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Nickname(s): Peer Waer (Garden of saints) Paradise on Earth, Resh Waer [1]

Country  India

State Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir

Districts Anantnag, Baramulla, Budgam, Bandipore, Ganderbal, Kupwara, Kulgam, Pulwama, Shopian
Shopian
and Srinagar.

Headquarters Srinagar

Historical divisions

List

Kamraz (North Kashmir)[2] Yamraz (Central Kashmir)[2] Maraz ( South Kashmir)[2]

Area

 • Total 15,948 km2 (6,158 sq mi)

Dimensions

 • Length 135[3] km (83.885 mi)

 • Width 32[3] km (19.884 mi)

Elevation 1,620[3] m (5,314 ft)

Population (2011[4])

 • Total 6,907,622[4]

 • Density 450.06/km2 (1,165.7/sq mi)

Demonym(s) Kashmiri, Koshur (کوٗشُر in Kashmiri)

Ethnicity and language

 • Languages Kashmiri (majority), Urdu
Urdu
(as a second language), Pahari, Gojri, Shina

 • Ethnic groups Kashmiri, Pahari, Gujar, Shina etc

 • Religions 97.16% Islam,[5] 1.84% Hinduism, 0.88% Sikhism, 0.11% Buddhism[5]

Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)

Vehicle registration JK

Highest peak Machoi Peak
Machoi Peak
(5458 meters)

Largest lake Wular lake(260 square kilometers)[6]

Longest river Jhelum river(725 kilometers)[7]

The Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley, also known as the Vale of Kashmir, is a valley in the portion of the Kashmir
Kashmir
region administered by India. The valley is bounded on the southwest by the Pir Panjal Range
Pir Panjal Range
and on the northeast by the main Himalayas
Himalayas
range. It is approximately 135 km long and 32 km wide, and drained by the Jhelum River.[3] Kashmir
Kashmir
division is one of the three administrative divisions of the Indian state of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir. The Kashmir
Kashmir
division borders Jammu Division to the south and Ladakh
Ladakh
to the east while Line of Control forms its northern and the western border. The division consists of the following districts: Anantnag, Baramulla, Budgam, Bandipore, Ganderbal, Kupwara, Kulgam, Pulwama, Shopian
Shopian
and Srinagar.[8]

Contents

1 History 2 Demographics

2.1 Districts 2.2 Cities

3 Politics 4 Climate 5 Tourism

5.1 Hill stations 5.2 Mughal gardens 5.3 Lakes 5.4 Mountaineering

6 Culture and cuisine 7 Transport 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] Main articles: Kashmiris
Kashmiris
§ History, and Kashmiris
Kashmiris
history

General view of Temple and Enclosure of Martand
Martand
or the Sun, near Bhawan. Probable date of temple AD 490–555. Probable date of colonnade AD 693–729. Photograph of the Surya
Surya
Temple at Martand
Martand
in Jammu
Jammu
& Kashmir
Kashmir
taken by John Burke in 1868.

In the first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir
Kashmir
region became an important centre of Hinduism
Hinduism
and later of Buddhism; later still, in the ninth century, Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism arose.[9] In 1339, Shah Mir
Shah Mir
became the first Muslim
Muslim
ruler of Kashmir, inaugurating the Salatin-i-Kashmir or Swati dynasty.[10] For the next five centuries, Muslim
Muslim
monarchs ruled Kashmir, including the Mughals, who ruled from 1526 until 1751, and the Afghan Durrani Empire, which ruled from 1747 until 1820.[10] That year, the Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir.[10] In 1846, after the Sikh defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War, and upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, became the ruler of a new State of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir. The rule of his descendants, under the paramountcy (or tutelage) of the British Crown, lasted until 1947. In that year, facing a rebellion in the western districts of the state as well as an invasion by Pashtun tribes
Pashtun tribes
instigated by the Dominion of Pakistan,[11] the Maharaja of the princely state signed the Instrument of Accession, joining the Dominion of India. Subsequently, he transferred power to a popular government headed by Sheikh Abdullah. Following this, a war ensued between India
India
and Pakistan. The territory of the state, however, has been the centre of a dispute ever since, now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and the People's Republic of China, the latter having taken control of Aksai Chin
Aksai Chin
in 1964. Kashmir
Kashmir
valley is however fully under the control of India
India
and is about 15,948 Square Kilometres in area which is about 15.73% of the total area under Indian control. Demographics[edit]

