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Karl Ritter[a] von Frisch, ForMemRS[1] (20 November 1886 – 12 June 1982) was an Austrian ethologist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973, along with Nikolaas Tinbergen
Nikolaas Tinbergen
and Konrad Lorenz.[2][3] His work centered on investigations of the sensory perceptions of the honey bee and he was one of the first to translate the meaning of the waggle dance. His theory, described in his 1927 book Aus dem Leben der Bienen (translated into English as The Dancing Bees), was disputed by other scientists and greeted with skepticism at the time. Only much later was it shown to be an accurate theoretical analysis.[4]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Career 3 Personal life 4 Research

4.1 Bee
Bee
perception 4.2 Dances as language

4.2.1 Round dance 4.2.2 Waggle dance 4.2.3 "Dialects"

4.3 Other work 4.4 Eugenics

5 Honors and decorations 6 Publications

6.1 In German 6.2 In English

7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Early life[edit] Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
was the son of the surgeon and urologist Anton von Frisch (1849-1917), by his marriage to Marie Exner. Karl was the youngest of four sons, all of whom became university professors. Karl studied in Vienna
Vienna
under Hans Leo Przibram and in Munich
Munich
under Richard von Hertwig, initially in the field of medicine, but later turned to the natural sciences. He received his doctorate in 1910 and in the same year started work as an assistant in the zoology department of the University of Munich. Career[edit] In 1912 he became a lecturer in zoology and comparative anatomy there; and in 1919 was promoted to a professorship. His research on honeybees was continued by his student Ingeborg Beling. In 1921 he went to Rostock University as a professor of zoology and director of an institute. In 1923 he accepted the offer of a chair at Breslau University, returning in 1925 to Munich
Munich
University, where he became the head of the institute of zoology. In 1933 the Nazi regime passed the Civil Service Law, requiring all public servants to provide proof of Aryan ancestry. Frisch was unable to account for the ancestry of one of his grandparents, and was therefore classified as a mischling of 1/8th Jewish
Jewish
ancestry, but formally allowed to keep his job. However groups of students and lecturers worked to have him dismissed from the university, preferring a committed National Socialist. Frisch also attracted negative attention for employing Jewish
Jewish
assistants, including many women, and for practicing " Jewish
Jewish
science". Eventually Frisch was forced into retirement, but the decision was reversed due to advances in his research on combating nosema infections in bees and his forced retirement was postponed until after the war. Frisch also worked actively to help Polish scientists who had been singled out for internment by the Gestapo.[5] The institute of zoology was destroyed in the Second World War, and in 1946 Frisch went to work at the University of Graz, remaining there until 1950, when he returned to the Munich
Munich
institute after it was reopened. He retired in 1958 but continued his research. Personal life[edit] Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
married Margarete, née Mohr, who died in 1964. Their son, Otto von Frisch, was director of the Brunswick natural history museum between 1977 and 1995. Research[edit] Frisch studied aspects of animal behaviour, including animal navigation, in the Carniolan honey bee
Carniolan honey bee
(Apis mellifera carnica), a subspecies of the European honey bee.

