KARLSRUHE (German pronunciation: ( listen ); formerly CARLSRUHE) is
the second-largest city in the state of
Baden-Württemberg , in
Germany , near the French-German border. It has a population
of 307,755. The city is the seat of the two highest courts in Germany:
the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Court of Justice .
Its most remarkable building is
Karlsruhe Palace , which was built in
* 1 Geography
* 1.1 Climate
* 2 History
* 3 Demographics
* 4 Main sights
* 5 Government
* 5.1 Justice
* 5.2 Public health
* 6 Economy
* 6.1 Internet activities
* 7 Transport
* 8 Jewish community
Karlsruhe and the Holocaust
* 9 Historical population
* 10 Famous people
* 11 Notable contemporary entertainment and sports figures
* 12 Education
* 12.1 Technology, engineering, and business
* 12.2 The arts
* 12.3 International education
European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT)
* 12.5 University of Education
* 13 Culture
* 14 International relations
* 14.1 Twin towns—sister cities
* 14.2 Partnerships
* 15 Legacy
* 16 Events
* 17 Sport
* 18 References
* 19 External links
49th parallel north in the
Karlsruhe lies completely to the right of the
Rhine , and almost
completely on the Upper
Rhine Plain . It contains the
Turmberg in the
east, and also lies on the borders of the
Kraichgau leading to the
Northern Black Forest .
The Rhine, one of the world's most important shipping routes forms
the western limits of the city, beyond which lie the towns of
Wörth am Rhein in the German state of
Rheinland-Palatinate . The city centre is approximately 7.5 km (4.7
mi) from the river, as measured from the Marktplatz (Market Square).
The two tributaries of the Rhine, the
Alb and the
Pfinz flow through
the city from the
Kraichgau to eventually join the Rhine.
The city lies at an altitude between 100 m and 322 m (near the
communications tower In the suburb of Grünwettersbach). Its
geographical coordinates are 49°00′N 8°24′E / 49.000°N
8.400°E / 49.000; 8.400 ; the 49th parallel runs through the city
centre, which puts it at the same latitude as much of the
Canada-United States border , the cities
Vancouver (Canada), Paris
Regensburg (Germany) and
Hulunbuir (China). Its course is
marked by a stone and painted line in the Stadtgarten (municipal
park). The total area of the city is 173.46 km2 (66.97 sq mi), and
hence is the 30th largest city in
Germany measured by land area. The
longest North-South distance is 16.8 km (10.4 mi) and 19.3 km (12.0
mi) in the East-West direction.
Karlsruhe is part of the urban area of Karlsruhe/Pforzheim, to which
certain other towns in the district of
Rheinstetten , as well as the city of
Pforzheim belong. MiRO oil refinery
The city was planned with the palace tower (Schloss) at the center
and 32 streets radiating out from it like the spokes of a wheel, or
the ribs of a folding fan , so that one nickname for
German is the "fan city" (Fächerstadt). Almost all of these streets
survived until today. Because of this city layout, in metric geometry
Karlsruhe metric refers to a measure of distance that assumes travel
is only possible along radial streets and along circular avenues
around the centre.
The city centre is the oldest part of town and lies south of the
palace in the quadrant defined by nine of the radial streets. The
central part of the palace runs east-west, with two wings, each at a
45° angle, directed southeast and southwest (i.e., parallel with the
streets marking the boundaries of the quadrant defining the city
The market square lies on the street running south from the palace to
Ettlingen . The market square has the town hall (Rathaus) to the west,
Lutheran church (Evangelische Stadtkirche) to the east, and
the tomb of Margrave Charles III William in a pyramid in the
buildings, resulting in
Karlsruhe being one of only three large cities
Germany where buildings are laid out in the neoclassical style.
The area north of the palace is a park and forest. Originally the
area to the east of the palace consisted of gardens and forests, some
of which remain, but the
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (founded in
Wildparkstadion football stadium, and residential areas have
been built there. The area west of the palace is now mostly
residential. Panorama of Karlsruhe, looking south from the
palace tower. The Institute of Technology is on the left, the market
square in the centre, the Federal Constitutional Court on the right.
Note wings of the palace aligning with streets, all radiating out from
the centre of town, i.e., the palace tower. 180-degree
panorama from atop the palace tower, facing north.