A mosque in Srinagar

The major ethnic group of Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley are Kashmiris
Kashmiris
and they speak the Kashmiri language. Smaller ethno-linguistic groups include the Gujjars and Bakarwals who mostly live along mountain ranges of the Valley. The Valley has a Muslim
Muslim
majority population and Islam
Islam
is practiced by 97.16% of the population with the remaining being Hindus (1.84%), Sikhs
Sikhs
(0.88%), Buddhists (0.11%) and others.[5] The principal spoken languages in the valley are Kashmiri and Urdu, with Urdu
Urdu
being the official language. Many speakers of these languages also know English as a second language.[12] Districts[edit]

Map of the Kashmir
Kashmir
division shown in orange

See also: List of districts of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir Kashmir
Kashmir
Division consists of ten districts:

Name of District Headquarters Area (km²) Population 2001 Census Population 2011 Census

Anantnag
Anantnag
District Anantnag 3,984 734,549 1,069,749

Kulgam
Kulgam
district Kulgam

437,885 423,181

Pulwama
Pulwama
district Pulwama 1,398 441,275 570,060

Shopian
Shopian
district Shopian

211,332 265,960

Budgam
Budgam
district Budgam 1,371 629,309 755,331

Srinagar
Srinagar
district Srinagar 2,228 990,548 1,250,173

Ganderbal
Ganderbal
district Ganderbal

211,899 297,003

Bandipore
Bandipore
district Bandipore

316,436 385,099

Baramulla
Baramulla
district Baramulla 4,588 853,344 1,015,503

Kupwara
Kupwara
district Kupwara 2,379 650,393 875,564

Cities[edit] Srinagar
Srinagar
is its main city and also the summer capital of the state. Other main cities are Baramulla, Handwara, Sopore, Anantnag, Ganderbal etc. Politics[edit] The major political parties in the region are the National Conference, the Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
People's Democratic Party and the Congress. Srinagar
Srinagar
in the valley is the summer capital of the state of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir. The capital moves out of the valley in the winter to Jammu
Jammu
in a grand ceremony called Darbar Move. Climate[edit]

Srinagar

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    48     7 −2

    68     8 −1

    121     14 3

    85     21 8

    68     25 11

    39     30 15

    62     30 18

    76     30 18

    28     27 12

    33     22 6

    28     15 1

    54     8 −2

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: HKO [13]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    1.9     45 28

    2.7     47 31

    4.8     57 38

    3.3     69 46

    2.7     76 51

    1.5     85 59

    2.4     86 65

    3     85 64

    1.1     81 54

    1.3     72 42

    1.1     59 34

    2.1     47 29

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley has a moderate climate, which is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Karakoram Range
Karakoram Range
in the north, Pir Panjal Range
Pir Panjal Range
in the south and west and Zanskar Range
Zanskar Range
in the east.[14] It can be generally described as cool in the spring and autumn, mild in the summer and cold in the winter. As a large valley with significant differences in geo-location among various districts, the weather is often cooler in the hilly areas compared to the flat lower part. Summer is usually mild and fairly dry, but relative humidity is generally high and the nights are cool. The precipitation occurs throughout the year and no month is particularly dry. The hottest month is July (mean minimum temperature 16 °C, mean maximum temperature 32 °C) and the coldest are December–January (mean minimum temperature −15 °C, mean maximum temperature 0 °C). Compared with other plain parts of India, Kashmir
Kashmir
valley enjoys a more moderate climate but weather conditions are unpredictable. The recorded high temperature is 33 °C and the recorded low is −18 °C. On 5 and 6 January 2012, after years of relatively little snow, a wave of heavy snow and low temperatures (winter storm) shocked the valley covering it in a thick layer of snow and ice. Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley has seen an increase in relative humidity and annual precipitation in the last few years. This is most likely because of the commercial afforestation projects which also include expanding parks and green cover.