Carniolan honey bee
Carniolan honey bee
on a goldenrod flower head

Bee
Bee
perception[edit] Frisch discovered that bees can distinguish various blossoming plants by their scent, and that each bee is "flower constant".[6] Surprisingly, their sensitivity to a "sweet" taste is only slightly stronger than in humans. He thought it possible that a bee’s spatial sense of smell arises from the firm coupling of its olfactory sense with its tactile sense. Frisch was the first to demonstrate (in 1914) that honey bees had color vision, which he accomplished by using classical conditioning.[7] He trained bees to feed on a dish of sugar water set on a colored card. He then set the colored card in the middle of a set of gray-toned cards. If the bees see the colored card as a shade of gray, then they will confuse the blue card with at least one of the gray-toned cards; bees arriving to feed will visit more than one card in the array. On the other hand, if they have color vision, then the bees visit only the blue card, as it is visually distinct from the other cards.[7] A bee’s color perception is comparable to that of humans, but with a shift away from the red toward the ultraviolet part of the spectrum. For that reason bees cannot distinguish red from black (colorless), but they can distinguish the colors white, yellow, blue and violet. Color pigments which reflect UV radiation expand the spectrum of colors which can be differentiated. For example, several blossoms which may appear to humans to be of the same yellow color will appear to bees as having different colors (multicolored patterns) because of their different proportions of ultraviolet. Frisch's investigation of a bee’s powers of orientation were significant. He discovered that bees can recognize the desired compass direction in three different ways: by the sun, by the polarization pattern of the blue sky, and by the earth’s magnetic field, whereby the sun is used as the main compass, with the alternatives reserved for the conditions arising under cloudy skies or within a dark beehive.[8] Light scattered in a blue sky forms a characteristic pattern of partially polarized light which is dependent on the position of the sun and invisible to human eyes. With a UV receptor in each of the lens units of a compound eye, and a UV filter oriented differently in each of these units, a bee is able to detect this polarization pattern. A small piece of blue sky is enough for a bee to recognize the pattern changes occurring over the course of a day. This provides not only directional but also temporal information. Frisch proved that variations in the position of the sun over the course of a day provided bees with an orientation tool. They use this capability to obtain information about the progression of the day deep inside a dark beehive comparable to what is known from the position of the sun. This makes it possible for the bees to convey always up-to-date directional information during their waggle dance, without having to make a comparison with the sun during long dance phases. This provides them not only with alternative directional information, but also with additional temporal information. Bees have an internal clock with three different synchronization or timekeeping mechanisms. If a bee knows the direction to a feeding place found during a morning excursion, it can also find the same location, as well as the precise time at which this source provides food, in the afternoon, based on the position of the sun.[9] Based on the magnetic field, the alignment of the plane of a honeycomb under construction (e.g., the new honeycomb of a swarm) will be the same as that of the home hive of the swarm, according to Frisch. By experiment, even deformed combs bent into a circle can be produced. The vertical alignment of the honeycomb is attributed by Frisch to the ability of bees to identify what is vertical with the help of their head used as a pendulum together with a ring of sensory cells in the neck. Dances as language[edit] Knowledge about feeding places can be relayed from bee to bee. The means of communication is a special dance of which there are two forms: Round dance[edit] The "round dance" provides the information that there is a feeding place in the vicinity of the beehive at a distance between 50 and 100 meters, without the particular direction being given. By means of close contact among the bees it also supplies information about the type of food (blossom scent).

The foraging bee... begins to perform a kind of "round dance". On the part of the comb where she is sitting she starts whirling around in a narrow circle, constantly changing her direction, turning now right, now left, dancing clockwise and anti-clockwise, in quick succession, describing between one and two circles in each direction. This dance is performed among the thickest bustle of the hive. What makes it so particularly striking and attractive is the way it infects the surrounding bees; those sitting next to the dancer start tripping after her, always trying to keep their outstretched feelers on close contact with the tip of her abdomen.... They take part in each of her manoeuvrings so that the dancer herself, in her mad wheeling movements, appears to carry behind her a perpetual comet’s tail of bees.[10]

Waggle dance[edit]

The waggle dance

Interpretation of the waggle dance: direction relative to the sun is shown by angle to the vertical; distance by the time taken on the central stretch.