Karlsruhe experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate
classification Cfb) and its winter climate is milder, compared to most
other German cities. Summers are also hotter than elsewhere in the
country and it is one of the sunniest cities in Germany. Precipitation
is almost evenly spread throughout the year. In 2008, the weather
station in Karlsruhe, which had been operating since 1876, was closed;
it was replaced by a weather station in
Rheinstetten , south of
CLIMATE DATA FOR KARLSRUHE/RHEINSTETTEN, GERMANY FOR 1981–2010
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source: Data derived from
According to legend, the name Karlsruhe, which translates as
"Charles’ repose", was given to the new city after a hunting trip
when Margrave Charles III William of Baden-
Durlach , woke from a dream
in which he dreamt of founding his new city. A variation of this story
claims that he built the new palace in order to find peace from his
Charles William founded the city on June 17, 1715, after a dispute
with the citizens of his previous capital,
Durlach . The founding of
the city is closely linked to the construction of the palace .
Karlsruhe became the capital of Baden-
Durlach and in 1771 of the
Baden until 1945. Built in 1822, the Ständehaus was the first
parliament building in a German State. In the aftermath of the
democratic revolution of 1848, a republican government was elected
Karlsruhe was visited by
Thomas Jefferson during his time as the
American envoy to France; when Pierre Charles L\'Enfant was planning
the layout of
Washington, D.C. , Jefferson passed to him maps of 12
European towns to consult, one of which was a sketch he had made of
Karlsruhe during his visit.
In 1860, the first-ever international professional convention of
Karlsruhe Congress , was held in the city.
Much of the central area, including the palace, was reduced to rubble
by Allied bombing during
World War II
World War II but was rebuilt after the war.
Located in the American zone of the post-war Allied occupation ,
Karlsruhe was home to an American military base, established in 1945.
In 1995, the bases closed , and their facilities were turned over to
the city of Karlsruhe.
The following list shows the most significant groups of immigrants
residing in the city of
Karlsruhe by country.
The Stadtgarten is a recreational area near the main railway station
(Hauptbahnhof) and was rebuilt for the 1967 Federal Garden Show
(Bundesgartenschau). It is also the site of the
Karlsruhe Zoo .
Turmberg has a look-out tower (hence its name). It is a
former keep dating back to the 13th century.
The city has two botanical gardens: the municipal Botanischer Garten
Karlsruhe , which forms part of the Palace complex, and the
Botanischer Garten der Universität Karlsruhe , which is maintained by
the university. Panorama of the courtyard of Botanischer Garten
The Marktplatz has a stone pyramid marking the grave of the city's
founder. Built in 1825, it is the emblem of Karlsruhe. The city is
nicknamed the "fan city" (die Fächerstadt) because of its design
layout, with straight streets radiating fan-like from the Palace.
Karlsruhe Palace (Schloss) is an interesting piece of
architecture; the adjacent Schlossgarten includes the Botanical Garden
with a palm, cactus and orchid house, and walking paths through the
woods to the north.
The so-called Kleine Kirche (Little Church), built between 1773 and
1776, is the oldest church of Karlsruhe's city centre.
Friedrich Weinbrenner designed many of the city's most
important sights. Another sight is the Rondellplatz with its
'Constitution Building Columns' (1826). It is dedicated to Baden's
first constitution in 1818, which was one of the most liberal of its
time. The Münze (mint), erected in 1826/27, was also built by
Weinbrenner. St. Stephan parish church
The St. Stephan parish church is one of the masterpieces of
neoclassical church architecture in. Weinbrenner, who built this
church between 1808 and 1814, orientated it to the
Pantheon, Rome .
Grand Ducal burial chapel
The neo-Gothic Grand Ducal Burial Chapel, built between 1889 and
1896, is a mausoleum rather than a church, and is located in the
middle of the forest.
The main cemetery of
Karlsruhe is the oldest park-like cemetery in
Germany. The crematorium was the first to be built in the style of a
Karlsruhe is also home to a Museum of Natural History, an opera house
Baden State Theatre ), as well as a number of independent
theatres and art galleries. The State Art Gallery , built in 1846 by
Heinrich Hübsch , displays paintings and sculptures from six
centuries, particularly from France,
Germany and Holland. Karlsruhe's
newly renovated art museum is one of the most important art museums in
Baden-Württemberg . Further cultural attractions are scattered
throughout Karlsruhe's various incorporated suburbs. Established in
1924, the Scheffel Association is the largest literary society in
Germany. Today the Prinz-Max-Palais, built between 1881 and 1884 in
neoclassical style, houses the organisation and includes its museum.