Different seasons and climatic conditions in Kashmir

Autumn

Winter

Spring

Summer

Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir

Skiing is popular in Gulmarg, showing cable car in a snow clad mountain

Kashmir
Kashmir
valley is a popular tourist destination for domestic and foreign tourists. Among the popular tourist places in the valley are Gulmarg
Gulmarg
that has a ski resort, Dal Lake
Dal Lake
that has popular house boats, Pahalgam
Pahalgam
and the major Hindu
Hindu
shrine Amarnath Temple. Before insurgency intensified in 1989, tourism formed an important part of the Kashmiri economy. As a result, the tourism economy in the Kashmir
Kashmir
valley was worst hit. Thousands of Hindu
Hindu
pilgrims visit holy shrine of Amarnath every year and this significantly benefits the state's economy.[15] But this yatra has put Kashmir
Kashmir
on the verge of ecological disaster.[16] Tourism in the Kashmir
Kashmir
valley has rebounded in recent years and in 2009, the state became one of the top tourist destinations of India.[17] Gulmarg, one of the most popular ski resort destinations in India, is also home to the world's highest green golf course.[18] However, with the decrease in violence in the state has boosted the states economy specifically tourism.[19] It was reported that 736,000 tourists including 23,000 foreigners visited Kashmir
Kashmir
in 2010. Other tourist places include Sonamarg, Kokernag, Verinag, Aharabal
Aharabal
and Semthan-Top. Hill stations[edit]

Sind River
Sind River
at Nilgrar Sonamarg

Lidder River
Lidder River
flowing through Pahalgam
Pahalgam
Valley

Aru Gulmarg Pahalgam Sonamarg Srinagar Yusmarg Aharabal Kausar Nag Lolab
Lolab
Valley

Mughal gardens[edit]

Nishat Bagh

Shalimar Garden

Nishat Bagh Shalimar Bagh Chashme Shahi Pari Mahal Achabal Verinag

Lakes[edit]

Dal Lake Gadsar Lake Gangabal Lake Krishansar Lake Manasbal Lake Nundkol Lake Satsar Lake Sheshnag Lake Tarsar Lake Marsar Lake Vishansar Lake Wular Lake Kounsernag Lake

Mountaineering[edit] This Himalayan valley provides a base to climb some of the challenging Himalayan peaks. These peaks were closed due to the rise in militancy, now they are opened for mountaineering.[20]

Mount Haramukh, 16,870 ft (5,142 metres) Kolhoi Peak, 17,799 ft (5,425 metres) Machoi Peak, 17,907 ft (5,458 metres) Sirbal Peak, 17,178 ft (5,236 metres) Amarnath Peak, 17,014 ft (5,186 metres) Sunset Peak, 15,571 ft (4,746 metres) Tatakooti Peak, 15,502 ft (4,725 metres)

Lolab
Lolab
- Paradise In Paradise

Mahadev Peak, 13,999 ft (4,267 metres)

Culture and cuisine[edit] Further information: Cuisine of Kashmir, Wazwan, Kashmiri literature, Kashmiri music, and Kashmiri Pandit Festivals Kashmiri cuisine
Kashmiri cuisine
includes dum aloo (boiled potatoes hollowed and stuffed with heavy amounts of spice), tzaman (a solid cottage cheese), rogan josh (lamb cooked in heavy spices), yakhiyn (lamb cooked in curd with mild spices), hakh (kohlrabi greens), rista-gushtaba (minced meat balls in tomato and curd curry), danival korme and the signature rice. The traditional wazwan feast involves cooking meat or vegetables, usually mutton, in several different ways. Alcohol is not consumed by many Muslims in the valley. There are two styles of making tea in the region: Noon Chai
Noon Chai
or salt tea that is pink in colour (known as chinen posh rang or peach flower colour) and popular with locals, and kahwah, a tea for festive occasions, made with saffron and spices (cardamom, cinnamon, sugar, noon chai leaves) and black tea. Transport[edit] Kashmir
Kashmir
valley is connected to Jammu
Jammu
and Ladakh
Ladakh
regions by road and air. It has access to Jammu
Jammu
region and the rest of India
India
through the Banihal
Banihal
road tunnel near Qazigund
Qazigund
on national highway NH 1A and through NH 1B that passes through Sinthan pass and Kishtwar. Srinagar
Srinagar
is the main airport in Kashmir
Kashmir
valley and has scheduled flights from Jammu, Leh, Mumbai, Chandigarh and New Delhi. Kashmir valley has a 119 km (74 mi) long modern railway line that started in October 2009 and connects Baramulla
Baramulla
in the western part of the valley to Srinagar
Srinagar
and Qazigund. It further links the Kashmir Valley to Banihal
Banihal
across the Pir Panjal mountains through the new 11.215 km (7 mile) long Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel
Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel
or Banihal
Banihal
rail tunnel from 26 June 2013. Banihal
Banihal
railway station will be linked to the rest of India
India
in another few years as the construction of the railway line from Jammu
Jammu
to Banihal
Banihal
progresses steadily. Transport within the valley is predominantly by road.Other airports are in Udhampur, Awantipora, Leh
Leh
and Jammu. Another airport is proposed in Anantnag. See also[edit]