The "waggle dance" is used to relay information about more distant food sources. In order to do this, the dancing bee moves forward a certain distance on the vertically hanging honeycomb in the hive, then traces a half circle to return to her starting point, whereupon the dance begins again. On the straight stretch, the bee "waggles" with her posterior. The direction of the straight stretch contains the information about the direction of the food source, the angle between the straight stretch and the vertical being precisely the angle which the direction of flight has to the position of the sun. The distance to the food source is relayed by the time taken to traverse the straight stretch, one second indicating a distance of approximately one kilometer (so the speed of the dance is inversely related to the actual distance). The other bees take in the information by keeping in close contact with the dancing bee and reconstructing its movements. They also receive information via their sense of smell about what is to be found at the food source (type of food, pollen, propolis, water) as well as its specific characteristics. The orientation functions so well that the bees can find a food source with the help of the waggle dance even if there are hindrances they must detour around like an intervening mountain. As to a sense of hearing, Frisch could not identify this perceptive faculty, but it was assumed that vibrations could be sensed and used for communication during the waggle dance. Confirmation was later provided by Dr. Jürgen Tautz, a bee researcher at Würzburg University’s Biocenter.[11] "Dialects"[edit] The linguistic findings described above were based on Frisch’s work primarily with the Carnica variety of bees. Investigations with other varieties led to the discovery that language elements were variety-specific, so that how distance and direction information is relayed varies greatly. Other work[edit] Frisch's honey bee work included the study of the pheromones that are emitted by the queen bee and her daughters, which maintain the hive's very complex social order. Outside the hive, the pheromones cause the male bees, or drones, to become attracted to a queen and mate with it. Inside the hive, the drones are not affected by the odor. Eugenics[edit] Frisch advocated the use of eugenics as far as preventing, through sterilisation, people with hereditary diseases from reproducing (giving as examples deafness, blindness, haemophilia and crippled limbs). However, he cautioned that "such action certainly represents a great restriction of personal liberty and it demands the highest ethical integrity of those men who are responsible for its application".[12] He hoped that this could be introduced through voluntary schemes and education about family planning.[12] Honors and decorations[edit]

Lieben Prize (1921) Pour le Mérite
Pour le Mérite
(1952) Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1952)[13] Elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society
Foreign Member of the Royal Society
(ForMemRS) in 1954[1] Honorary ring of Vienna
Vienna
(1956) Kalinga Prize
Kalinga Prize
for the Popularization of Science (1958) Bavarian Order of Merit
Bavarian Order of Merit
(1959) Foreign Member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (1959)[14] Austrian Medal for Science and Art
Austrian Medal for Science and Art
(1960) Balzan Prize
Balzan Prize
for Biology "For having consecrated his entire life to experimenting on thousands of bees, thus discovering a true language of gestures for communication and opening new insights into the knowledge of insect behaviour" (motivation of the Balzan General Prize Committee). (1962) Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, with Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
and Nikolaas Tinbergen
Nikolaas Tinbergen
for his achievements in comparative behavioral physiology and pioneering work in communication between insects. (1973) Grand Merit Cross with Star and Sash of the Federal Republic of Germany (Großes Verdienstkreuz mit Stern und Schulterband) (1974) Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art
Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art
(1981) In his honor, the Karl Ritter
Ritter
von Frisch Medal of the German Zoological Society (Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, DZG), is awarded every two years to scientists whose work is distinguished by extraordinary zoological achievements which represent an integration of insights from several different biological disciplines. It is Germany’s most important science prize in zoology and includes prize money of 10,000 euros. Member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina
German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina
- National Academy of Sciences Honorary doctorates from a number of universities, honorary membership of numerous academies and scientific societies

Publications[edit] In German[edit]

Der Farben- und Formensinn der Bienen. In: Zoologische Jahrbücher (Physiologie) 35, 1–188, (1914–15) Über den Geruchssinn der Bienen und seine blütenbiologische Bedeutung. In: Zoologische Jahrbücher (Physiologie) 37, 1–238 (1919) Über die ‚Sprache‘ der Bienen. Eine tierpsychologische Untersuchung. In: Zoologische Jahrbücher (Physiologie) 40, 1–186 (1923) Aus dem Leben der Bienen. Springer Verlag Berlin (1927) Untersuchung über den Sitz des Gehörsinnes bei der Elritze. In: Zeitschrift für vergleichende Physiologie 17, 686–801 (1932), it R. Stetter Über den Geschmacksinn der Bienen. In: Zeitschrift für vergleichende Physiologie 21, 1–156 (1934) Du und das Leben – Eine moderne Biologie für Jedermann. (1936) [literally, You and Life: A Modern Biology for Everyman] Über einen Schreckstoff der Fischhaut und seine biologische Bedeutung. In: Zeitschrift für vergleichende Physiologie 29, 46–145 (1941) Die Tänze der Bienen. In: Österreichische Zoologische Zeitschrift 1, 1–48 (1946) Die Polarisation des Himmelslichtes als orientierender Faktor bei den Tänzen der Bienen. In: Experientia (Basel) 5, 142–148 (1949) Die Sonne als Kompaß im Leben der Bienen. In: Experientia (Basel) 6, 210–221 (1950) Das kleine Insektenbuch. Insel Verlag (1961) Tanzsprache und Orientierung der Bienen. Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg/New York (1965) Aus dem Leben der Bienen. Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg/New York (1927; 9. Auflage 1977), ISBN 3-540-08212-3 Erinnerungen eines Biologen. Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Göttingen/Heidelberg 1957 (Autobiographie) Die Tanzsprache der Bienen. Originaltonaufnahmen 1953–1962, hrsg. v. Klaus Sander. 2-CD-Set. supposé, Köln 2005. ISBN 978-3-932513-56-5 Tiere als Baumeister. Frankfurt a.M., Ullstein, 1974. 309 Seiten. 105 Zeichnungen & 114 Photographien. ISBN 3-550-07028-4