Breweries and buildings in art nouveau style were predominant in
the western city
Due to population growth in the late 19th century, Karlsruhe
developed several suburban areas (
Vorstadt ) in the
especially art nouveau styles of architecture, with many preserved
Karlsruhe is also home to the Majolika-Manufaktur, the only
art-ceramics pottery studio in Germany. Founded in 1901, it is located
in the Schlossgarten. A 'blue streak' (Blauer Strahl) consisting of
1,645 ceramic tiles, connects the studio with the Palace. It is the
world's largest ceramic artwork.
Another tourist attraction is the Centre for Art and Media (Zentrum
für Kunst und Medientechnologie, or ZKM), which is located in a
converted ammunition factory.
The Federal Constitutional Court of
Karlsruhe is the seat of the German Federal Constitutional Court
(Bundesverfassungsgericht) and the highest
Court of Appeals
Court of Appeals in civil
and criminal cases, the
Bundesgerichtshof . The courts came to
Karlsruhe after World War II, when the provinces of
Württemberg were merged.
Stuttgart , capital of Württemberg, became
the capital of the new province (Württemberg-
Baden in 1945 and
Baden-Württemberg in 1952). In compensation for the state authorities
relocated to Stuttgart,
Karlsruhe applied to become the seat of the
There are four hospitals: The municipal Klinikum
the maximum level of medical services, the St. Vincentius-Kliniken and
the Diakonissen krankenhaus, connected to the Catholic and Protestant
churches, respectively, offer central services, and the private
Paracelsus-Klinik basic medical care, according to state hospital
Germany's largest oil refinery is located in Karlsruhe, at the
western edge of the city, directly on the river
Rhine . The
Karlsruhe is a loose confederation of the region's
cities in order to promote high tech industries; today, about 20% of
the region's jobs are in research and development.
EnBW , one of
Germany's biggest electric utility companies and a revenue of 19.2
billion € in 2012, is headquartered in the city.
Due to the
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology providing services until
the late 1990,
Karlsruhe became known as the internet capital of
DENIC , Germany's
Network Information Centre , has since
moved to Frankfurt, though, where
DE-CIX is located.
Two major internet service providers ,
WEB.DE and schlund+partner
Rail yard , bypass road Südtangente
In addition to established companies,
Karlsruhe has a vivid and
spreading startup community with well-known startups like STAPPZ.
Together, the local high tech industry is responsible for over 22.000
Verkehrsbetriebe Karlsruhe (VBK) operates the city's urban public
transport network, comprising seven tram routes and a network of bus
routes. This network is well developed and all city areas can be
reached round the clock by tram and a night bus system. The
Turmbergbahn funicular railway , to the east of the city centre, is
also operated by the VBK.
The VBK is also a partner, with the
Deutsche Bahn , in the operation of the
Karlsruhe Stadtbahn , the rail
system that serves a larger area around the city. This system makes it
possible to reach other towns in the region, like
Ettlingen , Wörth
am Rhein ,
Bad Wildbad ,
Baden , and even
Freudenstadt in the
Black Forest right from the
city centre. The Stadtbahn is well known in transport circles around
the world for pioneering the concept of operating trams on train
tracks, to achieve a more effective and attractive public transport
system, to the extent that this is often known as the
Karlsruhe is well-connected via road and rail, with
InterCityExpress connections going to
Karlsruhe Hauptbahnhof . Since June 2007 it
has been connected to the
TGV network, reducing travel time to Paris
to only three hours (previously it had taken five hours). Oil
Two ports on the
Rhine provide transport capacity on cargo ships ,
especially for petroleum products .
The nearest airport is part of the
Baden Airpark (officially
Baden ) about 45 km (28 mi) southwest of
Karlsruhe, with regular connections to airports in
Germany and Europe
Frankfurt International Airport can be reached in about an
hour and a half by car (one hour by
InterCityExpress ); Stuttgart
Airport can be reached in about one hour (about an hour and a half by
train and S‑Bahn ).