Downtown Srinagar Kulgam Kupwara Pulwama Baramulla

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

^ http://www.india.com/travel/articles/9-photos-proves-jammu-kashmir-paradise-earth/ ^ a b c http://www.koshur.org/Kashmiri/introduction.html ^ a b c d "Vale of Kashmir
Kashmir
valley, India". Retrieved 2016-07-08.  ^ a b http://jkenvis.nic.in/administrative_demography.html ^ a b c Comprehensive SVEEP Plan of J&K State 2014, http://eci.nic.in/eci_main1/SVEEP/Jammu%20&%20Kashmir19092014.pdf ^ https://www.britannica.com/place/Wular-Lake ^ https://www.britannica.com/place/Jhelum-River ^ "In Depth-the future of Kashmir". BBC News. Retrieved 16 April 2013.  ^ Basham, A. L. (2005) The wonder that was India, Picador. Pp. 572. ISBN 0-330-43909-X, p. 110. ^ a b c Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. Oxford University Press, Oxford and London. pp. 93–95. ^ Nawaz, Shuja (May 2008), "The First Kashmir
Kashmir
War Revisited", India Review, 7 (2): 115–154, doi:10.1080/14736480802055455, (Subscription required (help))  ^ "Kashmiri: A language of India". Ethnologue. Retrieved 16 September 2007.  ^ "Climatological Information for Srinagar, India". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2012-06-09.  ^ Sharad Singh Negi (1986). Geo-botany of India. Periodical Expert Book Agency, 1986. p. 58–. Retrieved 11 July 2012.  ^ "Amarnath Board to study yatra impact on Kashmir
Kashmir
economy". Online edition of The Hindu, dated 13 September 2007. 13 September 2007. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012.  ^ "Amarnath Yatra An environmental disaster in the making". Online edition of Yahoo, dated 8 August 2011.  ^ "Foreign tourists flock Kashmir". Online edition of The Hindu, dated 18 March 2009. 18 March 2009. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012.  ^ Fairway to Heaven – WSJ.com ^ Tourists arrival gives boost to J-K economy ^ Treks, Kashmir. " Kashmir
Kashmir
Treks". Kashmirtreks.in. Kashmir
Kashmir
Treks. Retrieved 5 September 2017. 

External links[edit]

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley travel guide from Wikivoyage Vale of Kashmir

v t e

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley

Passes

Banihal
Banihal
Pass Zojila Burzil Pass

Valleys

Sind Valley Lidder Valley Lolab
Lolab
Valley Betaab Valley

Cities

Srinagar Anantnag Baramulla

Towns

Pulwama Budgam Ganderbal Shopian Bandipore Kulgam Downtown Nowshera Gurez Pattan Kangan Hazratbal Awantipora Tral Qazigund Kokernag Shangus Bijbehara Doru Pahalgam Pattan Uri Kreeri Boniyar Tangmarg Sopore Rafaiabad Karnah Kupwara Lolab Handwara Langate Charari Sharief Beerwah Chadoora Sumbal Sonawari Quimoh Pahloo D.H.Pora Devsar Soura Buchpora

Rivers

Jehlum Sind Lidder Neelum Veshaw Rambi Ara

Glaciers

Kolhoi Glacier Machoi Glacier

Lakes

Anchar Lake Dal Lake Nigeen Lake Manasbal Lake Wular Lake Vishansar Lake Krishansar Lake Gangabal Lake Gadsar Lake Sheshnag Lake Tarsar Lake Nundkol Lake Satsar Lake Kausar Nag Brari Nambal Khushal Sar Gil Sar

Mountains

Harmukh Kolhoi Peak Machoi Peak Amarnath Peak Sirbal Peak Tatakooti Peak Sunset Peak Mahadev

Hill stations and Mughal gardens

Pahalgam Sonamarg Yusmarg Gulmarg Aharbal

Nishat Bagh Shalimar Bagh Chashme Shahi Verinag Kokernag

See also

History of Kashmir Kashmir
Kashmir
Conflict The Valley Of Kashmir
Kashmir
(1895 book) Line of Control Jammu– Baramulla
Baramulla
line Kashmiri language

v t e

Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
topics

Capital: Srinagar
Srinagar
(Summer); Jammu
Jammu
(Winter)