In English[edit]

The Dancing Bees: An Account of the Life and Senses of the Honey Bee, Harvest Books New York (1953), a translation of Aus dem Leben der Bienen, 5th revised edition, Springer Verlag About Biology, Oliver & Boyd (1962), a translation of Du Und Das Leben Animal Architecture (originally published as Tiere Als Baumeister.) New York, Helen and Kurt Wolff. (ISBN 0-15-107251-5) (1974 1st edition) The Dance Language and Orientation of Bees, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press (1967), a translation of Tanzsprache und Orientierung der Bienen

Notes[edit]

^ Regarding personal names: Ritter
Ritter
is a title, translated approximately as Sir (denoting a Knight), not a first or middle name. There is no equivalent female form.

References[edit]

^ a b c Thorpe, W. H. (1983). "Karl von Frisch. 20 November 1886-12 June 1982". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 29: 196–200. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1983.0008. JSTOR 769801.  ^ Michelsen, A. (2003). " Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
lecture. Signals and flexibility in the dance communication of honeybees". Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 189 (3): 165–174. doi:10.1007/s00359-003-0398-y. PMID 12664092.  ^ Raju, T. N. (1999). "The Nobel chronicles. 1973: Karl von Frisch (1886-1982); Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
(1903-89); and Nikolaas Tinbergen (1907-88)". Lancet. 354 (9184): 1130. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(05)76931-2. PMID 10509540.  ^ Riley, J.; Greggers, U.; Smith, A.; Reynolds, D.; Menzel, R. (2005). "The flight paths of honeybees recruited by the waggle dance". Nature. 435 (7039): 205–207. Bibcode:2005Natur.435..205R. doi:10.1038/nature03526. PMID 15889092.  ^ Deichmann, Ute (1992). Biologists under Hitler: Expulsion, Careers, Research. Frankfurt/Main, New York: Harvard University Press. pp. 40–48. ISBN 0674074041.  ^ Frisch (1962), pp. 45-51. ^ a b Backhaus, W. (1993). " Color vision
Color vision
and color choice behavior of the honey bee". Apidologie. 24: 309–331. doi:10.1051/apido:19930310. Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
(1914) was the first to demonstrate in behavioral experiments of this kind that bees possess a true color sense. He demonstrated that honeybees are able to distinguish a blue-colored card-board from a series of cardboards which appeared grey to the human eye.  ^ Frisch (1962), pp. 93-96. ^ Frisch (1962), pp. 137-147. ^ Frisch (1962), p. 102 ff. ^ Rohrseitz, K.; Tautz, J. (1999). " Honey bee
Honey bee
dance communication: Waggle run direction coded in antennal contacts?". Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 184 (4): 463–470. doi:10.1007/s003590050346.  ^ a b von Frisch, Karl (1962). About Biology. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. pp. 268–273. Translated from Du Und Das Leben, Im Verlag Ullstein, Berlin, 1959.  ^ "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter F" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 15 April 2011.  ^ "K. von Frisch (1886 - 1982)". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 21 July 2015. 