Two interesting facts in transportation history are that both Karl
Drais , the inventor of the bicycle, as well as
Karl Benz , the
inventor of the automobile were born in Karlsruhe. Benz was born in
Mühlburg, which later became a borough of
Karlsruhe (in 1886). Benz
also studied at the
Karlsruhe University. It also is interesting that
Benz’s wife Bertha took the world's first long distance-drive with
an automobile from
Mannheim to Karlsruhe-Grötzingen and Pforzheim
Bertha Benz Memorial Route ). Their professional lives led both
men to the neighboring city of Mannheim, where they first applied
their most famous inventions. Memorial for
Baden Life Grenadiers
in several wars, 1803–1918, existed until 2010 Karlsburg
Jews settled in
Karlsruhe soon after its founding. They were
attracted by the numerous privileges granted by its founder to
settlers, without discrimination as to creed. Official documents
attest the presence of several Jewish families at
Karlsruhe in 1717.
A year later the city council addressed to the margrave a report in
which a question was raised as to the proportion of municipal charges
to be borne by the newly arrived Jews, who in that year formed an
organized congregation, with Rabbi Nathan Uri Kohen of
Metz at its
head. A document dated 1726 gives the names of twenty-four Jews who
had taken part in an election of municipal officers.
As the city grew, permission to settle there became less easily
obtained by Jews, and the community developed more slowly. A 1752
Jewry ordinance stated Jews were forbidden to leave the city on
Sundays and Christian holidays, or to go out of their houses during
church services, but they were exempted from service by court
summonses on Sabbaths. They could sell wine only in inns owned by Jews
and graze their cattle, not on the commons , but on the wayside only.
Nethanael Weill was a rabbi in
Karlsruhe from 1750 until his death.
In 1783, by a decree issued by Margrave Charles Frederick of
the Jews ceased to be serfs , and consequently could settle wherever
they pleased. The same decree freed them from the Todfall tax, paid to
the clergy for each Jewish burial. In commemoration of these changes
special prayers were prepared by the acting rabbi Jedidiah Tiah Weill,
who, succeeding his father in 1770, held the office until 1805.
In 1808 the new constitution of what at that time, during the
Napoleonic era , had become the Grand Duchy of
Baden granted Jews
citizenship status; a subsequent edict, in 1809, constitutionally
acknowledged Jews as a religious group. The latter edict provided
for a hierarchical organization of the Jewish communities of Baden,
under the umbrella of a central council of
Baden Jewry (Oberrat der
Israeliten Badens), with its seat in Karlsruhe, and the appointment
of a chief rabbi of Karlsruhe, as the spiritual head of the Jews in
all of Baden. The first chief rabbi of
Baden was Rabbi
Asher Loew, who served from 1809 until his death in 1837.
Complete emancipation was given in 1862, Jews were elected to city
Baden parliament, and from 1890 were appointed judges.
Jews were persecuted in the \'Hep-Hep\' riots that occurred in 1819;
and anti-Jewish demonstrations were held in 1843, 1848, and the 1880s.
The well-known German-Israeli artist
Leo Kahn studied in Karlsruhe
before leaving for
France and Israel in the 1920s and 1930s.
Today, there are about 900 members in the Jewish community, many of
whom are recent immigrants from Russia, and an orthodox rabbi.
Karlsruhe has memorialized its Jewish community and notable pre-war
synagogues with a memorial park.
Jewish cemetery of Grötzingen
Karlsruhe Synagogue , built by
Friedrich Weinbrenner in 1798, existed
The new synagogue
Public menorah on the Marktplatz
KARLSRUHE AND THE HOLOCAUST
In 1933, 3,358 Jews lived in Karlsruhe. The Jewish community owned
buildings and property, such as two synagogues, one on
Karl-Friedrich-Straße and one on Kronenstraße, two elderly citizens'
homes, a Jewish school, a hospital, welfare institutions, and several
Jewish cemeteries. During the first years of the Nazi regime, the
community continued to function, particularly to prepare Jews for
emigration. On October 28, 1938, all male Polish Jews living in
Karlsruhe were deported to Poland. Synagogues were destroyed on
Kristallnacht , 9–10 November 1938. Most of the men were arrested
and sent to
Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp , but were released after they
had furnished proof that they intended to emigrate. In October 1940,
895 Jews were expelled during Operation Wagner-Bürckel and interned
by the French Vichy authorities in Gurs in southern France. Most of
these were then deported from there to
Auschwitz (via the Drancy
deportation camp , on the outskirts of
Paris ) between August and
November 1942. Most of the 429 remaining Jews and other so‑called
"non-Aryans " were deported to the east between 1941 and 1944. In 1945
there were only 18 Jews in Karlsruhe. More than 1,000 of them had been
killed between 1933 and 1945. The
Baden Central Jewish Council was
reorganized in 1948. A new synagogue was built in 1969.
