HOME
The Info List - Karma Yoga



--- Advertisement ---


KARMA YOGA, also called KARMA MARGA, is one of the several spiritual paths in Hinduism , one based on the "yoga of action". To a _karma yogi_, right work done well is a form of prayer. It is one of the paths in the spiritual practices of Hindus, others being Jnana yoga (path of knowledge) and Bhakti yoga (path of loving devotion to a personal god). The three paths are not mutually exclusive in Hinduism, but the relative emphasis between Karma yoga, Jnana yoga and Bhakti yoga varies by the individual.

Of the paths to spiritual liberation in Hinduism, karma yoga is the path of unselfish action. It teaches that a spiritual seeker should act according to dharma , without being attached to the fruits or personal consequences. Karma Yoga, states the _Bhagavad Gita_, purifies the mind. It leads one to consider dharma of work, and the work according to one's dharma, doing god's work and in that sense becoming and being "like unto god Krishna" in every moment of one's life.

CONTENTS

* 1 Concept

* 1.1 Bhagavad Gita * 1.2 Other Hindu texts

* 2 Karma yoga versus Kriya yoga * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links

CONCEPT

According to James Lochtefeld, Karma yoga (also called _karmamarga_) is the spiritual practice of "selfless action performed for the benefit of others". Karma yoga is a path to reach spiritual moksha (liberation) through work. It is rightful action without being attached to fruits or being manipulated by what the results might be, a dedication to one's duty, and trying one's best while being neutral to rewards or outcomes such as success or failure.

The tendency for a human being to seek the fruits of action is normal, state Hindu texts, but an exclusive attachment to fruits and positive immediate consequences can compromise dharma (ethical, rightful action). Karma yoga, states Bilimoria, is "ethically fine-tuned action". According to Stephen Phillips, a professor of philosophy and Asian studies, "only dharmic action" is suitable in _karma yoga_, where one downplays one's own exclusive role or one's own exclusive interests. Instead, the _karma yogi_ considers the interests of all parties impartially, all beings, the elements of _ Prakṛti _ and then does the right thing. However, adds Phillips, there are commentators who disagree and state "any action can be done as karma yoga" and it doesn't have to be consistent with dharma. KARMA YOGA

Your work is your responsibility, not its result. Never let the fruits of your actions be your motive. Nor give in to inaction.

Set firmly in yourself, do your work, not attached to anything. Remain evenminded in success, and in failure. Evenmindedness is true yoga. —_Bhagavad Gita_, 2.47-49

Karma yoga, states Bilimoria, does not mean forfeiture of emotions or desires, rather it means action driven by "equanimity, balance", with "dispassion, disinterest", avoiding "one sidedness, fear, craving, favoring self or one group or clan, self-pity, self-aggrandizement or any form of extreme reactiveness". A Karma yogi acts and does his or her duty, whether that be as "a homemaker, mother, nurse, carpenter or garbage collector, with no thought for one's own fame, privilege or financial reward, but simply as a dedication to the Lord", states Harold Coward – professor of Religious Studies with a focus on Indian religions.

According to Phillips, Karma yoga applies to "any action in any profession or family activities", where the yogi works selflessly to others' benefit. This is in contrast to other forms of yoga which focus on self development and self realization, typically with isolation and meditative introspection. The "disinterested action" idea, states Phillips, is not unique to Hinduism, and similar disinterested non-craving precepts for monks and nuns are found in Buddhism and Jainism.

BHAGAVAD GITA

According to the _Bhagavad Gita_, selfless service to the right cause and like-minded others, with the right feeling and right attitude, is a form of worship and spirituality.

The verse 3.4 of the _Bhagavad Gita_ states that avoiding work or not starting work is not the path to become free of bondage, just like renouncing the world and wearing monk's dress does not automatically make one spiritual. Not acting is a form of action with consequences and karmic impact, and the nature of existence is such that human beings are always acting in their environment, body or mind, and never for a moment are they not, according to verse 3.5. The verses 3.6 to 3.8 of the _Bhagavad Gita_ state that the action can be motivated by body or manipulated by external influences. Alternatively, it can be motivated by one's inner reflection and true self (soul, Atman, Brahman). The former creates bondage, the latter empowers freedom. The spiritual path to the liberated state of bliss is to do the best one is able to while being detached to outcomes, to fruits, to success or failure. A karma yogi who practices such _nishkama karma_ (_niṣkāmakarma_), states Bhawuk, is "an inward journey, which is inherently fulfilling and satisfying".

A part of the premise of "disinterested action" is that the more one acts with the hope of getting rewards, the more one is liable to disappointment, frustration or self-destructive behavior. Further, another part of the premise is that the more one is committed to "disinterested action", the more one considers the dharma (ethical dimension), focuses on other aspects of the action, strives to do one's best, and this leads to liberating self-empowerment.