History

History of Kashmir Kashyapa Dynasties of ancient Kashmir Kambojas Lalitaditya Muktapida Didda Muslim
Muslim
conquests on the Indian subcontinent Zain-ul-Abidin Shah Mir
Shah Mir
Dynasty Durrani Empire Dogra
Dogra
Empire Sikh Empire Mughal Empire East India
India
Company Gulab Singh Zorawar Singh Jamwal Indian Rebellion of 1857 British Raj Kashmir
Kashmir
Committee Partition of India Hari Singh Kashmir
Kashmir
conflict Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts Insurgency Darbar Move

Government and politics

Jammu
Jammu
& Kashmir
Kashmir
National Conference Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Peoples Democratic Party Instrument of Accession Article 370 All Parties Hurriyat Conference 1974 Indira-Sheikh accord Simla Agreement Sheikh Abdullah Karan Singh Omar Abdullah Syed Ali Shah Geelani Mirwaiz Umar Farooq

Culture and places

Kashmiriyat Music Cuisine Wazwan Kanger Shikara Pashmina Basohli painting Hinduism Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism Sikhism Islam Alchi Bardan Basgo Chemrey Diskit Hanle Hemis Hundur Korzok Kursha Lamayuru Likir Lingshed Mashro Matho Mulbekh Namgyal Tsemo Phugtal Phyang Rangdum Rizong Sani Sankar Saspul Shey Monastery Spituk Stakna Stok Stongdey Takthok Thikse Tonde Wanla Zangla Dzongkhul Vaishno Devi Amarnath Gulmarg Pahalgam Sonamarg Verinag Wangath Temple complex Yusmarg Zanskar Forts National parks Lakes

Districts and divisions

Jammu
Jammu
Division

Kathua Jammu Samba Udhampur Reasi Rajouri Poonch Doda Ramban Kishtwar

Kashmir
Kashmir
Division

Anantnag Kulgam Pulwama Shopian Badgam Srinagar Ganderbal Bandipora Baramulla Kupwara

Ladakh
Ladakh
Division

Kargil Leh

Cities

Srinagar Jammu Anantnag Baramulla Pulwama Kupwara Budgam Ganderbal Shupiyan Bandipora Kulgam Doda Poonch Rajauri Ramban Reasi Samba Udhampur Kathua Kishtwar

Towns

Downtown Kokernag Magam Shangus Bijbehara Doru Pahalgam Qazigund Achabal Kargil Awantipora Tral Gurez Sopore Pattan Kangan Hazratbal Uri Kreeri Boniyar Tangmarg Rafaiabad Badami_Bagh Buchpora Munawar_Abad Nowhatta Karnah Kupwara Lolab Handwara Charari Sharief Beerwah Chadoora Khan Sahib Quimoh Pahloo Damhal Hanji Pora

Famous villages

Padgampora Iskander Pora Mazhom Rathsoon Botingoo Fatehpora Durhama Hanjiwera Hardu-Aboora Kreeri Ladoora Ogmuna Seeloo Zazun Wakura Nawabagh Ratnipora

Regions

Jammu Kashmir Ladakh

Railways

Jammu– Baramulla
Baramulla
line Bilaspur–Manali– Leh
Leh
line Jammu– Poonch
Poonch
line Srinagar–Kargil– Leh
Leh
line Srinagar
Srinagar
railway station Jammu
Jammu
Tawi railway station Udhampur
Udhampur
railway station Qazigund
Qazigund
railway station Sadura railway station Anantnag
Anantnag
railway station Budgam
Budgam
railway station Baramulla
Baramulla
railway station Pampore railway station Kakapora railway station Mazhom railway station Banihal
Banihal
railway station Bijbehara
Bijbehara
railway station Pattan
Pattan
railway station Sopore
Sopore
railway station Awantipora
Awantipora
railway station Katra railway station Power stations

Roads

Mughal Road Leh–Manali Highway National Highway 1A Srinagar
Srinagar
Jammu
Jammu
National Highway 90 Feet Road Srinagar– Baramulla
Baramulla
highway Udhampur– Jammu
Jammu
highway

Legislative Assembly elections

2002 2008 2014

Sports

Sports in Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Cricket Association Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
cricket team Jammu
Jammu
& Kashmir
Kashmir
Football Association Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
football team Jammu
Jammu
& Kashmir
Kashmir
International Cricket Stadium Kashmir
Kashmir
International Half Marathon Royal Springs Golf Course, Srinagar Ladakh
Ladakh
Marathon

Other topics

Line of Control Human rights abuses Tourism United Nations Military Observer Group in India
India
and Pakistan Indian Armed Forces and the Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Floods, 2014 Tourism

Coordinates: 34°02′00″N 74°40′00″E / 34.0333°N 74.6667°E

.