
Rudolf Erich Raspe
Rudolf Erich Raspe (1736 – 1794), a University of Kassel
librarian, who fled to England after embezzling significant funds from
Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and wrote (or compiled) The
Surprising Adventures of Baron Munchhausen.
Prince Charles of Hesse-Kassel (1744-1836).
Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel (1747-1837).
Gertrud Elisabeth Mara (1749-1833), operatic soprano.
Georg Friedrich Sartorius (1765-1828), research historian and
Louis Spohr (1784-1859), 19th-century composer and violinist, who
is commemorated by a museum in the city.
Jérôme Bonaparte (1784-1860), brother of
Napoleon Bonaparte ,
while he was king of Westphalia .
Brothers Grimm , Jacob (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Grimm
(1786–1859), academics, linguists, cultural researchers, and authors
who collected folklore and published several collections of it as
Grimm\'s Fairy Tales .
Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel (1797-1889), Princess and
Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel, consort to Field Marshal HRH The Prince
Adolphus Frederick , Duke of Cambridge .
Friedrich Armand Strubberg (1806–1889), merchant, physician,
colonist in North America, direct descendant of Frederick I of Sweden
Albrecht Rosengarten (1809-1893), architect famous for synagogue
buildings in central Europe.
Justus Carl Hasskarl (1809-1894), botanist specialising in
Louise of Hesse-Kassel (1811-1898), Princess and the queen consort
Christian IX of Denmark
Christian IX of Denmark .
Helmut Kollars (born 1968), writer and illustrator.
Paul Reuter (1816–1899), founder of the
Reuters news agency.
Israel Meyer Japhet (1818–1892) choir director in
Carl Friedrich Claus (1827-1900), chemist.
Adolf Eugen Fick (1829–1901), physiologist.
Hugo Wilhelm Arthur Nahl (1833-1899), artist who designed the Seal
of California .
Lucien Scheler (1902–1999), French poet, writer and publisher.
Jakob Stilling (1842-1915), ophthalmologist, son of Benedict
Stilling , surgeon, and brother of Heinrich Stilling, pathologist.
Philipp Scheidemann (1865–1939), briefly Germany's Chancellor
after World War I.
Andreas Dippel (1866-1932), operatic tenor.
Carl Kaiserling (1869-1942), pathologist.
Franz Rosenzweig (1886–1929), philosopher.
F. W. Murnau (1888–1931), movie director in the silent era .
Helmut Hasse (1898–1979), who did fundamental work in algebra
and number theory.
Arnold Bode (1900-1977), architect, painter, designer and founder
of the documenta.
Leni Junker (1905-1997), athlete who competed mainly in the 100
Otto Sander (30 June 1941 – 12 September 2013), German film,
theater, and voice actor.
Yona Melnik (born 1949), Israeli Olympic judoka
Hubertus Meyer-Burckhardt (born 1956), German television
journalist and talk show host.
Barbara Rudnik (27 July 1958 - 23 May 2009), was a German actress.
Meryem Sahra Uzerli (born 1982), Turkish-German actress.
Annika Mehlhorn (born 1983), German butterfly and medley swimmer,
who competed in the
2004 Summer Olympics .
Milky Chance (present), German folk duo.
Yunus Mallı (born 1992), Turkish footballer.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
Kassel is twinned with:
* Pendle, Burnley, United Kingdom, since 1970s
Italy since 1952
* Kocaeli ,
Turkey since 1999
France since 1965
Ramat Gan ,
Israel since 1990
Finland since 1972
Sweden since 1972
Russia since 1988
Germany since 1962
Germany since 1989
Bulgaria since 2007
Wikimedia Commons has media related to KASSEL .
* ^ "Bevölkerung der hessischen Gemeinden". Hessisches
Statistisches Landesamt (in German). August 2016.
* ^ Edward Victor. Alphabetical List of Camps, Subcamps and Other
Camps.www.edwardvictor.com/Holocaust/List %20 of % 20 camps. htm
* ^ Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic
Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division,
1939-1946, Stackpole Books (Revised Edition 2006), p. 150
* ^ "Sites in
Italy bring to 19 the number of sites
inscribed on the World Heritage List this year".
UNESCO World Heritage
Organization. 2013-06-23. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
* ^ "Brueder Grimm-Museum Kassel". Retrieved 9 July 2013.
* ^ "Startseite: GRIMMWELT". www.grimmwelt.de. Retrieved 4 May
* ^ "neue galerie - Museumslandschaft
www.museum-kassel.de. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
* ^ "schloss wilhelmshöhe - Museumslandschaft
www.museum-kassel.de. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
* ^ "insel siebenbergen - Museumslandschaft
www.museum-kassel.de. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
* ^ A B C D E F "German hockey team skates from financial brink
back to rink".
Deutsche Welle . March 20, 2011. Retrieved March 21,
* ^ http://www.uni-kassel.de/einrichtungen/icdd/home.html
* ^ "
Ramat Gan Sister Cities". Archived from the original on March
7, 2008. Retrieved April 6, 2008.
* ^ "
Ramat Gan Sister Cities".
See also: Bibliography of the history of
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for KASSEL .