According to chapter 5 of the _Bhagavad Gita_, both _sannyasa _ (renunciation, monastic life) and _karma yoga_ are means to liberation. Between the two, it recommends _karma yoga_, stating that anyone who is a dedicated karma yogi neither hates nor desires, and therefore such as person is the "eternal renouncer".

The _ Bhagavad Gita _ gives a summary of the karma yoga process. The _Gita_ itself is a chapter from the epic known as _ Mahabharata _, wherein a dialogue takes place between the prince Arjuna , and his friend and chariot driver, Lord Krishna , on the brink of a great dynastic war. Their conversation is prompted by Arjuna as he is engulfed by sorrow and misgivings regarding the oncoming battle in which he has friends and relatives on both sides. In reply, Krishna then elucidates upon a number of philosophical yoga systems and practices (including karma yoga) by/through which Arjuna should indeed continue with the fight on righteous principles.

In the _Bhagavad Gita_, Krishna says:

"tasmad asaktah satatam karyam karma samacara asakto hy acaran karma param apnoti purushah"

Therefore, without being attached to the results of activities, one should act as a matter of duty, for by working without attachment one attains the Supreme.

OTHER HINDU TEXTS

The earliest texts that are forerunners of the karma yoga ideas in the _Bhagavad Gita_ are the ancient Upanishads, such as the _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad _. Other Vedic texts as well as post-Vedic literature of the Mimamsa school of Hindu philosophy mention _karma marga_, but these contextually refer to the path of rituals. According to Raju, the Mimamsa ideas, though orthodox, were the fertile grounds on which the later ideas of _ Karma yoga_ developed.

Karma yoga is discussed in many other Hindu texts. For example, the section 11.20 of the _ Bhagavata Purana _ states that there are only three means to spiritual liberation: _jnana yoga_ (knowledge), _karma yoga_ (action) and _bhakti yoga_ (devotion). Those who are of philosophical bent, prefer the "knowledge path". Those who are inclined to productive application of arts, skills and knowledge, prefer the "karma path". Those who prefer emotional connection, prefer the "devotional path". These three paths overlap, with different relative emphasis.

Discussions on Karma yoga are also found in chapter 33 of _Narada Purana _.

Later, new movements within Hinduism added raja yoga as the fourth spiritual path, but this is not universally accepted as distinct to other three.

KARMA YOGA VERSUS KRIYA YOGA

According to Constance Jones and James Ryan, karma yoga is "yoga of action" while kriya yoga is "yoga of ritual action". Kriya yoga is found in tantric texts, and believed by its practitioners to activate chakra and energy centers in the body.

SEE ALSO

* Yoga portal

* Flow (psychology) * Taṇhā – greed, craving * Three poisons – three afflictions mentioned in Buddhist texts as what entrap people into the cycle of rebirths and sufferings * Trul khor

NOTES

* ^ The first six chapters of the _Bhagavad Gita_ discuss Karma yoga, chapters 7-12 focus on Bhakti yoga , while chapters 13-18 describe the Jnana yoga .

REFERENCES

* ^ P. T. Raju (1954), The Concept of the Spiritual in Indian Thought, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Oct., 1954), pp. 210 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Robert A. McDermott (1975), Indian Spirituality in the West: A Bibliographical Mapping, Philosophy East and West, University of Hawai'i Press, Vol. 25, No. 2 (Apr 1975), pp. 228-230 * ^ John Lochtefeld (2014), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Rosen Publishing New York, ISBN 978-0823922871 , pages 98-100, also see articles on bhaktimārga and jnanamārga * ^ Klostermaier, Klaus (1989). _A survey of Hinduism_. State University of New York Press. pp. 210–212. ISBN 978-0-88706-807-2 . * ^ Karen Pechelis (2014), The Embodiment of Bhakti, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195351903 , pages 14-15, 37-38 * ^ _A_ _B_ W. Horosz; Tad Clements (2012). _Religion and Human Purpose: A Cross Disciplinary Approach_. Springer Science. pp. 258–259. ISBN 978-94-009-3483-2 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Harold G. Coward (2012). _Perfectibility of Human Nature in Eastern and Western Thought, The_. State University of New York Press. pp. 142–145. ISBN 978-0-7914-7885-1 . * ^ WOODHEAD, L., PARTRIDGE, C. H. AND KAWANAMI, H., Religions in the modern world-- Woodhead, Linda, Christopher H Partridge, and Hiroko Kawanami. Religions In The Modern World. 1st ed. Print. * ^ James G. Lochtefeld (2002). _The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M_. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8 . * ^ Jeffrey Brodd (2009). _World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery_. Saint Mary's Press. pp. 53–54. ISBN 978-0-88489-997-6 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Mulla, Zubin R.; Krishnan, Venkat R. (2013). "Karma-Yoga: The Indian Model of Moral Development". _Journal of Business Ethics_. Springer Nature. 123 (2): 342–345, context: 339–351. doi :10.1007/s10551-013-1842-8 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ _A_ _B_ P Bilimoria (2014). S van Hooft, ed. _The Handbook of Virtue Ethics_. Routledge. p. 302. ISBN 978-1-317-54477-7 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Stephen Phillips (2009). _Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy_. Columbia University Press. pp. 97–102. ISBN 978-0-231-14485-8 . * ^ William L. Blizek (2009). _The Continuum Companion to Religion and Film_. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 161–162. ISBN 978-0-8264-9991-2 . * ^ Klaus K. Klostermaier (2007). _Hinduism: A Beginner\'s Guide_. Oxford: Oneworld. pp. 63–66. ISBN 978-1-85168-538-7 . * ^ Winthrop Sargeant (2010). Christopher Key Chapple, ed. _The Bhagavad Gita: Twenty-fifth–Anniversary Edition_. State University of New York Press. pp. 124–135 with footnotes. ISBN 978-1-4384-2840-6 . * ^ Harold G. Coward (2012). _Perfectibility of Human Nature in Eastern and Western Thought, The_. State University of New York Press. pp. 132–133. ISBN 978-0-7914-7885-1 . * ^ Stephen Phillips (2009). _Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy_. Columbia University Press. pp. 100–101. ISBN 978-0-231-14485-8 . * ^ Stephen Phillips (2009). _Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy_. Columbia University Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-231-14485-8 . * ^ Stephen Phillips (2009). _Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy_. Columbia University Press. pp. 99–100. ISBN 978-0-231-14485-8 . * ^ Brian Hodgkinson (2006). _The Essence of Vedanta_. London: Arcturus. pp. 91–93. ISBN 978-1-84858-409-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Dharm Bhawuk (2011). _Spirituality and Indian Psychology: Lessons from the Bhagavad-Gita_. Springer Science. pp. 147–148 with footnotes. ISBN 978-1-4419-8110-3 . * ^ Yuvraj Krishan (1997). _The Doctrine of Karma: Its Origin and Development in Brāhmaṇical, Buddhist, and Jaina Traditions_. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. pp. 112–114. ISBN 978-81-208-1233-8 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Eliot Deutsch; Rohit Dalvi (2004). _The Essential Vedanta: A New Source Book of Advaita Vedanta_. World Wisdom. pp. 64–68. ISBN 978-0-941532-52-5 . * ^ Tara Chatterjea (2003). _Knowledge and Freedom in Indian Philosophy_. Lexington. pp. 125–137. ISBN 978-0-7391-0692-1 . * ^ Jeaneane D. Fowler 2012 . * ^ Jonardon Ganeri (2007). _The Concealed Art of the Soul: Theories of Self and Practices of Truth in Indian Ethics and Epistemology_. Oxford University Press. pp. 67–69. ISBN 978-0-19-920241-6 . * ^ Maharishi Mahesh Yogi on the Bhagavad-Gita, a New Translation and Commentary, Chapter 1-6. Penguin Books, 1969, p 131 (v 45), p 144 (v.51), p 149-150 (v.54) * ^ Chapter 3, Text 19, Archived 11 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine . Bhagavad Gita * ^ Stephen Phillips (2009). _Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy_. Columbia University Press. pp. 164–165. ISBN 978-0-231-14484-1 . * ^ Klaus K. Klostermaier (2007). _A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition_. State University of New York Press. pp. 119–121, 133–135. ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4 . * ^ P. T. Raju (1954), The Concept of the Spiritual in Indian Thought, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Oct., 1954), pp. 212-213 * ^ _A_ _B_ T.R. Sharma (2013). Karel Werner, ed. _Love Divine: Studies in \' Bhakti and Devotional Mysticism_. Taylor & Francis. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-136-77468-3 . * ^ Alain Daniélou (1991). _Yoga: Mastering the Secrets of Matter and the Universe_. Inner Traditions. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-89281-301-8 . * ^ Roderick Hindery (1978). _Comparative Ethics in Hindu and Buddhist Traditions_. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-81-208-0866-9 . * ^ George D. Chryssides (2012). _Historical Dictionary of New Religious Movements_. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-8108-6194-7 . * ^ Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). _Encyclopedia of Hinduism_. Infobase Publishing. pp. 248, 476, 511. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5 .

FURTHER READING

* Jeaneane D. Fowler (2012). _The Bhagavad Gita: A Text and Commentary for Students, Chapter 3_. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-84519-520-5 . OCLC 748941730 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

* All life is yoga, Pravin K. Shah, Jain Study