Some 113 holocaust victims are commemorated by brass plaques on
Karlsruhe's sidewalks, the so-called Stolpersteine .
* George Bayer , pioneer in the USA state of Missouri
Karl Benz (1844–1929), mechanical engineer and inventor of the
first automobile as well as the founder of Benz hanged at Nuremberg
for his crimes during
World War II
World War II
Reinhold Frank , (1896–1945), German lawyer who worked for the
resistance in Nazi Germany, ran a law practice in Karlsruhe; in his
honour the street in
Karlsruhe where the lawyer's chambers were
founded bears his name
Karoline von Günderrode , a German poet, was born in Karlsruhe
Johann Peter Hebel , writer and poet, lived in
Karlsruhe for most
of his life
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz : discovered electromagnetic waves at the
University of Karlsruhe in the late 1880s. A lecture room named after
Hertz lies close to the very spot where the discovery was made.
Friedrich Hund , a physicist of the pioneering generation of
quantum mechanics (see Hund\'s rules ); was born here
Hedwig Kettler (1851–1937), founded the first German
Mädchengymnasium (girls' high school), located in Karlsruhe
Gustav Landauer , (1870–1919), one of the leading theorists of
anarchism in Germany, was born in Karlsruhe
Markus Lüpertz worked and lives in Karlsruhe; he created the
Narrenbrunnen (Fool's Fountain) in the city center
Wolfgang Rihm is a resident of Karlsruhe
* In 1886,
Joseph Viktor von Scheffel
Joseph Viktor von Scheffel , a German poet and novelist,
was born in Karlsruhe
Peter Sloterdijk , (born 1947), German philosopher
Johann Gottfried Tulla (born in 1770 in Karlsruhe): instrumental
in stabilizing and straightening the course of the southern Rhine
River ; a co-founder of the
Karlsruhe University (1825)
* Victoria of
Baden (1862–1930), born in Karlsruhe, queen consort
of Sweden by her marriage to King
Gustaf V of Sweden
Friedrich Weinbrenner , (1766–1826) a German architect of
neoclassicism; his tomb is situated in the main Protestant church in
Richard Willstätter , recipient of 1915 Nobel Prize for Chemistry
NOTABLE CONTEMPORARY ENTERTAINMENT AND SPORTS FIGURES
Dennis Aogo , German football defender who currently plays for
Christa Bauch , female bodybuilder
Walther Bensemann is one of the founders of the first southern
German soccer club
Karlsruher FV and later he became one of the
founders of DFB and the founder of Kicker , which is Germany's leading
Oliver Bierhoff , (born 1968), retired German football striker and
former national team captain for the
Germany and Italian Serie A clubs
A.C. Milan and Chievo ; currently working as the German
national team manager
Andi Deris , (born 1964) German musician and songwriter, lead
singer of the power metal band
Karl Elzer , stage and film actor
Gottfried Fuchs (1889–1972), was born in
Karlsruhe and holds the
record of ten goals in one single international soccer match for the
German national team
Regina Halmich , (born 1976), retired female boxing flyweight
Vincenzo Italiano , Italian footballer currently plays for Calcio
Sead Kolašinac (born 20 June 1993) is a Bosnian footballer who
plays as a left back for
Oliver Kahn , (born 1969), retired goalkeeper of
Karlsruher SC ,
Sebastian Koch , (born 1962), German actor
Renate Lingor , former German national football player
Mehmet Scholl , (born 1970), German retired footballer for
Karlsruher SC , later Bayern
Munich and the German national team
Muhammed Suiçmez , (born 1975), Turkish guitarist and composer
for German technical death metal band
Eugene Weingand (1934–1986), actor and television host who
claimed to be
Peter Lorre Jr.
* Moon Gayoung , (born 1996), South Korea actress
Karlsruhe is a renowned research and study centre, with one of
Germany's finest institutions of higher education.
TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND BUSINESS
Karlsruhe University (Universität Karlsruhe-TH), the oldest
technical university in Germany, is home to the Forschungszentrum
Karlsruhe Research Center), where engineering and
scientific research is performed in the areas of health, earth, and
environmental sciences. The
Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences
(Hochschule Karlsruhe-HS) is the largest university of technology in
the state of
Baden-Württemberg , offering both professional and
academic education in engineering sciences and business. In 2009, the
University of Karlsruhe joined the
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe to form
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT).
Academy of Fine Arts, Karlsruhe is one of the smallest
universities in Germany, with average 300 students, but it is known as
one of the most significant academies of fine arts. The Karlsruhe
University of Arts and Design (HfG) was founded to the same time as
its sister institution, the Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe
Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie ). The HfG teaching and
research focuses on new media and media art . The Hochschule für
Karlsruhe is a music conservatory that offers degrees in
composition , music performance, education, and radio journalism .
Since 1989 it has been located in the Gottesaue Palace.
Karlshochschule International University (formerly known as
Merkur Internationale Fachhochschule) was founded in 2004. As a
foundation-owned, state-approved management school , Karlshochschule
offers undergraduate education in both German and English, focusing on
international and intercultural management , as well as service- and
culture-related industries. Furthermore, an international consecutive
Master of Arts in leadership studies is offered in English.
EUROPEAN INSTITUTE OF INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY (EIT)
European Institute of Innovation and Technology
Karlsruhe hosts one of the European Institute of Innovation and
Technology 's Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KICs) focusing on
sustainable energy . Other co‑centres are based in
Grenoble , France
(CC Alps Valleys);
Eindhoven , the
Netherlands , and
Leuven , Belgium
Spain (CC Iberia);
Stockholm , Sweden (CC Sweden).
UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION
The University of Education
Karlsruhe was founded in 1962. It is
specialized in educational processes. The University has about 3700
students and 180 full-time researchers and lecturers. It offers a wide
range of educational studies, like teaching profession for primary and
secondary schools (both optional with a European Teaching Certificate
profile), Bachelor programs that specializes in Early Childhood
Education and in Health and Leisure Education, Master programs in
Intercultural Education, Migration and
Multilingualism. Furthermore, the University of Education Karlsruhe
offers a Master program for Biodiversity and Environmental Education.
see: List of schools in
In 1999 the ZKM (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie, Centre for
Art and Media) was opened. Within a short time it built up a worldwide
reputation as a cultural institution. Linking new media theory and
practice, the ZKM is located in a former weapons factory. Among the
institutes related to the ZKM are the Staatliche Hochschule für
Gestaltung (State University of Design), whose president is
Peter Sloterdijk and the Museum for Contemporary Art.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
TWIN TOWNS—SISTER CITIES
Karlsruhe is twinned with:
* NOTTINGHAM ,
* NANCY ,
* KRASNODAR ,
* TIMIșOARA ,
* HALLE ,
The city is also in a partnership relationship with:
Gottesau Palace (now music college).
* Ukrainian village Stepove near the city of
Mykolaiv in southern
Ukraine was established by German colonists as Karlsruhe.
Every year in July there is a large open-air festival lasting three
days called simply Das Fest ("The Festival").
Baden State Theatre has sponsored the
Händel Festival since
The city hosted the 23rd and 31st European Juggling Conventions (EJC)
in 2000 and 2008.
In July the African Summer Festival is held in the city's Nordstadt.
Markets, drumming workshops, exhibitions, a varied children's
programme, and musical performances take place during the three days
In the past
Karlsruhe has been the host of
LinuxTag (the biggest
Linux event in Europe) and until 2006 hosted the annual Linux Audio
Visitors and locals watched the total solar eclipse at noon on August
11, 1999. The city was not only located within the eclipse path but
was one of the few within
Germany not plagued by bad weather.
Karlsruher SC (KSC), DFB (3. Liga) Basketball BG
Karlsruhe , Basketball-Pro-Liga A (second division)
Karlsruhe co-hosted the FIBA
EuroBasket 1985 . Tennis TC Rueppurr
(TCR), (women's first division) Baseball, softball Karlsruhe
Cougars , Regional League South-East (men's baseball), 1st Bundesliga
South (women's softball I) and State League South (women's softball
II) American football
Badener Greifs , currently competing in the
Regional League Central but formerly a member of the
GFL 's 1st
Bundesliga, lost to the
Berlin Adler in the 1987
German Bowl (see
German Football League )
* ^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland nach Fläche, Bevölkerung und
Postleitzahl am 30.09.2016".