External links[edit]

Dance and communication of honey bees Karl von Frisch, Decoding the Language of the Bee, Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1973 Biography and bibliography in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science Autobiography

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

1901–1925

1901 Emil Behring 1902 Ronald Ross 1903 Niels Finsen 1904 Ivan Pavlov 1905 Robert Koch 1906 Camillo Golgi
Camillo Golgi
/ Santiago Ramón y Cajal 1907 Alphonse Laveran 1908 Élie Metchnikoff
Élie Metchnikoff
/ Paul Ehrlich 1909 Emil Kocher 1910 Albrecht Kossel 1911 Allvar Gullstrand 1912 Alexis Carrel 1913 Charles Richet 1914 Róbert Bárány 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 Jules Bordet 1920 August Krogh 1921 1922 Archibald Hill
Archibald Hill
/ Otto Meyerhof 1923 Frederick Banting
Frederick Banting
/ John Macleod 1924 Willem Einthoven 1925

1926–1950

1926 Johannes Fibiger 1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg 1928 Charles Nicolle 1929 Christiaan Eijkman
Christiaan Eijkman
/ Frederick Gowland Hopkins 1930 Karl Landsteiner 1931 Otto Warburg 1932 Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington
/ Edgar Adrian 1933 Thomas Morgan 1934 George Whipple
George Whipple
/ George Minot
George Minot
/ William Murphy 1935 Hans Spemann 1936 Henry Dale / Otto Loewi 1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi 1938 Corneille Heymans 1939 Gerhard Domagk 1940 1941 1942 1943 Henrik Dam
Henrik Dam
/ Edward Doisy 1944 Joseph Erlanger
Joseph Erlanger
/ Herbert Gasser 1945 Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming
/ Ernst Chain
Ernst Chain
/ Howard Florey 1946 Hermann Muller 1947 Carl Cori / Gerty Cori
Gerty Cori
/ Bernardo Houssay 1948 Paul Müller 1949 Walter Hess / António Egas Moniz 1950 Edward Kendall / Tadeusz Reichstein
Tadeusz Reichstein
/ Philip Hench

1951–1975

1951 Max Theiler 1952 Selman Waksman 1953 Hans Krebs / Fritz Lipmann 1954 John Enders / Thomas Weller / Frederick Robbins 1955 Hugo Theorell 1956 André Cournand / Werner Forssmann
Werner Forssmann
/ Dickinson W. Richards 1957 Daniel Bovet 1958 George Beadle / Edward Tatum
Edward Tatum
/ Joshua Lederberg 1959 Severo Ochoa
Severo Ochoa
/ Arthur Kornberg 1960 Frank Burnet / Peter Medawar 1961 Georg von Békésy 1962 Francis Crick
Francis Crick
/ James Watson
James Watson
/ Maurice Wilkins 1963 John Eccles / Alan Hodgkin / Andrew Huxley 1964 Konrad Bloch / Feodor Lynen 1965 François Jacob
François Jacob
/ André Lwoff / Jacques Monod 1966 Francis Rous / Charles B. Huggins 1967 Ragnar Granit
Ragnar Granit
/ Haldan Hartline / George Wald 1968 Robert W. Holley
Robert W. Holley
/ Har Khorana / Marshall Nirenberg 1969 Max Delbrück
Max Delbrück
/ Alfred Hershey
Alfred Hershey
/ Salvador Luria 1970 Bernard Katz / Ulf von Euler
Ulf von Euler
/ Julius Axelrod 1971 Earl Sutherland Jr. 1972 Gerald Edelman
Gerald Edelman
/ Rodney Porter 1973 Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
/ Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
/ Nikolaas Tinbergen 1974 Albert Claude
Albert Claude
/ Christian de Duve
Christian de Duve
/ George Palade 1975 David Baltimore
David Baltimore
/ Renato Dulbecco
Renato Dulbecco
/ Howard Temin

1976–2000

1976 Baruch Blumberg / Daniel Gajdusek 1977 Roger Guillemin / Andrew Schally
Andrew Schally
/ Rosalyn Yalow 1978 Werner Arber
Werner Arber
/ Daniel Nathans
Daniel Nathans
/ Hamilton O. Smith 1979 Allan Cormack / Godfrey Hounsfield 1980 Baruj Benacerraf / Jean Dausset
Jean Dausset
/ George Snell 1981 Roger Sperry / David H. Hubel
David H. Hubel
/ Torsten Wiesel 1982 Sune Bergström
Sune Bergström
/ Bengt I. Samuelsson / John Vane 1983 Barbara McClintock 1984 Niels Jerne / Georges Köhler / César Milstein 1985 Michael Brown / Joseph L. Goldstein 1986 Stanley Cohen / Rita Levi-Montalcini 1987 Susumu Tonegawa 1988 James W. Black / Gertrude B. Elion
Gertrude B. Elion
/ George H. Hitchings 1989 J. Michael Bishop
J. Michael Bishop
/ Harold E. Varmus 1990 Joseph Murray
Joseph Murray
/ E. Donnall Thomas 1991 Erwin Neher
Erwin Neher
/ Bert Sakmann 1992 Edmond Fischer / Edwin G. Krebs 1993 Richard J. Roberts
Richard J. Roberts
/ Phillip Sharp 1994 Alfred G. Gilman
Alfred G. Gilman
/ Martin Rodbell 1995 Edward B. Lewis
Edward B. Lewis
/ Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
/ Eric F. Wieschaus 1996 Peter C. Doherty
Peter C. Doherty
/ Rolf M. Zinkernagel 1997 Stanley B. Prusiner 1998 Robert F. Furchgott
Robert F. Furchgott
/ Louis Ignarro
Louis Ignarro
/ Ferid Murad 1999 Günter Blobel 2000 Arvid Carlsson
Arvid Carlsson
/ Paul Greengard
Paul Greengard
/ Eric Kandel

2001–present

2001 Leland H. Hartwell / Tim Hunt
Tim Hunt
/ Paul Nurse 2002 Sydney Brenner
Sydney Brenner
/ H. Robert Horvitz / John E. Sulston 2003 Paul Lauterbur
Paul Lauterbur
/ Peter Mansfield 2004 Richard Axel
Richard Axel
/ Linda B. Buck 2005 Barry Marshall
Barry Marshall
/ Robin Warren 2006 Andrew Fire / Craig Mello 2007 Mario Capecchi
Mario Capecchi
/ Martin Evans
Martin Evans
/ Oliver Smithies 2008 Harald zur Hausen
Harald zur Hausen
/ Luc Montagnier
Luc Montagnier
/ Françoise Barré-Sinoussi 2009 Elizabeth Blackburn
Elizabeth Blackburn
/ Carol W. Greider
Carol W. Greider
/ Jack W. Szostak 2010 Robert G. Edwards 2011 Bruce Beutler
Bruce Beutler
/ Jules A. Hoffmann / Ralph M. Steinman (posthumously) 2012 John B. Gurdon
John B. Gurdon
/ Shinya Yamanaka 2013 James Rothman
James Rothman
/ Randy Schekman
Randy Schekman
/ Thomas C. Südhof 2014 John O'Keefe / May-Britt Moser
May-Britt Moser
/ Edvard Moser 2015 William C. Campbell / Satoshi Ōmura
Satoshi Ōmura
/ Tu Youyou 2016 Yoshinori Ohsumi 2017 Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, Michael W. Young

v t e

Ethology

Branches

Animal cognition Animal communication Animal consciousness Animal culture Animal sexual behaviour Animal welfare science Anthrozoology Bee
Bee
learning and communication Behavioural ecology Behavioural genetics Cognitive ethology Comparative psychology Emotion in animals Evolutionary neuroscience Human ethology Instinct Learning Neuroethology Pain in animals Sociobiology Tool use by animals Zoosemiotics Zoomusicology

Ethologists

Patrick Bateson Marc Bekoff Donald Broom Charles Darwin Marian Dawkins Richard Dawkins Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt Dian Fossey Karl von Frisch Jane Goodall Heini Hediger Julian Huxley Konrad Lorenz Desmond Morris Thomas Sebeok William Homan Thorpe Nikolaas Tinbergen Jakob von Uexküll Wolfgang Wickler E. O. Wilson Solly Zuckerman

Societies

Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour International Society for Applied Ethology

Journals

Animal Behaviour Animal Cognition Animal Welfare Behavioral Ecology Behaviour

Related topics

Animals portal Biology portal   Ethology
Ethology
(category)

v t e

Eusociality

Topics

Evolution of eusociality Presociality Social insects

Gamergate Group selection Haplodiploidy Identity in social insects Kin recognition Kin selection Sexual selection in social insects Thelytoky Worker policing

Groups

Hymenoptera

Ant Apidae Crabronidae Halictidae Honey bee Vespidae

Mammalia

Blesmol Dwarf mongoose Meerkat

Crustacea

Synalpheus

Thysanoptera

Kladothrips

Hemiptera

Aphididae

Coleoptera

Austroplatypus incompertus

Isoptera

In culture

Bee
Bee
(mythology)

Pioneers, works

Karl von Frisch

The Dancing Bees 1927

Charles Duncan Michener

The Bees of the World 2000

E. O. Wilson

The Ants 1990 Sociobiology: The New Synthesis 1975

v t e

Natural history

Pioneering naturalists

Classical antiquity

Aristotle
Aristotle
(History of Animals) Theophrastus
Theophrastus
(Historia Plantarum) Aelian (De Natura Animalium) Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(Natural History) Dioscorides (De Materia Medica)

Renaissance

Gaspard Bauhin
Gaspard Bauhin
(Pinax theatri botanici) Otto Brunfels Hieronymus Bock Andrea Cesalpino Valerius Cordus Leonhart Fuchs Conrad Gessner
Conrad Gessner
(Historia animalium) Frederik Ruysch William Turner (Avium Praecipuarum, New Herball) John Gerard
John Gerard
(Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes)

Enlightenment

Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
(Micrographia) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek William Derham Hans Sloane Jan Swammerdam Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
(Systema Naturae) Georg Steller Joseph Banks Johan Christian Fabricius James Hutton John Ray
John Ray
(Historia Plantarum) Comte de Buffon (Histoire Naturelle) Bernard Germain de Lacépède Gilbert White
Gilbert White
(The Natural History of Selborne) Thomas Bewick
Thomas Bewick
(A History of British Birds) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
(Philosophie Zoologique)

19th century

George Montagu (Ornithological Dictionary) Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
(Le Règne Animal) William Smith Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
(On the Origin of Species) Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace
(The Malay Archipelago) Henry Walter Bates
Henry Walter Bates
(The Naturalist on the River Amazons) Alexander von Humboldt John James Audubon
John James Audubon
(The Birds of America) William Buckland Charles Lyell Mary Anning Jean-Henri Fabre Louis Agassiz Philip Henry Gosse Asa Gray William Jackson Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker William Jardine (The Naturalist's Library) Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel
(Kunstformen der Natur) Richard Lydekker
Richard Lydekker
(The Royal Natural History)

20th century

Abbott Thayer (Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom) Hugh B. Cott
Hugh B. Cott
(Adaptive Coloration in Animals) Niko Tinbergen (The Study of Instinct) Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
(On Aggression) Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
(The Dancing Bees) Ronald Lockley
Ronald Lockley
(Shearwaters)

Topics

Natural history
Natural history
museums (List) Parson-naturalists (List) Natural History Societies List of natural history dealers

v t e

Neuroethology

Concepts

Feedforward Coincidence detector Umwelt Instinct Feature detection Central pattern generator
Central pattern generator
(CPG) NMDA receptor Lateral inhibition Fixed action pattern Krogh's Principle Hebbian theory Anti-Hebbian learning Sound localization Ultrasound avoidance
Ultrasound avoidance
in insects

People

Theodore Holmes Bullock Walter Heiligenberg Niko Tinbergen Konrad Lorenz Donald Griffin Donald Kennedy Karl von Frisch Erich von Holst Jörg-Peter Ewert Franz Huber Bernhard Hassenstein Werner E. Reichardt Eric Knudsen Eric Kandel Nobuo Suga Masakazu Konishi Fernando Nottebohm

Methods

Patch clamp Slice preparation

Systems

Animal echolocation Waggle dance Jamming avoidance response Vision in toads Frog hearing and communication Infrared sensing in snakes Caridoid escape reaction Vocal learning Surface wave detection Electroreception Mechanoreception

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 89778183 LCCN: n50041605 ISNI: 0000 0000 8163 1090 GND: 118693670 SELIBR: 187559 SUDOC: 026875640 BNF: cb119036425 (data) NLA: 35105100 NDL: 00440244 NKC: nlk20000083423 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV37095 BNE: XX826

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