Statistisches Bundesamt (in German).
* ^ Rashid Bin Muhammad. "Karlsruhe-Metric Voronoi Diagram".
Personal.kent.edu. Retrieved 2011-04-07.
* ^ "Die Wetterstationen in Karlsruhe".
Wetter.im-licht-der-natur.de. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
* ^ "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte".
* ^ Volker C. Ihle (2011).
Karlsruhe and the United States.
Sonstige. pp. 35–37.
* ^ Ihde, Aaron J. (1961). "The
Karlsruhe Congress: A Centennial
Retrospective". Journal of Chemical Education. 38 (2): 83–86.
Bibcode :1961JChEd..38...83I. doi :10.1021/ed038p83 . (subscription
* ^ Elkins, Walter. "U.S. Army Installations - Karlsruhe". U.S.
Army in Germany. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
* ^ Southern Germany
* ^ Staatliche Majolika Manufaktur
"Majolika-Manufaktur". Majolika-karlsruhe.com. Retrieved 2011-04-07.
* ^ Stadt
Karlsruhe Stadtarchiv (ed.): Karlsruhe. Die
Karlsruhe 1998, ISBN 3-7617-0353-8 , p.
* ^ "Financial Report 2012" (PDF). EnBW. p. 3.
* ^ See , a webpage by the Federal Foreign Office
* ^ "Interview mit einem Gründer aus Karlsruhe". Retrieved
* ^ "STAPPZ App from Karlsruhe, Homepage". Retrieved 2015-05-08.
* ^ "Region: Mittlerer Oberrhein Informationstechnologie,
IT-Anwendungen / Unternehmenssoftware". Retrieved 2015-05-08.
* ^ A B C "
Karlsruhe (Carlsruhe)" (1906). The Jewish Encyclopedia.
Ed. Isidore Singer. Vol. 7. p. 448-449.
* ^ A B Dubnow, Simon (1920). Die neueste Geschichte des Jüdischen
Volkes (1789-1914). (in German) Translated from the Russian by
Alexander Eliasberg. Vol. 1. Einleitung. Erste Abteilung: Das
Zeitalter der ersten Emanzipation (1789-1815). Berlin: Jüdischer
Verlag. p. 288.
* ^ Kober, Adolf (1942). "Mannheim." The Universal Jewish
Encyclopedia. Ed. Isaac Landman. Vol. 7. New York: Universal Jewish
Encyclopedia, Inc. p. 330-332; here: p. 331.
* ^ Oelsner, Toni (2007). "Karlsruhe." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd
ed. Vol. 11. Detroit: Macmillan Reference. p. 810-811.
* ^ "Jewish Community
Karlsruhe - Karlsruhe, Germany".
* ^ "images/Images%2021/ka%20syn". alemannia-judaica.de. Retrieved
* ^ "
Karlsruhe condolence book". Karlsruhe.de. 2006-12-20.
* ^ A B C D E Bräunche, Ernst Otto; Koch, Manfred (2015-04-16).
"Karlsruher Stadtgeschichte". Stadtarchiv & Historische Museen (in
German). Stadt Karlsruhe. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
* ^ "Eingliederung ehemals selbständiger Gemeinden". Amt für
Stadtentwicklung (in German). Stadt Karlsruhe. 2010-06-07. Retrieved
* ^ A B C D E F "Städtepartnerschaften aktuell" (in German). Stadt
Karlsruhe. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
* ^ "European networks and city partnerships".
Council. 22 June 2012. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012.
Retrieved 6 January 2015.
* ^ "Partneri- ja kummikaupungit (Partnership and twinning
cities)". Oulun kaupunki (City of Oulu) (in Finnish). Retrieved
* ^ "das FEST". Retrieved 2015-04-01.
* ^ "das FEST" (in German). Retrieved 2011-01-05.
* ^ "
Karlsruhe Afrikamarkt & Festival 2011".
Africansummerfestival.de. Retrieved 2011-04-07.
* ^ "http://lac.zkm.de/". lac.zkm.de. Retrieved 2014-07-24.
External link in title= (help )
Commons has media related to KARLSRUHE .
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica