HOME
The Info List - Karl Marx


--- Advertisement ---



Karl Marx[6] (/mɑːrks/;[7] German: [ˈkaɐ̯l ˈmaɐ̯ks]; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, historian, political theorist, sociologist, journalist and revolutionary socialist. Born in Trier
Trier
to a middle-class family, Marx studied law and Hegelian philosophy. Due to his political publications Marx became stateless and lived in exile in London, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
and publish his writings. His best-known titles are the 1848 pamphlet, The Communist
Communist
Manifesto, and the three-volume Das Kapital. His political and philosophical thought had enormous influence on subsequent intellectual, economic and political history and his name has given an adjective, a noun and a school of political theory. Marx's theories about society, economics and politics—collectively understood as Marxism—hold that human societies develop through class struggle. In capitalism, this manifests itself in the conflict between the ruling classes (known as the bourgeoisie) that control the means of production and working classes (known as the proletariat) that enable these means by selling their labour power in return for wages.[8] Employing a critical approach known as historical materialism, Marx predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism. For Marx, class antagonisms under capitalism, owing in part to its instability and crisis-prone nature, would eventuate the working class' development of class consciousness, leading to their conquest of political power and eventually the establishment of a classless, communist society constituted by a free association of producers.[9] Marx actively pressed for its implementation, arguing that the working class should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic emancipation.[10] Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history and his work has been both lauded and criticised.[11] His work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought.[12][13][14][15] Many intellectuals, labour unions, artists and political parties worldwide have been influenced by Marx's work, with many modifying or adapting his ideas. Marx is typically cited as one of the principal architects of modern social science.[16][17]

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Childhood and early education: 1818–1836 1.2 Hegelianism and early journalism: 1836–1843 1.3 Paris: 1843–1845 1.4 Brussels: 1845–1848 1.5 Cologne: 1848–1849 1.6 Move to London
London
and further writing: 1850–1860 1.7 New York Tribune and Journalism 1.8 The First International and Capital

2 Personal life

2.1 Family 2.2 Health 2.3 Death

3 Thought

3.1 Influences 3.2 Philosophy and social thought

3.2.1 Human nature 3.2.2 Labour, class struggle and false consciousness 3.2.3 Economy, history and society

4 Legacy 5 Selected bibliography 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References

8.1 Bibliography

9 Further reading

9.1 Biographies 9.2 Commentaries on Marx 9.3 Fiction works 9.4 Medical articles

10 External links

10.1 Articles and entries

Life[edit] Childhood and early education: 1818–1836[edit] Marx was born on 5 May 1818 to Heinrich Marx
Heinrich Marx
(1777–1838) and Henriette Pressburg
Henriette Pressburg
(1788–1863). He was born at Brückengasse 664 in Trier, a town then part of the Kingdom of Prussia's Province of the Lower Rhine.[18] Marx was ancestrally Jewish as his maternal grandfather was a Dutch rabbi, while his paternal line had supplied Trier's rabbis since 1723, a role taken by his grandfather Meier Halevi Marx.[19] His father, as a child known as Herschel, was the first in the line to receive a secular education and he became a lawyer and lived a relatively wealthy and middle-class existence, with his family owning a number of Moselle vineyards. Prior to his son's birth, and after the abrogation of Jewish emancipation
Jewish emancipation
in the Rhineland,[20] Herschel converted from Judaism
Judaism
to join the state Evangelical Church of Prussia, taking on the German forename of Heinrich over the Yiddish Herschel.[21] Marx was a third cousin once removed of German Romantic poet Heinrich Heine, also born to a German Jewish family in the Rhineland, with whom he became a frequent correspondent in later life.[22][page needed]

Marx's birthplace, now Bruckenstrasse 10, in Trier. The family occupied two rooms on the ground floor and three on the first floor.[23] Purchased by the Social Democratic Party of Germany
Social Democratic Party of Germany
in 1928, it now houses a museum devoted to him[24]

Largely non-religious, Heinrich was a man of the Enlightenment, interested in the ideas of the philosophers Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
and Voltaire. A classical liberal, he took part in agitation for a constitution and reforms in Prussia, then governed by an absolute monarchy.[25] In 1815, Heinrich Marx
Heinrich Marx
began work as an attorney and in 1819 moved his family to a ten-room property near the Porta Nigra.[26] His wife, Henriette Pressburg, was a Dutch Jewish woman from a prosperous business family that later founded the company Philips Electronics. Her sister Sophie Pressburg (1797–1854) married Lion Philips (1794–1866) and was the grandmother of both Gerard and Anton Philips and great-grandmother to Frits Philips. Lion Philips was a wealthy Dutch tobacco manufacturer and industrialist, upon whom Karl and Jenny Marx would later often come to rely for loans while they were exiled in London.[27] Little is known of Marx's childhood.[28] The third of nine children, he became the oldest son when his brother Moritz died in 1819.[29] Young Marx
Young Marx
and his surviving siblings, Sophie, Hermann, Henriette, Louise, Emilie and Caroline, were baptised into the Lutheran Church in August 1824 and their mother in November 1825.[30] Young Marx
Young Marx
was privately educated by his father until 1830, when he entered Trier High School, whose headmaster, Hugo Wyttenbach, was a friend of his father. By employing many liberal humanists as teachers, Wyttenbach incurred the anger of the local conservative government. Subsequently, police raided the school in 1832 and discovered that literature espousing political liberalism was being distributed among the students. Considering the distribution of such material a seditious act, the authorities instituted reforms and replaced several staff during Marx's attendance.[31] In October 1835 at the age of 17, Marx travelled to the University of Bonn
Bonn
wishing to study philosophy and literature, but his father insisted on law as a more practical field.[32] Due to a condition referred to as a "weak chest",[33] Marx was excused from military duty when he turned 18. While at the University at Bonn, Marx joined the Poets' Club, a group containing political radicals that were monitored by the police.[34] Marx also joined the Trier
Trier
Tavern Club drinking society (Landsmannschaft der Treveraner), at one point serving as club co-president.[35] Additionally, Marx was involved in certain disputes, some of which became serious: in August 1836 he took part in a duel with a member of the university's Borussian Korps.[36] Although his grades in the first term were good, they soon deteriorated, leading his father to force a transfer to the more serious and academic University of Berlin.[37] Hegelianism and early journalism: 1836–1843[edit] Spending summer and autumn 1836 in Trier, Marx became more serious about his studies and his life. He became engaged to Jenny von Westphalen, an educated baroness of the Prussian ruling class who had known Marx since childhood. As she had broken off her engagement with a young aristocrat to be with Marx, their relationship was socially controversial owing to the differences between their religious and class origins, but Marx befriended her father Ludwig von Westphalen (a liberal aristocrat) and later dedicated his doctoral thesis to him.[38] Seven years after their engagement, on 19 June 1843 they got married in a Protestant church in Kreuznach.[39] In October 1836, Marx arrived in Berlin, matriculating in the university's faculty of law and renting a room in the Mittelstrasse.[40] Although studying law, he was fascinated by philosophy and looked for a way to combine the two, believing that "without philosophy nothing could be accomplished".[41] Marx became interested in the recently deceased German philosopher G. W. F. Hegel, whose ideas were then widely debated among European philosophical circles.[42] During a convalescence in Stralau, he joined the Doctor's Club (Doktorklub), a student group which discussed Hegelian
Hegelian
ideas and through them became involved with a group of radical thinkers known as the Young Hegelians
Young Hegelians
in 1837. They gathered around Ludwig Feuerbach
Ludwig Feuerbach
and Bruno Bauer, with Marx developing a particularly close friendship with Adolf Rutenberg. Like Marx, the Young Hegelians
Young Hegelians
were critical of Hegel's metaphysical assumptions, but adopted his dialectical method in order to criticise established society, politics and religion from a leftist perspective.[43] Marx's father died in May 1838, resulting in a diminished income for the family.[44] Marx had been emotionally close to his father and treasured his memory after his death.[45]

Jenny von Westphalen
Jenny von Westphalen
in the 1830s

By 1837, Marx was writing both fiction and non-fiction, having completed a short novel, Scorpion and Felix, a drama, Oulanem, as well as a number of love poems dedicated to Jenny von Westphalen, though none of this early work was published during his lifetime.[46] Marx soon abandoned fiction for other pursuits, including the study of both English and Italian, art history and the translation of Latin classics.[47] He began co-operating with Bruno Bauer
Bruno Bauer
on editing Hegel's Philosophy of Religion
Religion
in 1840. Marx was also engaged in writing his doctoral thesis, The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature,[48] which he completed in 1841. It was described as "a daring and original piece of work in which Marx set out to show that theology must yield to the superior wisdom of philosophy".[49] The essay was controversial, particularly among the conservative professors at the University of Berlin. Marx decided instead to submit his thesis to the more liberal University of Jena, whose faculty awarded him his PhD in April 1841.[50] As Marx and Bauer were both atheists, in March 1841 they began plans for a journal entitled Archiv des Atheismus (Atheistic Archives), but it never came to fruition. In July, Marx and Bauer took a trip to Bonn
Bonn
from Berlin. There they scandalised their class by getting drunk, laughing in church and galloping through the streets on donkeys.[51] Marx was considering an academic career, but this path was barred by the government's growing opposition to classical liberalism and the Young Hegelians.[52] Marx moved to Cologne
Cologne
in 1842, where he became a journalist, writing for the radical newspaper Rheinische Zeitung ( Rhineland
Rhineland
News), expressing his early views on socialism and his developing interest in economics. Marx criticised both right-wing European governments as well as figures in the liberal and socialist movements whom he thought ineffective or counter-productive.[53] The newspaper attracted the attention of the Prussian government censors, who checked every issue for seditious material before printing, as Marx lamented: "Our newspaper has to be presented to the police to be sniffed at, and if the police nose smells anything un-Christian or un-Prussian, the newspaper is not allowed to appear".[54] After the Rheinische Zeitung
Rheinische Zeitung
published an article strongly criticising the Russian monarchy, Tsar Nicholas I requested it be banned and Prussia's government complied in 1843.[55] Paris: 1843–1845[edit] In 1843, Marx became co-editor of a new, radical leftist Parisian newspaper, the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher
Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher
(German-French Annals), then being set up by the German socialist Arnold Ruge to bring together German and French radicals[56] and thus Marx and his wife moved to Paris in October 1843. Initially living with Ruge and his wife communally at 23 Rue Vaneau, they found the living conditions difficult, so moved out following the birth of their daughter Jenny in 1844.[57] Although intended to attract writers from both France and the German states, the Jahrbücher was dominated by the latter and the only non-German writer was the exiled Russian anarchist collectivist Mikhail Bakunin.[58] Marx contributed two essays to the paper, "Introduction to a Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right"[59] and "On the Jewish Question",[60] the latter introducing his belief that the proletariat were a revolutionary force and marking his embrace of communism.[61] Only one issue was published, but it was relatively successful, largely owing to the inclusion of Heinrich Heine's satirical odes on King Ludwig of Bavaria, leading the German states to ban it and seize imported copies (Ruge nevertheless refused to fund the publication of further issues and his friendship with Marx broke down).[62] After the paper's collapse, Marx began writing for the only uncensored German-language radical newspaper left, Vorwärts! (Forward!). Based in Paris, the paper was connected to the League of the Just, a utopian socialist secret society of workers and artisans. Marx attended some of their meetings, but did not join.[63] In Vorwärts!, Marx refined his views on socialism based upon Hegelian and Feuerbachian ideas of dialectical materialism, at the same time criticising liberals and other socialists operating in Europe.[64]

Friedrich Engels, whom Marx met in 1844, as they eventually became lifelong friends and collaborators

On 28 August 1844, Marx met the German socialist Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
at the Café de la Régence, beginning a lifelong friendship.[65] Engels showed Marx his recently published The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844,[66][67] convincing Marx that the working class would be the agent and instrument of the final revolution in history.[4][68] Soon, Marx and Engels were collaborating on a criticism of the philosophical ideas of Marx's former friend, Bruno Bauer. This work was published in 1845 as The Holy Family.[69][70] Although critical of Bauer, Marx was increasingly influenced by the ideas of the Young Hegelians
Young Hegelians
Max Stirner
Max Stirner
and Ludwig Feuerbach, but eventually Marx and Engels abandoned Feuerbachian materialism as well.[71] During the time that he lived at 38 Rue Vanneau in Paris (from October 1843 until January 1845),[72] Marx engaged in an intensive study of "political economy" (Adam Smith, David Ricardo, James Mill, etc.),[73] the French socialists (especially Claude Henri St. Simon and Charles Fourier)[74] and the history of France.[75] The study of political economy is a study that Marx would pursue for the rest of his life[76] and would result in his major economic work—the three-volume series called Capital.[77] Marxism
Marxism
is based in large part on three influences: Hegel's dialectics, French utopian socialism and English economics. Together with his earlier study of Hegel's dialectics, the studying that Marx did during this time in Paris meant that all major components of "Marxism" (or political economy as Marx called it) were in place by the autumn of 1844.[78] Marx was constantly being pulled away from his study of political economy. Not only by the usual daily demands of the time, but additionally editing a radical newspaper and later the organising and directing the efforts of a political party during years of potentially revolutionary popular uprisings of the citizenry. Still Marx was always drawn back to his economic studies. Marx sought "to understand the inner workings of capitalism".[79] An outline of "Marxism" had definitely formed in the mind of Karl Marx by late 1844. Indeed, many features of the Marxist view of the world's political economy had been worked out in great detail, but Marx needed to write down all of the details of his economic world view to further clarify the new economic theory in his own mind.[80] Accordingly, Marx wrote The Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts.[81] These manuscripts covered numerous topics, detailing Marx's concept of alienated labour.[82] However, by the spring of 1845 his continued study of political economy, capital and capitalism had led Marx to the belief that the new political economic theory that he was espousing—scientific socialism—needed to be built on the base of a thoroughly developed materialistic view of the world.[83] The Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844
Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844
had been written between April and August 1844, but soon Marx recognised that the Manuscripts had been influenced by some inconsistent ideas of Ludwig Feuerbach. Accordingly, Marx recognised the need to break with Feuerbach's philosophy in favour of historical materialism, thus a year later (in April 1845) after moving from Paris to Brussels, Marx wrote his eleven "Theses on Feuerbach".[84] The "Theses on Feuerbach" are best known for Thesis 11, which states that "philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways, the point is to change it".[82][85] This work contains Marx's criticism of materialism (for being contemplative), idealism (for reducing practice to theory) overall, criticising philosophy for putting abstract reality above the physical world.[82] It thus introduced the first glimpse at Marx's historical materialism, an argument that the world is changed not by ideas but by actual, physical, material activity and practice.[82][86] In 1845, after receiving a request from the Prussian king, the French government shut down Vorwärts!, with the interior minister, François Guizot, expelling Marx from France.[87] At this point, Marx moved from Paris to Brussels, where Marx hoped to once again continue his study of capitalism and political economy. Brussels: 1845–1848[edit]

The first edition of The Manifesto of the Communist
Communist
Party, published in German in 1848

Unable either to stay in France or to move to Germany, Marx decided to emigrate to Brussels in Belgium
Belgium
in February 1845. However, to stay in Belgium
Belgium
he had to pledge not to publish anything on the subject of contemporary politics.[87] In Brussels, Marx associated with other exiled socialists from across Europe, including Moses Hess, Karl Heinzen and Joseph Weydemeyer. In April 1845, Engels moved from Barmen in Germany to Brussels to join Marx and the growing cadre of members of the League of the Just now seeking home in Brussels.[87][88] Later, Mary Burns, Engels' long-time companion, left Manchester, England to join Engels in Brussels.[89] In mid-July 1845, Marx and Engels left Brussels for England to visit the leaders of the Chartists, a socialist movement in Britain. This was Marx's first trip to England and Engels was an ideal guide for the trip. Engels had already spent two years living in Manchester from November 1842[90] to August 1844.[91] Not only did Engels already know the English language,[92] he had also developed a close relationship with many Chartist leaders.[92] Indeed, Engels was serving as a reporter for many Chartist and socialist English newspapers.[92] Marx used the trip as an opportunity to examine the economic resources available for study in various libraries in London
London
and Manchester.[93] In collaboration with Engels, Marx also set about writing a book which is often seen as his best treatment of the concept of historical materialism, The German Ideology.[94] In this work, Marx broke with Ludwig Feuerbach, Bruno Bauer, Max Stirner
Max Stirner
and the rest of the Young Hegelians, while he also broke with Karl Grun
Karl Grun
and other "true socialists" whose philosophies were still based in part on "idealism". In German Ideology, Marx and Engels finally completed their philosophy, which was based solely on materialism as the sole motor force in history.[95] German Ideology is written in a humorously satirical form, but even this satirical form did not save the work from censorship. Like so many other early writings of his, German Ideology would not be published in Marx's lifetime and would be published only in 1932.[82][96][97] After completing German Ideology, Marx turned to a work that was intended to clarify his own position regarding "the theory and tactics" of a truly "revolutionary proletarian movement" operating from the standpoint of a truly "scientific materialist" philosophy.[98] This work was intended to draw a distinction between the utopian socialists and Marx's own scientific socialist philosophy. Whereas the utopians believed that people must be persuaded one person at a time to join the socialist movement, the way a person must be persuaded to adopt any different belief, Marx knew that people would tend on most occasions to act in accordance with their own economic interests, thus appealing to an entire class (the working class in this case) with a broad appeal to the class's best material interest would be the best way to mobilise the broad mass of that class to make a revolution and change society. This was the intent of the new book that Marx was planning, but to get the manuscript past the government censors he called the book The Poverty of Philosophy
The Poverty of Philosophy
(1847)[99] and offered it as a response to the "petty bourgeois philosophy" of the French anarchist socialist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
as expressed in his book The Philosophy of Poverty
The Philosophy of Poverty
(1840).[100]

Marx, Engels and Marx's daughters

These books laid the foundation for Marx and Engels's most famous work, a political pamphlet that has since come to be commonly known as The Communist
Communist
Manifesto. While residing in Brussels in 1846, Marx continued his association with the secret radical organisation League of the Just.[101] As noted above, Marx thought the League to be just the sort of radical organisation that was needed to spur the working class of Europe toward the mass movement that would bring about a working class revolution.[102] However, to organise the working class into a mass movement the League had to cease its "secret" or "underground" orientation and operate in the open as a political party.[103] Members of the League eventually became persuaded in this regard. Accordingly, in June 1847 the League was reorganised by its membership into a new open "above ground" political society that appealed directly to the working classes.[104] This new open political society was called the Communist
Communist
League.[105] Both Marx and Engels participated in drawing the programme and organisational principles of the new Communist
Communist
League.[106] In late 1847, Marx and Engels began writing what was to become their most famous work — a programme of action for the Communist
Communist
League. Written jointly by Marx and Engels from December 1847 to January 1848, The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
was first published on 21 February 1848.[107] The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
laid out the beliefs of the new Communist League. No longer a secret society, the Communist
Communist
League wanted to make aims and intentions clear to the general public rather than hiding its beliefs as the League of the Just had been doing.[108] The opening lines of the pamphlet set forth the principal basis of Marxism: "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles".[109] It goes on to examine the antagonisms that Marx claimed were arising in the clashes of interest between the bourgeoisie (the wealthy capitalist class) and the proletariat (the industrial working class). Proceeding on from this, the Manifesto presents the argument for why the Communist
Communist
League, as opposed to other socialist and liberal political parties and groups at the time, was truly acting in the interests of the proletariat to overthrow capitalist society and to replace it with socialism.[110] Later that year, Europe experienced a series of protests, rebellions and often violent upheavals that became known as the Revolutions of 1848.[111] In France, a revolution led to the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the French Second Republic.[111] Marx was supportive of such activity and having recently received a substantial inheritance from his father (withheld by his uncle Lionel Philips since his father's death in 1838) of either 6,000[112] or 5,000 francs[113][114] he allegedly used a third of it to arm Belgian workers who were planning revolutionary action.[114] Although the veracity of these allegations is disputed,[112][115] the Belgian Ministry of Justice
Justice
accused Marx of it, subsequently arresting him and he was forced to flee back to France, where with a new republican government in power he believed that he would be safe.[114][116] Cologne: 1848–1849[edit] Temporarily settling down in Paris, Marx transferred the Communist League executive headquarters to the city and also set up a German Workers' Club with various German socialists living there.[117] Hoping to see the revolution spread to Germany, in 1848 Marx moved back to Cologne
Cologne
where he began issuing a handbill entitled the Demands of the Communist
Communist
Party in Germany,[118] in which he argued for only four of the ten points of the Communist
Communist
Manifesto, believing that in Germany at that time the bourgeoisie must overthrow the feudal monarchy and aristocracy before the proletariat could overthrow the bourgeoisie.[119] On 1 June, Marx started publication of a daily newspaper, the Neue Rheinische Zeitung, which he helped to finance through his recent inheritance from his father. Designed to put forward news from across Europe with his own Marxist interpretation of events, the newspaper featured Marx as a primary writer and the dominant editorial influence. Despite contributions by fellow members of the Communist
Communist
League, according to Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
it remained "a simple dictatorship by Marx".[120][121][122] Whilst editor of the paper, Marx and the other revolutionary socialists were regularly harassed by the police and Marx was brought to trial on several occasions, facing various allegations including insulting the Chief Public Prosecutor, committing a press misdemeanor and inciting armed rebellion through tax boycotting,[123][124][125][126] although each time he was acquitted.[124][126][127] Meanwhile, the democratic parliament in Prussia
Prussia
collapsed and the king, Frederick William IV, introduced a new cabinet of his reactionary supporters, who implemented counter-revolutionary measures to expunge leftist and other revolutionary elements from the country.[123] Consequently, the Neue Rheinische Zeitung
Rheinische Zeitung
was soon suppressed and Marx was ordered to leave the country on 16 May.[122][128] Marx returned to Paris, which was then under the grip of both a reactionary counter-revolution and a cholera epidemic and was soon expelled by the city authorities, who considered him a political threat. With his wife Jenny expecting their fourth child and not able to move back to Germany or Belgium, in August 1849 he sought refuge in London.[129][130] Move to London
London
and further writing: 1850–1860[edit] Marx moved to London
London
in early June 1849 and would remain based in the city for the rest of his life. The headquarters of the Communist League also moved to London. However, in the winter of 1849–1850 a split within the ranks of the Communist
Communist
League occurred when a faction within it led by August Willich
August Willich
and Karl Schapper
Karl Schapper
began agitating for an immediate uprising. Willich and Schapper believed that once the Communist
Communist
League had initiated the uprising, the entire working class from across Europe would rise "spontaneously" to join it, thus creating revolution across Europe. Marx and Engels protested that such an unplanned uprising on the part of the Communist
Communist
League was "adventuristic" and would be suicide for the Communist
Communist
League.[131] Such an uprising as that recommended by the Schapper/Willich group would easily be crushed by the police and the armed forces of the reactionary governments of Europe. Marx maintained that this would spell doom for the Communist
Communist
League itself, arguing that changes in society are not achieved overnight through the efforts and will power of a handful of men.[131] They are instead brought about through a scientific analysis of economic conditions of society and by moving toward revolution through different stages of social development. In the present stage of development (circa 1850), following the defeat of the uprisings across Europe in 1848 he felt that the Communist
Communist
League should encourage the working class to unite with progressive elements of the rising bourgeoisie to defeat the feudal aristocracy on issues involving demands for governmental reforms, such as a constitutional republic with freely elected assemblies and universal (male) suffrage. In other words, the working class must join with bourgeois and democratic forces to bring about the successful conclusion of the bourgeois revolution before stressing the working class agenda and a working class revolution. After a long struggle which threatened to ruin the Communist
Communist
League, Marx's opinion prevailed and eventually the Willich/Schapper group left the Communist
Communist
League. Meanwhile, Marx also became heavily involved with the socialist German Workers' Educational Society.[132] The Society
Society
held their meetings in Great Windmill Street, Soho, central London's entertainment district.[133][134] This organisation was also racked by an internal struggle between its members, some of whom followed Marx while others followed the Schapper/Willich faction. The issues in this internal split were the same issues raised in the internal split within the Communist
Communist
League, but Marx lost the fight with the Schapper/Willich faction within the German Workers' Educational Society
Society
and on 17 September 1850 resigned from the Society.[135] New York Tribune and Journalism[edit] In the early period in London, Marx committed himself almost exclusively to revolutionary activities such that his family endured extreme poverty.[136][137] His main income source was Engels, whose source in turn, was his wealthy industrialist father.[137] In Prussia as editor of his own newspaper, and contributor to others ideologically aligned, Marx could reach his audience, the working classes. In London, without finances to run a newspaper, he and Engels turned to international journalism. At one stage they were being published by six newspapers from England, the United States, Prussia, Austria and South Africa.[138] Marx's principal earnings came from his work as European correspondent for the New York Daily Tribune (1852-1863),[139] and from producing articles for "bourgeois" newspapers such as the New York Tribune. Marx had his articles translated from German by Wilhelm Pieper (de), until his proficiency in English was adequate to being published in.[140] The New York City newspaper, the New York Daily Tribune, or Tribune, was founded in April 1841 by Horace Greeley
Horace Greeley
.[141] The editorial board had progressive bourgeois journalists and publishers, among whom were George Ripley and the journalist Charles Dana. Dana, who was editor-in-chief at the time, and also a fourierist and an abolitionist, was Marx's contact. On 21 March 1857 Dana informed him that due to the economic recession only one article a week would be paid, published or not, the others would only be paid if published. Marx had sent his articles on Tuesdays and Fridays, but that October, the Tribune discharged all its correspondents in Europe except Marx and B. Taylor, and reduced Marx to a weekly article. Between September and November 1860 only five were published. After a six month interval he resumed contributions in September 1861 until March 1862, when Dana wrote to inform him there was no space in the Tribune for reports from London
London
due to American domestic affairs.[142] In 1868, Charles Dana set up a rival newspaper, New York Sun, at which he was editor-in-chief.[143] The "Tribune" was a vehicle for Marx to reach a transatlantic public. The journal had wide working-class appeal from its foundation, at two cents, it was inexpensive [144] and at a circa 50,000-issue run, its circulation was the widest in the United States.[145] The editorial ethos was progressive and its anti-slavery stance reflected Greeley's.[146] Marx's first article for the paper on the British parliamentary elections was published on 21 August 1852.[147] By the late 1850s American popular interest in European affairs waned and Marx's articles turn to topics such as the "slavery crisis" and the outbreak of the American Civil War
American Civil War
in 1861, in the " War
War
Between the States".[148] Between December 1851 and March 1852, Marx worked on his theoretical work about French Revolution
Revolution
of 1848, entitled The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon,[149] In this he explores concepts in historical materialism, class struggle, dictatorship of the proletariat, proletariat victory over the bourgeois state.[150] The 1850s and 1860s mark a philosophical boundary distinguishing the young Marx's Hegelian
Hegelian
idealism and the more mature Marx's[151][152][153][154] scientific ideology associated with structural Marxism.[154] Not all scholars accept the distinction.[153][155] For Marx and Engels, their experience of the Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
to 1849 were formative in the development of their theory of economics and historical progression. After the "failures" of 1848, the revolutionary impetus appeared spent and not to be renewed without an economic recession. Contention arose between Marx and his fellow communists, whom he denounced as "adventurists". Marx deemed it fanciful to propose that "will power" could be sufficient to create the revolutionary conditions when in reality the economic component was the necessary requisite. Recession
Recession
in the United States economy in 1852 gave Marx and Engels grounds for optimism for a revolutionary activity. Yet the United States' economy was seen as too immature for a capitalist revolution. Open territories on America's western frontier dissipated the forces of social unrest. Moreover any economic crisis arising in the United States would not lead to revolutionary contagion of the older European economies of individual nations, which were closed systems bounded by their national borders. When the so-called "Panic of 1857" in the United States spread globally it broke all economic theory models,[156] and was the first truly global economic crisis. Financial necessity had forced Marx to abandon economic studies in 1844 and give thirteen years working on other projects. He had always sought to return to them. The First International and Capital[edit]

The first volume of Das Kapital

Marx continued to write articles for the New York Daily Tribune
New York Daily Tribune
as long as he was sure that the Tribune's editorial policy was still progressive. However, the departure of Charles Dana from the paper in late 1861 and the resultant change in the editorial board brought about a new editorial policy.[157] No longer was the Tribune to be a strong abolitionist paper dedicated to a complete Union victory. The new editorial board supported an immediate peace between the Union and the Confederacy in the Civil War
War
in the United States with slavery left intact in the Confederacy. Marx strongly disagreed with this new political position and in 1863 was forced to withdraw as a writer for the Tribune.[158] In 1864, Marx became involved in the International Workingmen's Association (also known as the First International),[124] to whose General Council he was elected at its inception in 1864.[159] In that organisation, Marx was involved in the struggle against the anarchist wing centred on Mikhail Bakunin
Mikhail Bakunin
(1814–1876).[137] Although Marx won this contest, the transfer of the seat of the General Council from London
London
to New York in 1872, which Marx supported, led to the decline of the International.[160] The most important political event during the existence of the International was the Paris Commune
Paris Commune
of 1871, when the citizens of Paris rebelled against their government and held the city for two months. In response to the bloody suppression of this rebellion, Marx wrote one of his most famous pamphlets, "The Civil War in France", a defence of the Commune.[161][162] Given the repeated failures and frustrations of workers' revolutions and movements, Marx also sought to understand capitalism and spent a great deal of time in the reading room of the British Museum
British Museum
studying and reflecting on the works of political economists and on economic data.[163] By 1857, Marx had accumulated over 800 pages of notes and short essays on capital, landed property, wage labour, the state and foreign trade and the world market, though this work did not appear in print until 1939 under the title Outlines of the Critique of Political Economy.[164][165][166] Finally in 1859, Marx published A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy,[167] his first serious economic work. This work was intended merely as a preview of his three-volume Das Kapital
Das Kapital
(English title: Capital: Critique of Political Economy), which he intended to publish at a later date. In A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, Marx expands on the labour theory of value advocated by David Ricardo. The work was enthusiastically received, and the edition sold out quickly.[168]

Marx in the 1870s

The successful sales of A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy stimulated Marx in the early 1860s to finish work on the three large volumes that would compose his major life's work—Das Kapital and the Theories of Surplus Value, which discussed the theoreticians of political economy, particularly Adam Smith
Adam Smith
and David Ricardo.[137] Theories of Surplus Value
Theories of Surplus Value
is often referred to as the fourth volume book of Das Kapital
Das Kapital
and constitutes one of the first comprehensive treatises on the history of economic thought.[169] In 1867, the first volume of Das Kapital
Das Kapital
was published, a work which analysed the capitalist process of production.[170] Here Marx elaborated his labour theory of value, which had been influenced by Thomas Hodgskin. Marx acknowledged Hodgskin's "admirable work" Labour Defended against the Claims of Capital at more than one point in Capital.[171] Indeed, Marx quoted Hodgskin as recognising the alienation of labour that occurred under modern capitalist production. No longer was there any "natural reward of individual labour. Each labourer produces only some part of a whole, and each part having no value or utility of itself, there is nothing on which the labourer can seize, and say: 'This is my product, this will I keep to myself'".[172] In this first volume of Capital, Marx outlined his conception of surplus value and exploitation, which he argued would ultimately lead to a falling rate of profit and the collapse of industrial capitalism.[173] Demand for a Russian language edition of Capital soon led to the printing of 3,000 copies of the book in the Russian language, which was published on 27 March 1872. By the autumn of 1871, the entire first edition of the German language edition of Capital had been sold out and a second edition was published. Volumes II and III of Capital remained mere manuscripts upon which Marx continued to work for the rest of his life. Both volumes were published by Engels after Marx's death.[137] Volume II of Capital was prepared and published by Engels in July 1893 under the name Capital II: The Process of Circulation of Capital.[174] Volume III of Capital was published a year later in October 1894 under the name Capital III: The Process of Capitalist Production as a Whole.[175] Theories of Surplus Value was developed from the Economic Manuscripts of 1861–1863 which comprise Volumes 30, 31 32 and 33 of the Collected Works of Marx and Engels and from the Economic Manuscripts of 1861–1864 which comprises Volume 34 of the Collected Works of Marx and Engels. The exact part of the Economic Manuscripts of 1861–1863 which makes up the Theories of Surplus Value
Theories of Surplus Value
are the last part of Volume 30 of the Collected Works,[176] the whole of Volume 31 of the Collected Works[177] and the whole of Volume 32 of the Collected Works.[178] A German language abridged edition of Theories of Surplus Value was published in 1905 and in 1910. This abridged edition was translated into English and published in 1951 in London, but the complete unabridged edition of Theories of Surplus Value
Theories of Surplus Value
was published as the "fourth volume" of Capital in 1963 and 1971 in Moscow.[179]

Marx in 1882

During the last decade of his life, Marx's health declined and he became incapable of the sustained effort that had characterised his previous work.[137] He did manage to comment substantially on contemporary politics, particularly in Germany and Russia. His Critique of the Gotha Programme
Critique of the Gotha Programme
opposed the tendency of his followers Wilhelm Liebknecht
Wilhelm Liebknecht
and August Bebel
August Bebel
to compromise with the state socialism of Ferdinand Lassalle
Ferdinand Lassalle
in the interests of a united socialist party.[137] This work is also notable for another famous Marx quote: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his need".[180] In a letter to Vera Zasulich
Vera Zasulich
dated 8 March 1881, Marx contemplated the possibility of Russia's bypassing the capitalist stage of development and building communism on the basis of the common ownership of land characteristic of the village mir.[137][181] While admitting that Russia's rural "commune is the fulcrum of social regeneration in Russia", Marx also warned that in order for the mir to operate as a means for moving straight to the socialist stage without a preceding capitalist stage it "would first be necessary to eliminate the deleterious influences which are assailing it (the rural commune) from all sides".[182] Given the elimination of these pernicious influences, Marx allowed that "normal conditions of spontaneous development" of the rural commune could exist.[182] However, in the same letter to Vera Zasulich
Vera Zasulich
he points out that "at the core of the capitalist system ... lies the complete separation of the producer from the means of production".[182] In one of the drafts of this letter, Marx reveals his growing passion for anthropology, motivated by his belief that future communism would be a return on a higher level to the communism of our prehistoric past. He wrote that "the historical trend of our age is the fatal crisis which capitalist production has undergone in the European and American countries where it has reached its highest peak, a crisis that will end in its destruction, in the return of modern society to a higher form of the most archaic type—collective production and appropriation". He added that "the vitality of primitive communities was incomparably greater than that of Semitic, Greek, Roman, etc. societies, and, a fortiori, that of modern capitalist societies".[183] Before he died, Marx asked Engels to write up these ideas, which were published in 1884 under the title The Origin of the Family, Private Property
Property
and the State. Personal life[edit] Family[edit]

Jenny Carolina and Jenny Laura Marx
Laura Marx
(1869): all the Marx daughters were named Jenny in honour of their mother, Jenny von Westphalen.

Marx and von Westphalen had seven children together, but partly owing to the poor conditions in which they lived whilst in London, only three survived to adulthood.[184] The children were: Jenny Caroline (m. Longuet; 1844–1883); Jenny Laura (m. Lafargue; 1845–1911); Edgar (1847–1855); Henry Edward Guy ("Guido"; 1849–1850); Jenny Eveline Frances ("Franziska"; 1851–1852); Jenny Julia Eleanor (1855–1898) and one more who died before being named (July 1857). There are allegations that Marx also fathered a son, Freddy,[185] out of wedlock by his housekeeper, Helene Demuth.[186] Marx frequently used pseudonyms, often when renting a house or flat, apparently to make it harder for the authorities to track him down. While in Paris, he used that of "Monsieur Ramboz", whilst in London
London
he signed off his letters as "A. Williams". His friends referred to him as "Moor", owing to his dark complexion and black curly hair, while he encouraged his children to call him "Old Nick" and "Charley".[187] He also bestowed nicknames and pseudonyms on his friends and family as well, referring to Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
as "General", his housekeeper Helene as "Lenchen" or "Nym", while one of his daughters, Jennychen, was referred to as "Qui Qui, Emperor of China" and another, Laura, was known as "Kakadou" or "the Hottentot".[187] Health[edit] Marx was afflicted by poor health (what he himself described as "the wretchedness of existence")[188] and various authors have sought to describe and explain it. His biographer Werner Blumenberg attributed it to liver and gall problems which Marx had in 1849 and from which he was never afterwards free, exacerbated by an unsuitable lifestyle. The attacks often came with headaches, eye inflammation, neuralgia in the head and rheumatic pains. A serious nervous disorder appeared in 1877 and protracted insomnia was a consequence, which Marx fought with narcotics. The illness was aggravated by excessive nocturnal work and faulty diet. Marx was fond of highly seasoned dishes, smoked fish, caviare, pickled cucumbers, "none of which are good for liver patients", but he also liked wine and liqueurs and smoked an enormous amount "and since he had no money, it was usually bad-quality cigars". From 1863, Marx complained a lot about boils: "These are very frequent with liver patients and may be due to the same causes".[189] The abscesses were so bad that Marx could neither sit nor work upright. According to Blumenberg, Marx's irritability is often found in liver patients:

The illness emphasised certain traits in his character. He argued cuttingly, his biting satire did not shrink at insults, and his expressions could be rude and cruel. Though in general Marx had a blind faith in his closest friends, nevertheless he himself complained that he was sometimes too mistrustful and unjust even to them. His verdicts, not only about enemies but even about friends, were sometimes so harsh that even less sensitive people would take offence… There must have been few whom he did not criticize like this… not even Engels was an exception.[190]

According to Princeton historian J.E. Seigel, in his late teens Marx may have had pneumonia or pleurisy, the effects of which led to his being exempted from Prussian military service. In later life whilst working on Capital (which he never completed),[191] Marx suffered from a trio of afflictions. A liver ailment, probably hereditary, was aggravated by overwork, bad diet and lack of sleep. Inflammation of the eyes was induced by too much work at night. A third affliction, eruption of carbuncles or boils, "was probably brought on by general physical debility to which the various features of Marx's style of life — alcohol, tobacco, poor diet, and failure to sleep — all contributed. Engels often exhorted Marx to alter this dangerous regime". In Professor Siegel's thesis, what lay behind this punishing sacrifice of his health may have been guilt about self-involvement and egoism, originally induced in Karl Marx
Karl Marx
by his father.[192] In 2007, a retrodiagnosis of Marx's skin disease was made by dermatologist Sam Shuster of Newcastle University
Newcastle University
and for Shuster the most probable explanation was that Marx suffered not from liver problems, but from hidradenitis suppurativa, a recurring infective condition arising from blockage of apocrine ducts opening into hair follicles. This condition, which was not described in the English medical literature until 1933 (hence would not have been known to Marx's physicians), can produce joint pain (which could be misdiagnosed as rheumatic disorder) and painful eye conditions. To arrive at his retrodiagnosis, Shuster considered the primary material: the Marx correspondence published in the 50 volumes of the Marx/Engels Collected Works. There, "although the skin lesions were called 'furuncules', 'boils' and 'carbuncles' by Marx, his wife and his physicians, they were too persistent, recurrent, destructive and site-specific for that diagnosis". The sites of the persistent 'carbuncles' were noted repeatedly in the armpits, groins, perianal, genital (penis and scrotum) and suprapubic regions and inner thighs, "favoured sites of hidradenitis suppurativa". Professor Shuster claimed the diagnosis "can now be made definitively".[193] Shuster went on to consider the potential psychosocial effects of the disease, noting that the skin is an organ of communication and that hidradenitis suppurativa produces much psychological distress, including loathing and disgust and depression of self-image, mood and well-being, feelings for which Shuster found "much evidence" in the Marx correspondence. Professor Shuster went on to ask himself whether the mental effects of the disease affected Marx's work and even helped him to develop his theory of alienation.[194] Death[edit]

Memorial to Karl Marx, East Highgate Cemetery, London

Following the death of his wife Jenny in December 1881, Marx developed a catarrh that kept him in ill health for the last 15 months of his life. It eventually brought on the bronchitis and pleurisy that killed him in London
London
on 14 March 1883 (age 64), dying a stateless person.[195] Family and friends in London
London
buried his body in Highgate Cemetery (East), London, on 17 March 1883 in an area reserved for agnostics and atheists (George Eliot's grave is nearby). There were between nine and eleven mourners at his funeral.[196][197] Several of his closest friends spoke at his funeral, including Wilhelm Liebknecht and Friedrich Engels. Engels' speech included the passage:

On the 14th of March, at a quarter to three in the afternoon, the greatest living thinker ceased to think. He had been left alone for scarcely two minutes, and when we came back we found him in his armchair, peacefully gone to sleep—but forever.[198]

Marx's surviving daughters Eleanor and Laura, as well as Charles Longuet and Paul Lafargue, Marx's two French socialist sons-in-law, were also in attendance.[197] He had been predeceased by his wife and his eldest daughter, the latter dying a few months earlier in January 1883. Liebknecht, a founder and leader of the German Social Democratic Party, gave a speech in German and Longuet, a prominent figure in the French working-class movement, made a short statement in French.[197] Two telegrams from workers' parties in France and Spain were also read out.[197] Together with Engels's speech, this constituted the entire programme of the funeral.[197] Non-relatives attending the funeral included three communist associates of Marx: Friedrich Lessner, imprisoned for three years after the Cologne
Cologne
communist trial of 1852; G. Lochner, whom Engels described as "an old member of the Communist League"; and Carl Schorlemmer, a professor of chemistry in Manchester, a member of the Royal Society
Royal Society
and a communist activist involved in the 1848 Baden revolution.[197] Another attendee of the funeral was Ray Lankester, a British zoologist who would later become a prominent academic.[197] Upon his own death in 1895, Engels left Marx's two surviving daughters a "significant portion" of his $4.8 million estate.[185] Marx and his family were reburied on a new site nearby in November 1954. The tomb at the new site, unveiled on 14 March 1956,[199] bears the carved message: "WORKERS OF ALL LANDS UNITE", the final line of The Communist
Communist
Manifesto; and from the 11th "Thesis on Feuerbach" (edited by Engels): "The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways—the point however is to change it".[200] The Communist
Communist
Party of Great Britain had the monument with a portrait bust by Laurence Bradshaw erected and Marx's original tomb had only humble adornment.[200] In 1970, there was an unsuccessful attempt to destroy the monument using a homemade bomb.[201] The late Marxist historian Eric Hobsbawm
Eric Hobsbawm
remarked: "One cannot say Marx died a failure" because although he had not achieved a large following of disciples in Britain, his writings had already begun to make an impact on the leftist movements in Germany and Russia. Within 25 years of his death, the continental European socialist parties that acknowledged Marx's influence on their politics were each gaining between 15 and 47 per cent in those countries with representative democratic elections.[202] Thought[edit]

Part of a series on

Marxism

Theoretical works

Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844

Theses on Feuerbach The German Ideology The Communist
Communist
Manifesto

The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon

Grundrisse
Grundrisse
der Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie

A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy

Das Kapital Dialectics of Nature

Philosophy

Dialectical logic Dialectical materialism Economic determinism Historical determinism Historical materialism Marx's method Philosophy of nature

Economics

Capital (accumulation) Crisis theory Commodity Exploitation Factors of production Means of labor Mode of production

Asiatic Capitalist

Law
Law
of value Productive forces Scientific socialism Socialist mode of production Surplus product Surplus value Value-form Wage labor

Sociology

Alienation Base and superstructure Bourgeoisie Class Class consciousness Class struggle Classless society Commodity fetishism Communist
Communist
society Cultural hegemony Dictatorship of the proletariat Exploitation Free association Human nature Ideology Immiseration Proletariat Private property Relations of production Reification Working class

History

Anarchism
Anarchism
and Marxism Philosophy in the Soviet Union Primitive capital accumulation Proletarian revolution Proletarian Culture Proletarian internationalism World revolution Young Marx

Aspects

Aesthetics Archaeology Criminology Film theory Geography Historiography Literary criticism Marxism
Marxism
and religion

Variants

Analytical Austro Autonomism Budapest School Classical Council communism De Leonism Democratic socialism Eurocommunism Feminist Frankfurt School Freudian Guevarism Hoxhaism Humanist Impossibilism Instrumental Left communism Leninism Libertarian Luxemburgism Maoism Marxism–Leninism Neo-Marxism Neue Marx-Lektüre Open Orthodox Post-Marxism Praxis School Right Opposition Social democracy Stalinism Structural Titoism Trotskyism Western

People

Karl Marx Friedrich Engels

August Bebel Daniel De Leon Georgi Plekhanov Eduard Bernstein James Connolly Rosa Luxemburg Clara Zetkin Karl Liebknecht Karl Kautsky Vladimir Lenin Leon Trotsky Alexandra Kollontai Nikolai Bukharin Antonio Gramsci Joseph Stalin Walter Benjamin Antonie Pannekoek Bertolt Brecht Wilhelm Reich György Lukács Ho Chi Minh Max Horkheimer Mao Zedong Josip Broz Tito Theodor W. Adorno Herbert Marcuse C. Wright Mills Erich Fromm Salvador Allende Jean-Paul Sartre Enver Hoxha Simone de Beauvoir Che Guevara Raya Dunayevskaya Maximilien Rubel Kim Il-sung Louis Althusser Guy Debord David Harvey Eric Hobsbawm Nelson Mandela Howard Zinn Thomas Sankara Fidel Castro Zygmunt Bauman Slavoj Žižek Richard D. Wolff Yanis Varoufakis

Socialism
Socialism
portal Communism
Communism
portal Philosophy portal

v t e

Influences[edit] Main article: Influences on Karl Marx Marx's thought demonstrates influences from many thinkers including, but not limited to:

Lycurgus' philosophy, including the forceful and equal redistribution of resources (land) and the equality of all citizens[203] Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's philosophy[204] The classical political economy (economics) of Adam Smith
Adam Smith
and David Ricardo[205] French socialist thought,[205] in particular the thought of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Henri de Saint-Simon, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Charles Fourier[206][207] Earlier German philosophical materialism among the Young Hegelians, particularly that of Ludwig Feuerbach
Ludwig Feuerbach
and Bruno Bauer,[71] as well as the French materialism of the late 18th century, including Diderot, Claude Adrien Helvétius
Claude Adrien Helvétius
and d'Holbach The working class analysis by Friedrich Engels,[4] as well as the early descriptions of class provided by French liberals and Saint-Simonians such as François Guizot
François Guizot
and Augustin Thierry Marx's Judaic legacy has been identified as formative to both his moral outlook[208] and his materialist philosophy.[209]

Marx's view of history, which came to be called historical materialism (controversially adapted as the philosophy of dialectical materialism by Engels and Lenin), certainly shows the influence of Hegel's claim that one should view reality (and history) dialectically.[204] However, Hegel
Hegel
had thought in idealist terms, putting ideas in the forefront, whereas Marx sought to rewrite dialectics in materialist terms, arguing for the primacy of matter over idea.[82][204] Where Hegel
Hegel
saw the "spirit" as driving history, Marx saw this as an unnecessary mystification, obscuring the reality of humanity and its physical actions shaping the world.[204] He wrote that Hegelianism stood the movement of reality on its head, and that one needed to set it upon its feet.[204] Despite his dislike of mystical terms, Marx used Gothic language in several of his works and in The Capital he refers to capital as "necromancy that surrounds the products of labour".[210] Though inspired by French socialist and sociological thought,[205] Marx criticised utopian socialists, arguing that their favoured small-scale socialistic communities would be bound to marginalisation and poverty and that only a large-scale change in the economic system can bring about real change.[207] The other important contribution to Marx's revision of Hegelianism came from Engels's book, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, which led Marx to conceive of the historical dialectic in terms of class conflict and to see the modern working class as the most progressive force for revolution.[4] Marx believed that he could study history and society scientifically and discern tendencies of history and the resulting outcome of social conflicts. Some followers of Marx therefore concluded that a communist revolution would inevitably occur. However, Marx famously asserted in the eleventh of his "Theses on Feuerbach" that "philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways; the point however is to change it" and he clearly dedicated himself to trying to alter the world.[10][200] Philosophy and social thought[edit] Marx's polemic with other thinkers often occurred through critique and thus he has been called "the first great user of critical method in social sciences".[204][205] He criticised speculative philosophy, equating metaphysics with ideology.[211] By adopting this approach, Marx attempted to separate key findings from ideological biases.[205] This set him apart from many contemporary philosophers.[10] Human nature[edit] Further information: Marx's theory of human nature

The philosophers G. W. F. Hegel
G. W. F. Hegel
and Ludwig Feuerbach, whose ideas on dialectics heavily influenced Marx

Like Tocqueville, who described a faceless and bureaucratic despotism with no identifiable despot,[212] Marx also broke with classical thinkers who spoke of a single tyrant and with Montesquieu, who discussed the nature of the single despot. Instead, Marx set out to analyse "the despotism of capital".[213] Fundamentally, Marx assumed that human history involves transforming human nature, which encompasses both human beings and material objects.[214] Humans recognise that they possess both actual and potential selves.[215][216] For both Marx and Hegel, self-development begins with an experience of internal alienation stemming from this recognition, followed by a realisation that the actual self, as a subjective agent, renders its potential counterpart an object to be apprehended.[216] Marx further argues that by moulding nature[217] in desired ways[218] the subject takes the object as its own and thus permits the individual to be actualised as fully human. For Marx, the human nature—Gattungswesen, or species-being—exists as a function of human labour.[215][216][218] Fundamental to Marx's idea of meaningful labour is the proposition that in order for a subject to come to terms with its alienated object it must first exert influence upon literal, material objects in the subject's world.[219] Marx acknowledges that Hegel
Hegel
"grasps the nature of work and comprehends objective man, authentic because actual, as the result of his own work",[220] but characterises Hegelian
Hegelian
self-development as unduly "spiritual" and abstract.[221] Marx thus departs from Hegel
Hegel
by insisting that "the fact that man is a corporeal, actual, sentient, objective being with natural capacities means that he has actual, sensuous objects for his nature as objects of his life-expression, or that he can only express his life in actual sensuous objects".[219] Consequently, Marx revises Hegelian
Hegelian
"work" into material "labour" and in the context of human capacity to transform nature the term "labour power".[82] Labour, class struggle and false consciousness[edit] Further information: Labour theory of value

The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. — Karl Marx, The Communist
Communist
Manifesto[222]

Marx had a special concern with how people relate to their own labour power.[223] He wrote extensively about this in terms of the problem of alienation.[224] As with the dialectic, Marx began with a Hegelian notion of alienation but developed a more materialist conception.[223] Capitalism
Capitalism
mediates social relationships of production (such as among workers or between workers and capitalists) through commodities, including labour, that are bought and sold on the market.[223] For Marx, the possibility that one may give up ownership of one's own labour—one's capacity to transform the world—is tantamount to being alienated from one's own nature and it is a spiritual loss.[223] Marx described this loss as commodity fetishism, in which the things that people produce, commodities, appear to have a life and movement of their own to which humans and their behaviour merely adapt.[225] Commodity fetishism
Commodity fetishism
provides an example of what Engels called "false consciousness",[226] which relates closely to the understanding of ideology. By "ideology", Marx and Engels meant ideas that reflect the interests of a particular class at a particular time in history, but which contemporaries see as universal and eternal.[227] Marx and Engels's point was not only that such beliefs are at best half-truths, as they serve an important political function. Put another way, the control that one class exercises over the means of production includes not only the production of food or manufactured goods, but also the production of ideas (this provides one possible explanation for why members of a subordinate class may hold ideas contrary to their own interests).[82][228] An example of this sort of analysis is Marx's understanding of religion, summed up in a passage from the preface[229] to his 1843 Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right:

Religious suffering is, at one and the same time, the expression of real suffering and a protest against real suffering. Religion
Religion
is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the demand for their real happiness. To call on them to give up their illusions about their condition is to call on them to give up a condition that requires illusions.[230]

Whereas his Gymnasium senior thesis at the Gymnasium zu Trier (de) argued that religion had as its primary social aim the promotion of solidarity, here Marx sees the social function of religion in terms of highlighting/preserving political and economic status quo and inequality.[231] Marx was an outspoken opponent of child labour,[232] saying that British industries "could but live by sucking blood, and children’s blood too", and that U.S. capital was financed by the "capitalized blood of children".[233][234] Economy, history and society[edit] Further information: Marxian economics Marx's thoughts on labour were related to the primacy he gave to the economic relation in determining the society's past, present and future (see also economic determinism).[204][207][235] Accumulation of capital shapes the social system.[207] For Marx, social change was about conflict between opposing interests, driven in the background by economic forces.[204] This became the inspiration for the body of works known as the conflict theory.[235] In his evolutionary model of history, he argued that human history began with free, productive and creative work that was over time coerced and dehumanised, a trend most apparent under capitalism.[204] Marx noted that this was not an intentional process, rather no individual or even state can go against the forces of economy.[207] The organisation of society depends on means of production. Literally, those things, like land, natural resources and technology, necessary for the production of material goods and the relations of production. In other words, the social relationships people enter into as they acquire and use the means of production.[235] Together, these compose the mode of production and Marx distinguished historical eras in terms of distinct modes of production. Marx differentiated between base and superstructure, with the base (or substructure) referring to the economic system and superstructure, to the cultural and political system.[235] Marx regarded this mismatch between (economic) base and (social) superstructure as a major source of social disruption and conflict.[235] Despite Marx's stress on critique of capitalism and discussion of the new communist society that should replace it, his explicit critique of capitalism is guarded, as he saw it as an improved society compared to the past ones (slavery and feudal).[82] Marx also never clearly discusses issues of morality and justice, although scholars agree that his work contained implicit discussion of those concepts.[82]

Memorial to Karl Marx
Karl Marx
in Moscow, whose inscription reads: "Proletarians of all countries, unite!"

Marx's view of capitalism was two-sided.[82][152] On one hand, in the 19th century's deepest critique of the dehumanising aspects of this system he noted that defining features of capitalism include alienation, exploitation and recurring, cyclical depressions leading to mass unemployment, while on the other hand capitalism is also characterised by "revolutionising, industrialising and universalising qualities of development, growth and progressivity" (by which Marx meant industrialisation, urbanisation, technological progress, increased productivity and growth, rationality and scientific revolution) that are responsible for progress.[82][152][204] Marx considered the capitalist class to be one of the most revolutionary in history because it constantly improved the means of production, more so than any other class in history and was responsible for the overthrow of feudalism and its transition to capitalism.[207][236] Capitalism
Capitalism
can stimulate considerable growth because the capitalist can and has an incentive to reinvest profits in new technologies and capital equipment.[223] According to Marx, capitalists take advantage of the difference between the labour market and the market for whatever commodity the capitalist can produce. Marx observed that in practically every successful industry, input unit-costs are lower than output unit-prices. Marx called the difference "surplus value" and argued that this surplus value had its source in surplus labour, the difference between what it costs to keep workers alive and what they can produce.[82] Marx's dual view of capitalism can be seen in his description of the capitalists: he refers to them as vampires sucking worker's blood, but at the same time[204] he notes that drawing profit is "by no means an injustice"[82] and that capitalists simply cannot go against the system.[207] The true problem lies with the "cancerous cell" of capital, understood not as property or equipment, but the relations between workers and owners—the economic system in general.[207] At the same time, Marx stressed that capitalism was unstable and prone to periodic crises.[96] He suggested that over time capitalists would invest more and more in new technologies and less and less in labour.[82] Since Marx believed that surplus value appropriated from labour is the source of profits, he concluded that the rate of profit would fall even as the economy grew.[173] Marx believed that increasingly severe crises would punctuate this cycle of growth, collapse and more growth.[173] Moreover, he believed that in the long-term, this process would necessarily enrich and empower the capitalist class and impoverish the proletariat.[173][207] In section one of The Communist
Communist
Manifesto, Marx describes feudalism, capitalism and the role internal social contradictions play in the historical process:

We see then: the means of production and of exchange, on whose foundation the bourgeoisie built itself up, were generated in feudal society. At a certain stage in the development of these means of production and of exchange, the conditions under which feudal society produced and exchanged ... the feudal relations of property became no longer compatible with the already developed productive forces; they became so many fetters. They had to be burst asunder; they were burst asunder. Into their place stepped free competition, accompanied by a social and political constitution adapted in it, and the economic and political sway of the bourgeois class. A similar movement is going on before our own eyes ... The productive forces at the disposal of society no longer tend to further the development of the conditions of bourgeois property; on the contrary, they have become too powerful for these conditions, by which they are fettered, and so soon as they overcome these fetters, they bring order into the whole of bourgeois society, endanger the existence of bourgeois property.[8]

Marx believed that industrial workers (the proletariat) would rise up around the world.

Marx believed that those structural contradictions within capitalism necessitate its end, giving way to socialism, or a post-capitalistic, communist society:

The development of Modern Industry, therefore, cuts from under its feet the very foundation on which the bourgeoisie produces and appropriates products. What the bourgeoisie, therefore, produces, above all, are its own grave-diggers. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable.[8]

Thanks to various processes overseen by capitalism, such as urbanisation, the working class, the proletariat, should grow in numbers and develop class consciousness, in time realising that they have to and can change the system.[204][207] Marx believed that if the proletariat were to seize the means of production, they would encourage social relations that would benefit everyone equally, abolishing exploiting class and introduce a system of production less vulnerable to cyclical crises.[204] Marx argued in The German Ideology that capitalism will end through the organised actions of an international working class:

Communism
Communism
is for us not a state of affairs which is to be established, an ideal to which reality will have to adjust itself. We call communism the real movement which abolishes the present state of things. The conditions of this movement result from the premises now in existence.[237]

In this new society, the self-alienation would end and humans would be free to act without being bound by the labour market.[173] It would be a democratic society, enfranchising the entire population.[207] In such a utopian world there would also be little if any need for a state, which goal was to enforce the alienation.[173] He theorised that between capitalism and the establishment of a socialist/communist system, a dictatorship of the proletariat—a period where the working class holds political power and forcibly socialises the means of production—would exist.[207] As he wrote in his Critique of the Gotha Program, "between capitalist and communist society there lies the period of the revolutionary transformation of the one into the other. Corresponding to this is also a political transition period in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat".[238] While he allowed for the possibility of peaceful transition in some countries with strong democratic institutional structures (such as Britain, the United States and the Netherlands), he suggested that in other countries in which workers can not "attain their goal by peaceful means" the "lever of our revolution must be force".[239] Legacy[edit] Main article: Marxism

Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
monument in Marx-Engels-Forum, Berlin-Mitte

Marx's ideas have had a profound impact on world politics and intellectual thought.[10][11][240][241] Followers of Marx have frequently debated amongst themselves over how to interpret Marx's writings and apply his concepts to the modern world.[242] The legacy of Marx's thought has become contested between numerous tendencies, each of which sees itself as Marx's most accurate interpreter. In the political realm, these tendencies include Leninism, Marxism–Leninism, Trotskyism, Maoism, Luxemburgism
Luxemburgism
and libertarian Marxism.[242] Various currents have also developed in academic Marxism, often under influence of other views, resulting in structuralist Marxism, historical Marxism, phenomenological Marxism, analytical Marxism
Marxism
and Hegelian
Hegelian
Marxism.[242] From an academic perspective, Marx's work contributed to the birth of modern sociology. He has been cited as one of the nineteenth century's three masters of the "school of suspicion" alongside Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud[243] and as one of the three principal architects of modern social science along with Émile Durkheim
Émile Durkheim
and Max Weber.[244] In contrast to other philosophers, Marx offered theories that could often be tested with the scientific method.[10] Both Marx and Auguste Comte
Auguste Comte
set out to develop scientifically justified ideologies in the wake of European secularisation and new developments in the philosophies of history and science. Working in the Hegelian tradition, Marx rejected Comtean sociological positivism in attempt to develop a science of society.[245] Karl Löwith considered Marx and Søren Kierkegaard
Søren Kierkegaard
to be the two greatest Hegelian
Hegelian
philosophical successors.[246] In modern sociological theory, Marxist sociology
Marxist sociology
is recognised as one of the main classical perspectives. Isaiah Berlin considers Marx the true founder of modern sociology "in so far as anyone can claim the title".[247] Beyond social science, he has also had a lasting legacy in philosophy, literature, the arts and the humanities.[248][249][250][251]

Map of countries that declared themselves to be socialist states under the Marxist–Leninist or Maoist definition between 1979 and 1983, which marked the greatest territorial extent of socialist states

In social theory, twentieth- and twenty-first-century, thinkers have pursued two main strategies in response to Marx. One move has been to reduce it to its analytical core, known as analytical Marxism. Another, more common move has been to dilute the explanatory claims of Marx's social theory and to emphasise the "relative autonomy" of aspects of social and economic life not directly related to Marx's central narrative of interaction between the development of the "forces of production" and the succession of "modes of production". Such has been for example the neo-marxist theorising adopted by historians inspired by Marx's social theory, such as E. P. Thompson and Eric Hobsbawm. It has also been a line of thinking pursued by thinkers and activists like Antonio Gramsci
Antonio Gramsci
who have sought to understand the opportunities and the difficulties of transformative political practice, seen in the light of Marxist social theory.[252][253][254][255] Marx's ideas would also have a profound influence on subsequent artists and art history, with avant-garde movements across literature, visual art, music, film and theater.[256] Politically, Marx's legacy is more complex. Throughout the twentieth century, revolutions in dozens of countries labelled themselves "Marxist", most notably the Russian Revolution, which led to the founding of the Soviet Union.[257] Major world leaders including Vladimir Lenin,[257] Mao Zedong,[258] Fidel Castro,[259] Salvador Allende,[260] Josip Broz Tito,[261] Kwame Nkrumah[262] and Thomas Sankara all cited Marx as an influence and his ideas informed political parties worldwide beyond those where Marxist revolutions took place.[263] The countries associated with some Marxist nations have led political opponents to blame Marx for millions of deaths,[264] but the fidelity of these varied revolutionaries, leaders and parties to Marx's work is highly contested and rejected by many Marxists.[265] It is now common to distinguish between the legacy and influence of Marx specifically and the legacy and influence of those who shaped his ideas for political purposes.[266] Selected bibliography[edit]

The Philosophical Manifesto of the Historical School of Law, 1842 Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, 1843 "On the Jewish Question", 1843 "Notes on James Mill", 1844 Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, 1844 The Holy Family, 1845 "Theses on Feuerbach", 1845 The German Ideology, 1845 The Poverty of Philosophy, 1847 "Wage Labour and Capital", 1847 Manifesto of the Communist
Communist
Party, 1848 The Class Struggles in France, 1850 The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, 1852 Grundrisse, 1857 A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, 1859 Writings on the U.S. Civil War, 1861 Theories of Surplus Value, 3 volumes, 1862 "Value, Price and Profit", 1865 Capital, Volume I (Das Kapital), 1867 "The Civil War
War
in France", 1871 Critique of the Gotha Program, 1875 "Notes on Adolph Wagner", 1883 Capital, Volume II (posthumously published by Engels), 1885 Capital, Volume III (posthumously published by Engels), 1894

See also[edit]

Social and political philosophy portal Sociology portal Germany portal Communism
Communism
portal Socialism
Socialism
portal Business and economics portal

Criticism of Marxism Karl Marx
Karl Marx
House Karl Marx
Karl Marx
in film Marxian class theory Marx Memorial Library Marx's method Marx Reloaded Mathematical manuscripts of Karl Marx Pre-Marx socialists Timeline of Karl Marx

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

^ Babbage pages ^ Mehring, Franz, Karl Marx: The Story of His Life (Routledge, 2003) p. 75 ^ John Bellamy Foster. "Marx's Theory of Metabolic Rift: Classical Foundations for Environmental Sociology", American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 105, No. 2 (September 1999), pp. 366–405. ^ a b c d T. B. Bottomore (1991). A Dictionary of Marxist thought. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 108–. ISBN 978-0-631-18082-1. Retrieved 5 March 2011.  ^ Allen Oakley, Marx's Critique of Political Economy: 1844 to 1860, Routledge, 1984, p. 51. ^ The name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error. His birth certificate says "Carl Heinrich Marx", and elsewhere "Karl Marx" is used. "K. H. Marx" is used only in his poetry collections and the transcript of his dissertation; because Marx wanted to honour his father, who had died in 1838, he called himself "Karl Heinrich" in three documents.The article by Friedrich Engels "Marx, Karl Heinrich" in Handwörterbuch der Staatswissenschaften (Jena, 1892, column 1130 to 1133 see MECW Volume 22, pp. 337–345) does not justify assigning Marx a middle name. See Heinz Monz: Karl Marx. Grundlagen zu Leben und Werk. NCO-Verlag, Trier
Trier
1973, p. 214 and 354, respectively. ^ "Marx". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ a b c Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1848).The Communist
Communist
Manifesto ^ Karl Marx: Critique of the Gotha Program ^ a b c d e Calhoun 2002, pp. 23–24 ^ a b "Marx the millennium's 'greatest thinker'". BBC News World Online. 1 October 1999. Retrieved 23 November 2010.  ^ Roberto Mangabeira Unger. Free Trade
Trade
Reimagined: The World Division of Labor and the Method of Economics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007. ^ John Hicks, " Capital Controversies: Ancient and Modern." The American Economic Review 64.2 (May 1974) p. 307: "The greatest economists, Smith or Marx or Keynes, have changed the course of history ..." ^ Joseph Schumpeter
Joseph Schumpeter
Ten Great Economists: From Marx to Keynes. Volume 26 of Unwin University books. Edition 4, Taylor & Francis Group, 1952 ISBN 0415110785, 9780415110785 ^ " Karl Marx
Karl Marx
to John Maynard Keynes: Ten of the greatest economists by Vince Cable". Daily Mail. 16 July 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2012.  ^ Little, Daniel. " Marxism
Marxism
and Method".  ^ Kim, Sung Ho (2017). Zalta, Edward N., ed. "Max Weber". Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 10 December 2017. Max Weber is known as a principal architect of modern social science along with Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Emil Durkheim.  ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, p. 7; Wheen 2001, pp. 8, 12; McLellan 2006, p. 1. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, pp. 4–5; Wheen 2001, pp. 7–9, 12; McLellan 2006, pp. 2–3. ^ Carroll, James (2002-04-01). Constantine's Sword: The Church and the Jews -- A History. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 419. ISBN 0547348886.  ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, pp. 4–6; McLellan 2006, pp. 2–4. ^ Raddatz Karl Marx: A Political Biography ^ McLellan 2006, p. 178, Plate 1. ^ Wheen 2001. pp. 12–13. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, pp. 5, 8–12; Wheen 2001, p. 11; McLellan 2006, pp. 5–6. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, p. 7; Wheen 2001, p. 10; McLellan 2006, p. 7. ^ Francis Wheen, Karl Marx: A Life, (Fourth Estate, 1999), ISBN 1-85702-637-3 ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, p. 12; Wheen 2001, p. 13. ^ McLellan 2006, p. 7. ^ Karl Marx: Dictionary of National Biography. Volume 37. pp. 57-58. Published Oxford University Press, 2004 (ISBN 0198613873).  ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, pp. 12–15; Wheen 2001, p. 13; McLellan 2006, pp. 7–11. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, pp. 15–16; Wheen 2001, p. 14; McLellan 2006, p. 13. ^ Wheen 2001, p. 15. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, p. 20; McLellan 2006, p. 14. ^ Wheen 2001, p. 16; McLellan 2006, p. 14. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, pp. 21–22; McLellan 2006, p. 14. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, p. 22; Wheen 2001, pp. 16–17; McLellan 2006, p. 14. ^ Fedoseyev 1973, p. 23; Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, pp. 23–30; Wheen 2001, pp. 16–21, 33; McLellan 2006, pp. 15, 20. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, pp. 70–71; Wheen 2001, pp. 52–53; McLellan 2006, pp. 61–62. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, p. 31; McLellan 2006, p. 15. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, p. 33; McLellan 2006, p. 21. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, pp. 32–34; Wheen 2001, pp. 21–22; McLellan 2006, pp. 21–22. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, pp. 34–38; Wheen 2001, p. 34; McLellan 2006, pp. 25–27. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, pp. 44,69–70; McLellan 2006, pp. 17–18. ^ Sperber 2013, pp. 55–56. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, p. 33; McLellan 2006, pp. 18–19. These love poems would be published posthumously in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 1 (New York: International Publishers, 1975) pp. 531–632. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, p. 33; Wheen 2001, pp. 25–26. ^ Marx's thesis was posthumously published in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 1 (New York: International Publishers, 1975) pp. 25–107. ^ Wheen 2001. p. 32. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, p. 45; Wheen 2001, p. 33; McLellan 2006, pp. 28–29, 33. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, pp. 38–45; Wheen 2001, p. 34; McLellan 2006, pp. 32–33, 37. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, p. 49; McLellan 2006, p. 33. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, pp. 50–51; Wheen 2001, pp. 34–36, 42–44; McLellan 2006, pp. 35–47. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, p. 57; Wheen 2001, p. 47; McLellan 2006, pp. 48–50. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, pp. 60–61; Wheen 2001, pp. 47–48; McLellan 2006, pp. 50–51. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, pp. 68–69, 72; Wheen 2001, p. 48; McLellan 2006, pp. 59–61 ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, pp. 77–79; Wheen 2001, pp. 62–66; McLellan 2006, pp. 73–74, 94. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, p. 72; Wheen 2001, pp. 64–65; McLellan 2006, pp. 71–72. ^ Marx, Karl, "Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Law", contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 3 (International Publishers: New York, 1975) p. 3. ^ Marx, Karl, "On the Jewish Question", contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 3, p. 146. ^ McLellan 2006, pp. 65–70, 74–80. ^ Nicolaievsky & Maenchen-Helfen 1976, pp. 72, 75–76; Wheen 2001, p. 65; McLellan 2006, pp. 88–90. ^ Wheen 2001, pp. 66–67, 112; McLellan 2006, pp. 79–80. ^ Wheen 2001, p. 90. ^ Wheen 2001. p. 75. ^ Mansel, Philip: Paris Between Empires, p. 390 (St. Martin Press, NY) 2001 ^ Frederick Engels, "The Condition of the Working Class in England", contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 4 (International Publishers: New York, 1975) pp. 295–596. ^ P. N. Fedoseyev, Karl Marx: A Biography (Progress Publishers: Moscow, 1973) p. 82. ^ Wheen 2001. pp. 85–86. ^ Karl Marx, "The Holy Family", contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 4, pp. 3–211. ^ a b Several authors elucidated this for long neglected crucial turn in Marx's theoretical development, such as Ernie Thomson in The Discovery of the Materialist
Materialist
Conception of History in the Writings of the Young Karl Marx, New York, The Edwin Mellen Press, 2004; for a short account see Max Stirner, a durable dissident ^ Taken from the caption of a picture of the house in a group of pictures located between pages 160 and 161 in the book "Karl Marx: A Biography", written by a team of historians and writers headed by P. N. Fedoseyev (Progress Publishers: Moscow, 1973). ^ P. N. Fedoseyev, et al. Karl Marx: A Biography, p. 63. ^ Isaiah Berlin, Karl Marx: His Life and Environment (Oxford University Press: London, 1963) pp. 90–94. ^ P. N. Fedoseyev et al., Karl Marx: A Biography (Progress Publishers: Moscow, 1973) p. 62. ^ Larisa Miskievich, "Preface" to Volume 28 of the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels (International Publishers: New York, 1986) p. XII ^ Karl Marx, Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 35, Volume 36 and Volume 37 (International Publishers: New York, 1996, 1997 and 1987). ^ Isaiah Berlin, Karl Marx: His Life and Environment, pp. 35–61. ^ P. N. Fedoseyev, et al., Karl Marx: A Biography, p. 62. ^ Note 54 contained on page 598 in the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 3. ^ Karl Marx, "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844" Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 3 (International Publishers: New York, 1975) pp. 229–346. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o " Karl Marx
Karl Marx
– Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy". . First published Tue 26 August 2003; substantive revision Mon 14 June 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2011. ^ P. N. Fedoseyev, Karl Marx: A Biography, p. 83. ^ Karl Marx, "Theses on Feuerbach", contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 5 (International Publishers: New York, 1976) pp. 3–14. ^ Karl Marx, "Theses on Feuerbach," contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 5, p. 8. ^ Doug Lorimer, in Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
(1999). Socialism: utopian and scientific. Resistance Books. pp. 34–36. ISBN 978-0-909196-86-8. Retrieved 7 March 2011.  ^ a b c Wheen 2001. p. 90. ^ Heinrich Gemkow et al., Frederick Engels: A Biography (Verlag Zeit im Bild ["New Book Publishing House"]: Dresden, 1972) p. 101 ^ Heinrich Gemkow, et al., Frederick Engels: A Biography, p. 102. ^ Heinrich Gemkow, et al., Frederick Engels: A Biography (Verlag Zeit im Bild [New Book Publishing House]: Dresden, 1972) p. 53 ^ Heinrich Gemkow, et al., Frederick Engels: A Biography, p. 78. ^ a b c P. N. Fedoseyev, et al., Karl Marx: A Biography, p. 89. ^ Wheen 2001. p. 92. ^ Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels, "German Ideology" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 5 (International Publishers: New York, 1976) pp. 19–539. ^ P. N. Fedoseyev, et al., Karl Marx: A Biography, pp. 96–97. ^ a b Baird, Forrest E.; Walter Kaufmann (2008). From Plato
Plato
to Derrida. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-158591-6.  ^ Wheen 2001. p. 93. ^ See Note 71 on p. 672 of the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 6 (International Publishers: New York, 1976). ^ Karl Marx, The Poverty of Philosophy
The Poverty of Philosophy
contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 6(International Publishers: New York, 1976) pp. 105–212. ^ Wheen 2001. p. 107. ^ P. N. Fedoseyev, Karl Marx: A Biography (Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1973) p. 124. ^ Note 260 contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 11 (International Publishers: New York, 1979) pp. 671–672. ^ Note 260 contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 11, p. 672. ^ P. N. Fedoseyev,et al., Karl Marx: A Biography, pp. 123–125. ^ P. N. Fedoseyev, et al, Karl Marx: A Biography, p. 125. ^ Frederick Engels, "Principles of Communism" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 6 (International Publishers, New York, 1976) pp. 341–357. ^ Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels, "The Communist
Communist
Manifesto" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 6, pp. 477–519. ^ Wheen 2001. p. 115. ^ Chris Shilling; Philip A Mellor (2001). The Sociological Ambition: Elementary Forms of Social and Moral Life. SAGE Publications. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-7619-6549-7.  ^ Marx and Engels 1848. ^ a b Wheen 2001. p. 125. ^ a b Maltsev; Yuri N. Requiem for Marx. Ludwig von Mises
Ludwig von Mises
Institute. pp. 93–94. ISBN 978-1-61016-116-9. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ Saul Kussiel Padover, Karl Marx, an intimate biography, McGraw-Hill, 1978, page 205 ^ a b c Wheen 2001. pp. 126–127. ^ David McLellan 1973 Karl Marx: His life and Thought. New York: Harper and Row. pp. 189–190 ^ Felix, David (1982). "Heute Deutschland! Marx as Provincial Politician". Central European History. Cambridge University Press. 15 (4): 332–350. doi:10.1017/S0008938900010621. JSTOR 4545968.  ^ Wheen 2001. p. 128. ^ Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels, "Demands of the Communist
Communist
Party" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 7 (International Publishers: New York, 1977) pp. 3–6. ^ Wheen 2001. p. 129. ^ Wheen 2001. pp. 130–132. ^ Seigel, p. 50 ^ a b Doug Lorimer. Introduction. In Karl Marx. The Class Struggles in France: From the February Revolution
Revolution
to the Paris Commune. Resistance Books. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-876646-19-6. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ a b Wheen 2001. pp. 136–137. ^ a b c Boris Nicolaievsky (15 March 2007). Karl Marx
Karl Marx
– Man and Fighter. READ BOOKS. pp. 192–. ISBN 978-1-4067-2703-6. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ Slavko Splichal (2002). Principles of publicity and press freedom. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-7425-1615-1. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ a b Franz Mehring
Franz Mehring
(24 September 2003). Karl Marx: The Story of His Life. Psychology Press. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-0-415-31333-9. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ Gross, David M. (2014). 99 Tactics of Successful Tax Resistance Campaigns. Picket Line Press. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-1490572741.  ^ Wheen 2001. pp. 137–146. ^ Wheen 2001. pp. 147–148. ^ Peter Watson (22 June 2010). The German Genius: Europe's Third Renaissance, the Second Scientific Revolution, and the Twentieth Century. HarperCollins. pp. 250–. ISBN 978-0-06-076022-9. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ a b P. N. Fedoseyev, Karl Marx: A Biography, p. 233. ^ Note 269 contained on page 674 in the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 11. ^ Wheen 2001. pp. 151–155. ^ Phil Harriss (1 September 2006). London
London
Markets, 4th. New Holland Publishers. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-86011-306-2. Retrieved 23 April 2011.  ^ Note 269 on page 674 of the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 11. ^ Enrique D. Dussel; Fred Moseley (2001). Towards an unknown Marx: a commentary on the manuscripts of 1861–63. Psychology Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-415-21545-9. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Karl Heinrich Marx
Heinrich Marx
– Biography". Egs.edu. Archived from the original on 1 September 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ Jonathan Sperber, Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Life, p. 295. ^ Richard Kluger, The Paper: The Life and Death of the New York Herald Tribune (Alfred A. Knoft Publishing Co.: New York, 1986) p. 17. ^ Karl, Marx (2007). James Ledbetter, ed. Dispatches for the New York Tribune: Selected Journalism of Karl Marx. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-144192-4.  ^ P. N. Fedoseyev, Karl Marx: A Biography, 274. ^ Marx & Engels Collected Works, vol.41 ^ Richard Kluger, The Paper: The Life and Death of the New York Herald Tribune (Alfred A. Knopt Publishing, New York, 1986) p. 121. ^ Taken from a picture on page 327 of the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 11 (International Publishers: New York, 1979). ^ Richard Kluger, The Paper: The Life and Death of the New York Herald Tribune, p. 14. ^ Richard Kluger, The Paper: The Life and Death of the New York Herald Tribune (Alfred A. Knoft: New York, 1986), p, 82. ^ Karl Marx, "The Elections in England – Tories and Whigs" contained in theCollected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 11 (International Publishers: New York, 1979) pp. 327–332. ^ Note 1 at page 367 contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 19 (International Publishers: New York, 1984). ^ Karl Marx, "The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon" contained in the Collected Works of KarlMarx and Frederick Engels: Volume 11 (International Publishers: New York, 1979) pp. 99–197. ^ Karl Marx
Karl Marx
(30 March 2008). The 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. Wildside Press LLC. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-4344-6374-6. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ John Cunningham Wood (14 October 1987). Karl Marx's economics : critical assessments. Psychology Press. p. 346. ISBN 978-0-415-06558-0. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ a b c John Cunningham Wood (1993). Karl Marx's economics: critical assessments : second series. Taylor & Francis. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-415-08711-7. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ a b Sidney Hook (February 1994). From Hegel
Hegel
to Marx: studies in the intellectual development of Karl Marx. Columbia University Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-231-09665-2. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ a b Ronald John Johnston (2000). The dictionary of human geography. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 795. ISBN 978-0-631-20561-6. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ Richard T. De George; James Patrick Scanlan (31 December 1975). Marxism
Marxism
and religion in Eastern Europe: papers presented at the Banff International Slavic Conference, September 4–7, 1974. Springer. p. 20. ISBN 978-90-277-0636-2. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ Jonathan Sperber, Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century, p. 320. ^ Jonathan Sperber, Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Life, p. 347. ^ P. N. Fedoseyev et al., Karl Marx: A Biography, p. 345. ^ Boris Nicolaievsky (15 March 2007). Karl Marx
Karl Marx
– Man and Fighter. READ BOOKS. pp. 269–. ISBN 978-1-4067-2703-6. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ Bob Jessop; Russell Wheatley (1999). Karl Marx's social and political thought. Taylor & Francis US. p. 526. ISBN 978-0-415-19327-6. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ Michael Curtis (1997). Marxism: the inner dialogues. Transaction Publishers. p. 291. ISBN 978-1-56000-945-0. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ Karl Marx, "The Civil War
War
in France" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 22 (International Publishers: New York, 1986) pp. 307–359. ^ Calhoun 2002, p. 20 ^ Mab Segrest (27 June 2002). Born to belonging: writings on spirit and justice. Rutgers University Press. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-8135-3101-4. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ Karl Marx, "Economic Manuscripts of 1857–1858" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 28 (International Publishers: New York, 1986) pp. 5–537. ^ Karl Marx, "Economic Manuscripts of 1857–1858" contained in the Preparatory Materials section of the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 29 (International Publishers: New York, 1987) pp. 421–507. ^ Karl Marx, "A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 29, pp. 257–417. ^ P. N. Fedoseyev, Karl Marx: A Biography, p. 318. ^ Tom Rockmore (2002). Marx after Marxism: the philosophy of Karl Marx. John Wiley and Sons. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-631-23189-9. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ Anthony Brewer; Karl Marx
Karl Marx
(1984). A guide to Marx's Capital. CUP Archive. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-521-25730-5. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ See footnote #2 on the bottom of page 360 in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 35. ^ Thomas Hodgskin, Labour Defended against the Claims of Capital (London, 1825) p. 25. ^ a b c d e f Calhoun 2002, p. 23 ^ Karl Marx, " Capital II: The Process of Circulation of Capital" embodying the whole volume of the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 36 (International Publishers: New York, 1997). ^ Karl Marx, " Capital III: The Process of Capitalist Production as a Whole" embodying the whole volume of the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 37 (International Publishers: New York, 1998). ^ Karl Marx, "Theories of Surplus Value" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 30 (International Publishers: New York, 1988) pp. 318–451. ^ Karl Marx, "Theories of Surplus Value" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 31 (International Publishers: New York, 1989) pp. 5–580. ^ Karl Marx, "Theories of Surplus Value" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 32 (International Publishers: New York, 1989) pp. 5–543. ^ See note 228 on page 475 of the Collected Works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels: Volume 30. ^ Marx, Karl (1875). "Part I". Critique of the Gotha Program.  ^ Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels, Collected Works Volume 46 (International Publishers: New York, 1992) p. 71. ^ a b c Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels, Collected Works Volume 46 (International Publishers: New York, 1992) p. 72. ^ K. Marx, First draft of letter to Vera Zasulich
Vera Zasulich
[1881]. In Marx-Engels 'Collected Works', Volume 24, p. 346. ^ Peter Singer
Peter Singer
(2000). Marx a very short introduction. p. 5. ISBN 0-19-285405-4 ^ a b Montefiore, Simon Sebag. "The Means of Reproduction". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 September 2011.  ^ Francis Wheen (2000). Karl Marx. W. W. Norton and Company. p. 173.  ^ a b Wheen 2001. p. 152. ^ Blumenberg, 98. ^ Blumenberg, 100. ^ Blumenberg, 99-100. ^ Blumenberg, 98; Siegel, 494. ^ Seigel, 495-6. ^ Shuster, 1-2. ^ Shuster, 3. ^ McLellan 1973, p.541 ^ Wheen 2001. p. 382. ^ a b c d e f g Stephen Jay Gould; Paul McGarr; Steven Peter Russell Rose (24 April 2007). The richness of life: the essential Stephen Jay Gould. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 167–168. ISBN 978-0-393-06498-8. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ "1883: The death of Karl Marx". Marxists.org. Retrieved 21 December 2009.  ^ "The posthumous life of Karl Marx, Highgate Cemetery". The London Dead. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2015.  ^ a b c Wheen, Francis (2002). Karl Marx: A Life. New York: Norton. Introduction.  ^ "Tomb raiders' failed attack on Marx grave", Camden New Journal ^ Hobsbawm 2011. pp. 03–04. ^ Plutarch, Biography of Lycurgus ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Calhoun 2002, pp. 120–23 ^ a b c d e Howard J. Sherman (1995). Reinventing marxism. JHU Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-8018-5077-6. Retrieved 7 March 2011.  ^ Peter Beilharz (1992). Labour's Utopias: Bolshevism, Fabianism and Social Democracy. CUP Archive. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-415-09680-5. Retrieved 7 March 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Barry Stewart Clark (1998). Political economy: a comparative approach. ABC-CLIO. pp. 57–59. ISBN 978-0-275-96370-5. Retrieved 7 March 2011.  ^ Eaglelton, Terry Why Marx Was Right Yale University Press, 2011, p. 158 ^ Seigel, Jerrold Marx's Fate Princeton University Press, 1978, pp. 112-19 ^ Mark Neocleous. "THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE DEAD: MARX's VAMPIRES" (PDF).  ^ Himani Bannerji (2001). Inventing subjects: studies in hegemony, patriarchy and colonialism. Anthem Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-84331-072-3. Retrieved 2 May 2011.  ^ Annelien de Dijn, French Political Thought from Montesquieu
Montesquieu
to Tocqueville, Cambridge University Press, 2008, p. 152. ^ Karl Marx. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, vol. 1, trans. Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling
Edward Aveling
(New York: Modem Library, 1906), 440. ^ Bertell Ollman (1973). Alienation: Marx's conception of man in capitalist society. CUP Archive. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-00-133135-5. Retrieved 8 March 2011.  ^ a b Marx K (1999). "The labour-process and the process of producing surplus-value". In K Marx, Capital (Vol. 1, Ch. 7). Marxists.org. Retrieved 20 October 2010. Original work published 1867. ^ a b c See Marx K (1997). " Critique of Hegel's dialectic and philosophy in general". In K Marx, Writings of the Young Marx
Young Marx
on Philosophy and Society
Society
(LD Easton & KH Guddat, Trans.), pp. 314–347. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. Original work published 1844. ^ See also Lefever DM; Lefever JT (1977). "Marxian alienation and economic organisation: An alternate view". The American Economist(21)2, pp. 40–48. ^ a b See also Holland EW (2005). "Desire". In CJ Stivale (Ed.), Gilles Deleuze: Key Concepts, pp. 53–62. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press. ^ a b Marx (1997), p. 325, emphasis in original. ^ Marx (1997), p. 321, emphasis in original. ^ Marx (1997), p. 324. ^ Karl Marx; Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
(2009). The Communist
Communist
Manifesto. Echo Library. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4068-5174-8.  ^ a b c d e Calhoun 2002, p. 22 ^ István Mészáros (1 March 2006). Marx's Theory of Alienation. Merlin Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-85036-554-2. Retrieved 8 March 2011.  ^ Étienne Balibar (1995). The philosophy of Marx. Verso. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-85984-951-4. Retrieved 8 March 2011.  ^ Leszek Kołakowski; Paul Stephen Falla (29 October 2005). Main currents of Marxism: the founders, the golden age, the breakdown. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-393-06054-6. Retrieved 8 March 2011.  ^ Paul Hernadi (1989). The Rhetoric of interpretation and the interpretation of rhetoric. Duke University Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-8223-0934-5. Retrieved 8 March 2011.  ^ John B. Thompson (1990). Ideology and modern culture: critical social theory in the era of mass communication. Stanford University Press. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-0-8047-1846-2. Retrieved 8 March 2011.  ^ Karl Marx: Introduction to A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, in: Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher, February 1844 ^ Karl Marx; Joseph O'Malley (26 August 1977). Critique of Hegel's 'Philosophy of right'. CUP Archive. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-521-29211-5. Retrieved 23 April 2011.  ^ William H. Swatos; Peter Kivisto (28 February 1998). Encyclopedia of religion and society. Rowman Altamira. pp. 499–. ISBN 978-0-7619-8956-1. Retrieved 8 March 2011.  ^ In The Communist
Communist
Manifesto, Part II:Proletariats and Communist
Communist
and Capital, Volume I, Part III ^ Mark Neocleous. "THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE DEAD: MARX'S VAMPIRES" (PDF).  ^ Karl Marx
Karl Marx
(1864). Inaugural Address of the International Working Men’s Association (Speech).  ^ a b c d e Jonathan H. Turner (2 September 2005). Sociology. Pearson Prentice Hall. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-0-13-113496-6. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ Dennis Gilbert (13 May 2010). The American Class Structure in an Age of Growing Inequality. Pine Forge Press. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-1-4129-7965-8. Retrieved 8 March 2011.  ^ Jon Elster (31 May 1985). Making sense of Marx. Cambridge University Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-521-29705-9. Retrieved 23 April 2011.  ^ "Karl Marx: Critique of the Gotha Programme".  ^ "You know that the institutions, mores, and traditions of various countries must be taken into consideration, and we do not deny that there are countries – such as America, England, and if I were more familiar with your institutions, I would perhaps also add Holland – where the workers can attain their goal by peaceful means. This being the case, we must also recognise the fact that in most countries on the Continent the lever of our revolution must be force; it is force to which we must some day appeal to erect the rule of labour." La Liberté Speech delivered by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
on 8 September 1872, in Amsterdam ^ Wheen, Francis (17 July 2005). "Why Marx is man of the moment". The Observer. ^ Kenneth Allan (11 May 2010). The Social Lens: An Invitation to Social and Sociological Theory. Pine Forge Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-4129-7834-7. Retrieved 25 March 2011.  ^ a b c Heine Andersen; Lars Bo Kaspersen (2000). Classical and modern social theory. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-0-631-21288-1. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ Ricoeur, Paul. Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1970, p. 32 ^ " Max Weber
Max Weber
– Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy".  ^ Calhoun 2002, p. 19 ^ Löwith, Karl. From Hegel
Hegel
to Nietzsche. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991, p. 49. ^ Berlin, Isaiah. 1967. Karl Marx: His Life and Environment. Time Inc Book Division, New York. pp130 ^ Singer 1980, p. 1 ^ Bridget O'Laughlin (1975) Marxist Approaches in Anthropology, Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 4: pp. 341–70 (October 1975) doi:10.1146/annurev.an.04.100175.002013. William Roseberry (1997) Marx and Anthropology Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 26: pp. 25–46 (October 1997) doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.26.1.25 ^ Becker, S. L. (1984). "Marxist Approaches to Media Studies: The British Experience". Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 1 (1): 66–80. doi:10.1080/15295038409360014.  ^ See Manuel Alvarado, Robin Gutch, and Tana Wollen (1987) Learning the Media: Introduction to Media Teaching, Palgrave Macmillan. ^ Kołakowski, Leszek. Main Currents of Marxism : the Founders, the Golden Age, the Breakdown. Translated by P. S. Falla. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2005. ^ Aron, Raymond. Main Currents in Sociological Thought. Garden City, N.Y: Anchor Books, 1965. ^ Anderson, Perry. Considerations on Western Marxism. London: NLB, 1976. ^ Hobsbawm, E. J. How to Change the World : Marx and Marxism, 1840–2011 (London: Little, Brown, 2011), 314–344. ^ Hemingway, Andrew. Marxism
Marxism
and the History of Art: From William Morris to the New Left. Pluto Press, 2006. ^ a b Lenin, VI. "The Tasks of the Proletariat
Proletariat
in the Present Revolution". Retrieved 8 January 2015.  ^ "Glossary of People - Ma". Marxists.org. Retrieved 8 January 2015.  ^ Savioli, Arminio. "L'Unita Interview with Fidel Castro: The Nature of Cuban Socialism". Marxists. Retrieved 8 January 2015.  ^ Allende, Salvador. "First speech to the Chilean parliament after his election". Marxists.org. Retrieved 8 January 2015.  ^ Tito, Josef. "Historical Development in the World Will Move Towards the Strengthening of Socialism". Marxists.org. Retrieved 8 January 2015.  ^ Nkrumah, Kwame. "African Socialism
Socialism
Revisited". Marxists.org. Retrieved 8 January 2015.  ^ Jeffries, Stuart. "Why Marxism
Marxism
is on the rise again". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 January 2015.  ^ Stanley, Tim. "The Left is trying to rehabilitate Karl Marx. Let's remind them of the millions who died in his name". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 8 January 2015.  ^ Phillips, Ben. "USSR: Capitalist or Socialist?". Marxists.org. Retrieved 8 January 2015.  ^ Elbe, Indigo. "Between Marx, Marxism, and Marxisms – Ways of Reading Marx's Theory". Viewpoint Magazine. Archived from the original on 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]

Calhoun, Craig J. (2002). Classical Sociological Theory. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-21348-2.  Hobsbawm, Eric (2011). How to Change the World: Tales of Marx and Marxism. London: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-1-4087-0287-1.  McLellan, David (2006). Karl Marx: A Biography (fourth edition). Hampshire: Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 978-1403997302.  Nicolaievsky, Boris; Maenchen-Helfen, Otto (1976) [1936]. Karl Marx: Man and Fighter. trans. Gwenda David and Eric Mosbacher. Harmondsworth and New York: Pelican. ISBN 978-1-4067-2703-6.  Schwarzschild, Leopold (1986) [1948]. The Red Prussian: Life and Legend of Karl Marx. Pickwick Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0948859007.  Singer, Peter (1980). Marx. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-287510-5.  Sperber, Jonathan (2013). Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Life. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0871404671.  Stedman Jones, Gareth (2016). Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-713-99904-4.  Stokes, Philip (2004). Philosophy: 100 Essential Thinkers. Kettering: Index Books. ISBN 978-0-572-02935-7.  Vygodsky, Vitaly (1973). The Story of a Great Discovery: How Karl Marx wrote "Capital". Verlag Die Wirtschaft.  Wheen, Francis (2001). Karl Marx. London: Fourth Estate. ISBN 978-1-85702-637-5. 

Further reading[edit]

Biographies[edit] Main article: Biographies of Karl Marx

Barnett, Vincent. Marx (Routledge, 2009) Berlin, Isaiah. Karl Marx: His Life and Environment (Oxford University Press, 1963) ISBN 0-19-520052-7 Blumenberg, Werner (2000). Karl Marx: An Illustrated Biography. trans. Douglas Scott. London; New York: Verso. ISBN 1-85984-254-2.  Hobsbawm, E. J. (2004). "Marx, Karl Heinrich". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/39021.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Lenin, Vladimir (1967) [1913]. Karl Marx: A Brief Biographical Sketch with an Exposition of Marxism. Peking: Foreign Languages Press.  McLellan, David. Karl Marx: his Life and Thought Harper & Row, 1973 ISBN 978-0-06-012829-6 Mehring, Franz. Karl Marx: The Story of His Life (Routledge, 2003) McLellan, David. Marx before Marxism
Marxism
(1980), Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-333-27882-6 Rubel, Maximilien. Marx Without Myth: A Chronological Study of his Life and Work (Blackwell, 1975) ISBN 0-631-15780-8 Segrillo, Angelo. Karl Marx: An Overview of his Biographies (LEA Working Paper Series, nº 3, Jan. 2018). Sperber, Jonathan. Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Life (W.W. Norton & Company; 2013) 648 pages; by a leading academic scholar Stedman Jones, Gareth. Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion (Allen Lane, 2016). ISBN 978-0-713-99904-4. Walker, Frank Thomas. 'Karl Marx: a Bibliographic and Political Biography. (bj.publications), 2009. Wheen, Francis. Karl Marx: A Life, (Fourth Estate, 1999), ISBN 1-85702-637-3

Commentaries on Marx[edit]

Althusser, Louis. For Marx. London: Verso, 2005. Althusser, Louis
Althusser, Louis
and Balibar, Étienne. Reading Capital. London: Verso, 2009. Attali, Jacques. Karl Marx
Karl Marx
or the thought of the world. 2005 Avineri, Shlomo. The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx (Cambridge University Press, 1968) ISBN 0-521-09619-7 Axelos, Kostas. Alienation, Praxis, and Techne in the Thought of Karl Marx (translated by Ronald Bruzina, University of Texas Press, 1976). Blackledge, Paul. Reflections on the Marxist Theory of History (Manchester University Press, 2006) Blackledge, Paul. Marxism
Marxism
and Ethics (SUNY Press, 2012) Bottomore, Tom, ed. A Dictionary of Marxist Thought. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998. Callinicos, Alex (2010) [1983]. The Revolutionary Ideas of Karl Marx. Bloomsbury, London: Bookmarks. ISBN 978-1-905192-68-7.  Cleaver, Harry. Reading Capital Politically (AK Press, 2000) G. A. Cohen. Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence (Princeton University Press, 1978) ISBN 0-691-07068-7 Collier, Andrew. Marx (Oneworld, 2004) Draper, Hal, Karl Marx's Theory of Revolution
Revolution
(4 volumes) Monthly Review Press Duncan, Ronald and Wilson, Colin. (editors) Marx Refuted, (Bath, UK, 1987) ISBN 0-906798-71-X Eagleton, Terry. Why Marx Was Right (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 2011). Fine, Ben. Marx's Capital. 5th ed. London: Pluto, 2010. Foster, John Bellamy. Marx's Ecology: Materialism
Materialism
and Nature. New York: Monthly Review
Monthly Review
Press, 2000. Gould, Stephen Jay. A Darwinian Gentleman at Marx's Funeral – E. Ray Lankester, Page 1, Find Articles.com (1999) Harvey, David. A Companion to Marx's Capital. London: Verso, 2010. Harvey, David. The Limits of Capital. London: Verso, 2006.

Henry, Michel. Marx I and Marx II. 1976 Holt, Justin P. The Social Thought of Karl Marx. Sage, 2015. Iggers, Georg G. "Historiography: From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge."(Wesleyan University Press, 1997, 2005) Kołakowski, Leszek. Main Currents of Marxism
Marxism
Oxford: Clarendon Press, OUP, 1978 Little, Daniel. The Scientific Marx, (University of Minnesota Press, 1986) ISBN 0-8166-1505-5 Mandel, Ernest. Marxist Economic Theory. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1970. Mandel, Ernest. The Formation of the Economic Thought of Karl Marx. New York: Monthly Review
Monthly Review
Press, 1977. Mészáros, István. Marx's Theory of Alienation (The Merlin Press, 1970) Miller, Richard W. Analyzing Marx: Morality, Power, and History. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1984. Postone, Moishe. Time, Labour, and Social Domination: A Reinterpretation of Marx's Critical Theory. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Rothbard, Murray. An Austrian Perspective on the History of Economic Thought Volume II: Classical Economics
Economics
(Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., 1995) ISBN 0-945466-48-X Saad-Filho, Alfredo. The Value of Marx: Political Economy for Contemporary Capitalism. London: Routledge, 2002. Schmidt, Alfred. The Concept of Nature in Marx. London: NLB, 1971. Seigel, J. E. (1973). "Marx's Early Development: Vocation, Rebellion and Realism". The Journal of Interdisciplinary History. The MIT Press. 3 (3): 475–508. JSTOR 202551.  Seigel, Jerrold. Marx's fate: the shape of a life (Princeton University Press, 1978) ISBN 0-271-00935-7 Strathern, Paul. "Marx in 90 Minutes", (Ivan R. Dee, 2001) Thomas, Paul. Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and the Anarchists. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980. Uno, Kozo. Principles of Political Economy. Theory of a Purely Capitalist Society, Brighton, Sussex: Harvester; Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities, 1980. Vianello, F. [1989], "Effective Demand and the Rate of Profits: Some Thoughts on Marx, Kalecki and Sraffa", in: Sebastiani, M. (ed.), Kalecki's Relevance Today, London, Macmillan, ISBN 978-03-12-02411-6. Wendling, Amy. Karl Marx
Karl Marx
on Technology and Alienation (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009) Wheen, Francis. Marx's Das Kapital, (Atlantic Books, 2006) ISBN 1-84354-400-8 Wilson, Edmund. To the Finland Station: A Study in the Writing and Acting of History, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1940

Fiction works[edit]

Barker, Jason. Marx Returns, Winchester, UK: Zero Books, 2018, ISBN 9781785356605.

Medical articles[edit]

Shuster, Sam (2008). "The nature and consequence of Karl Marx's skin disease". British Journal of Dermatology. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 158 (1): 071106220718011. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2007.08282.x. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutKarl Marxat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Works by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Karl Marx
Karl Marx
at Internet Archive Works by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Works by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
(in German) at Zeno.org Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). "Karl Marx". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  Marxists.org, homepage of the Marxists Internet Archive Institute of Marxism- Leninism
Leninism
of the Communist
Communist
Party of the Soviet Union (1989). Karl Marx: a Biography (4 ed.). Moscow: Progress Publishers.  Krader, Lawrence, ed. (1974). The Ethnological Notebooks of Karl Marx (PDF) (2 ed.). Assen: Van Gorcum. 

The Collected Works of Marx and Engels, in English translation and in 50 volumes, are published in London
London
by Lawrence & Wishart and in New York by International Publishers.[1] They are available online and searchable, for purchase or through subscribing libraries, in the "Social Theory" collection published by Alexander Street Press in collaboration with the University of Chicago. Articles and entries[edit]

Dead Labour: Marx and Lenin Reconsidered by Paul Craig Roberts Hegel, Marx, Engels, and the Origins of Marxism, by David North In Praise of Marx Terry Eagleton
Terry Eagleton
synopsising his Why Marx was right chronicle.com 10 April 2011. Karl Marx: An Overview of his Biographies, by Angelo Segrillo Karl Marx: Did he get it all Right? by Philip Collins, The Times, 21 October 2008 Karl Marx, Ernest Mandel Liberalism, Marxism
Marxism
and The State, by Ralph Raico Marx, Mao and mathematics: the politics of infinitesimals, by Joseph Dauben Marxism
Marxism
and Ethics from International Socialism
Socialism
Paul Blackledge (2008) Marxmyths.org Various essays on misinterpretations of Marx Portraits of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
(International Institute of Social History) Paul Dorn, The Paris Commune
Paris Commune
and Marx' Theory of Revolution Karl Marx
Karl Marx
(1818–1883). The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Library of Economics and Liberty (2nd ed.). Liberty Fund. 2008.  Marx's Revenge: How Class Struggle Is Shaping the World. TIME, 25 March 2013. Marx Was Right: Five Surprising Ways Karl Marx
Karl Marx
Predicted 2014. Rolling Stone, 30 January 2014. Karl Marx
Karl Marx
Was Right. Chris Hedges
Chris Hedges
for Truthdig, 31 May 2015.

v t e

Karl Marx

Family

Jenny von Westphalen Eleanor Marx Paul Lafargue Edward Aveling Helene Demuth

Biographies

Karl Marx: The Story of His Life Karl Marx: His Life and Environment Karl Marx: His Life and Thought

Films

Die Deutschen Marx Reloaded The Young Karl Marx

Memberships

Communist
Communist
League International Workingmens Association

Other cultural depictions

Assassin's Creed Syndicate Marx in Soho "The Philosophers' Football Match" Tomb "World Forum/ Communist
Communist
Quiz" Young Marx

Related

Friedrich Engels

Timeline of Karl Marx

Articles related to Karl Marx

v t e

Works by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels

Marx

Capital

Capital, Volume I
Capital, Volume I
(1867) Capital, Volume II
Capital, Volume II
(1885, posthumous) Capital, Volume III
Capital, Volume III
(1894, posthumous)

Other works

Scorpion and Felix
Scorpion and Felix
(1837) Oulanem (1839) The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature (1841) "The Philosophical Manifesto of the Historical School of Law" (1842) Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right
Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right
(1843) "On the Jewish Question" (1843) "Notes on James Mill" (1844) Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844
(1844, published 1927) "Theses on Feuerbach" (1845, published 1888) The Poverty of Philosophy
The Poverty of Philosophy
(1847) "Wage Labour and Capital" (1847) The Class Struggles in France, 1848–1850 (1850) The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon
The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon
(1852) Grundrisse
Grundrisse
(1857, published 1939) A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy
A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy
(1859) Theories of Surplus Value
Theories of Surplus Value
(three volumes, 1862) "Value, Price and Profit" (1865) "The Belgian Massacres" (1869) "The Civil War
War
in France" (1871) Critique of the Gotha Program (1875) Mathematical manuscripts of Karl Marx (1968)

Marx and Engels

The German Ideology
The German Ideology
(1845, published 1932) The Holy Family (1845) The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
(1848) The Civil War in the United States (1861) Marx/Engels Collected Works
Marx/Engels Collected Works
(1975 - 2004) Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe
Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe
(1975 - today)

Engels

The Condition of the Working Class in England
The Condition of the Working Class in England
(1845) Principles of Communism
Principles of Communism
(1847) The Peasant War in Germany (1850) "The Part Played by Labour in the Transition from Ape to Man" (1876) Anti-Dühring
Anti-Dühring
(1878) Socialism: Utopian and Scientific (1880) Dialectics of Nature
Dialectics of Nature
(1883) The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State (1884) Ludwig Feuerbach
Ludwig Feuerbach
and the End of Classical German Philosophy (1886) Revolution
Revolution
and Counter- Revolution
Revolution
in Germany (1896, posthumous)

See also

Marx's notebooks on the history of technology Tendency of the rate of profit to fall

v t e

Economics

Economic theory Econometrics Applied economics

Macroeconomics

Adaptive expectations Aggregate demand Balance of payments Business cycle Capacity utilization Capital flight Central bank Consumer confidence Currency Demand shock Depression (Great Depression) DSGE Economic growth Economic indicator Economic rent Effective demand General Theory of Keynes Hyperinflation Inflation Interest Interest
Interest
rate Investment IS–LM model Microfoundations Monetary policy Money NAIRU National accounts PPP Rate of profit Rational expectations Recession Saving Shrinkflation Stagflation Supply shock Unemployment Macroeconomics
Macroeconomics
publications

Microeconomics

Aggregation problem Budget set Consumer choice Convexity Cost–benefit analysis Deadweight loss Distribution Duopoly Economic equilibrium Economic shortage Economic surplus Economies of scale Economies of scope Elasticity Expected utility hypothesis Externality General equilibrium theory Indifference curve Intertemporal choice Marginal cost Market failure Market structure Monopoly Monopsony Non-convexity Oligopoly Opportunity cost Preference Production set Profit Public good Returns to scale Risk aversion Scarcity Social choice theory Sunk costs Supply and demand Theory of the firm Trade Transaction cost Value Uncertainty Utility Microeconomics
Microeconomics
publications

Applied fields

Agricultural Business Demographic Development Economic history Education Engineering Environmental Financial Health Industrial organization International Knowledge Labour Law
Law
and economics Monetary Natural resource Public Service Transportation Urban Welfare

Methodology

Behavioral economics Computational economics Econometrics Economic systems Experimental economics Mathematical economics Methodological publications

Economic thought

Ancient economic thought Austrian school of economics Chicago school of economics Classical economics Feminist economics Heterodox economics Institutional economics Keynesian economics Mainstream economics Marxian economics Neoclassical economics Post-Keynesian economics Schools overview

Notable economists and thinkers within economics

Kenneth Arrow Gary Becker Francis Ysidro Edgeworth Milton Friedman Ragnar Frisch Friedrich Hayek Harold Hotelling John Maynard Keynes Tjalling Koopmans Paul Krugman Robert Lucas Jr. Jacob Marschak Alfred Marshall Karl Marx John von Neumann Vilfredo Pareto David Ricardo Paul Samuelson Joseph Schumpeter Amartya Sen Herbert A. Simon Adam Smith Robert Solow Léon Walras more

International organizations

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Economic Cooperation Organization European Free Trade
Trade
Association International Monetary Fund Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development World Bank World Trade
Trade
Organization

Category Index Lists Outline Publications Business and economics portal

v t e

Social and political philosophy

Pre-modern philosophers

Aquinas Aristotle Averroes Augustine Chanakya Cicero Confucius Al-Ghazali Han Fei Laozi Marsilius Mencius Mozi Muhammad Plato Shang Socrates Sun Tzu Thucydides

Modern philosophers

Bakunin Bentham Bonald Bosanquet Burke Comte Emerson Engels Fourier Franklin Grotius Hegel Hobbes Hume Jefferson Kant Kierkegaard Le Bon Le Play Leibniz Locke Machiavelli Maistre Malebranche Marx Mill Montesquieu Möser Nietzsche Paine Renan Rousseau Royce Sade Smith Spencer Spinoza Stirner Taine Thoreau Tocqueville Vivekananda Voltaire

20th–21th-century Philosophers

Ambedkar Arendt Aurobindo Aron Azurmendi Badiou Baudrillard Bauman Benoist Berlin Judith Butler Camus Chomsky De Beauvoir Debord Du Bois Durkheim Foucault Gandhi Gehlen Gentile Gramsci Habermas Hayek Heidegger Irigaray Kirk Kropotkin Lenin Luxemburg Mao Marcuse Maritain Michels Mises Negri Niebuhr Nozick Oakeshott Ortega Pareto Pettit Plamenatz Polanyi Popper Radhakrishnan Rand Rawls Rothbard Russell Santayana Sarkar Sartre Schmitt Searle Simonović Skinner Sombart Spann Spirito Strauss Sun Taylor Walzer Weber Žižek

Social theories

Ambedkarism Anarchism Authoritarianism Collectivism Communism Communitarianism Conflict theories Confucianism Consensus theory Conservatism Contractualism Cosmopolitanism Culturalism Fascism Feminist political theory Gandhism Individualism Legalism Liberalism Libertarianism Mohism National liberalism Republicanism Social constructionism Social constructivism Social Darwinism Social determinism Socialism Utilitarianism Vaisheshika

Concepts

Civil disobedience Democracy Four occupations Justice Law Mandate of Heaven Peace Property Revolution Rights Social contract Society War more...

Related articles

Jurisprudence Philosophy and economics Philosophy of education Philosophy of history Philosophy of love Philosophy of sex Philosophy of social science Political ethics Social epistemology

Category Portal Task Force

v t e

Socialism

Variants

Agrarian Communism Democratic Ecological Ethical Guild Liberal Libertarian Market Marxism Religious Revolutionary Scientific Social democracy Socialist feminism Social anarchism State Syndicalism Utopian

Key topics and issues

History of socialism Economics State Criticism

Concepts

Socialist mode of production Commune
Commune
(model of government) Economic planning Free association Equal opportunity Direct democracy Adhocracy Technocracy Self-management Industrial democracy Economic democracy Public ownership Common ownership Cooperative
Cooperative
ownership Social dividend Basic income Production for use Calculation in kind Labour voucher Workplace democracy

People

Thomas More Tommaso Campanella Gracchus Babeuf Henri Saint-Simon Charles Fourier Robert Owen William Thompson Étienne Cabet Thomas Hodgskin Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Louis Blanc Mikhail Bakunin Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Ferdinand Lassalle William Morris Mary Harris Jones Peter Kropotkin Eduard Bernstein Errico Malatesta Fred M. Taylor Eugene Debs Georgi Plekhanov John Dewey Enrico Barone W. E. B. Du Bois Emma Goldman Rosa Luxemburg Vladimir Lenin Léon Blum Antonie Pannekoek Bertrand Russell Luis Emilio Recabarren Albert Einstein Clement Attlee Karl Polanyi Nestor Makhno G. D. H. Cole Imre Nagy Einar Gerhardsen George Orwell Léopold Sédar Senghor Salvador Allende François Mitterrand Nelson Mandela Gamal Abdel Nasser Murray Bookchin Alexander Dubček Howard Zinn Noam Chomsky Martin Luther King Jr. Mikhail Gorbachev Bernie Sanders Tariq Ali Abdullah Öcalan Slavoj Žižek Jeremy Corbyn Cornel West Jack Layton Hugo Chávez Chris Hedges Yanis Varoufakis Pablo Iglesias

Organizations

First International (International Workingmen's Association) Second International Third International (Comintern) Fourth International Fifth International Socialist International Foro de São Paulo World Federation of Democratic Youth
World Federation of Democratic Youth
(WFDI) International Union of Socialist Youth (IUSY) World Socialist Movement International League of Religious Socialists International Marxist Tendency

Religious socialism

Buddhist socialism Christian socialism Islamic socialism Jewish left

Regional variants

African socialism Arab socialism Bolivarianism Gandhian socialism Indian socialism Labor Zionism Marhaenism Naxalism Neozapatismo Socialism
Socialism
in One Country Socialism
Socialism
of the 21st century Socialist nationalism Third World Socialism

Related topics

Criticism of capitalism Class struggle Democracy Dictatorship of the proletariat Egalitarianism Equality of outcome Impossibilism Internationalism State-owned enterprise Left-wing politics Marxism Mixed economy Nanosocialism Nationalization Socialisation of production Planned economy Proletarian revolution Reformism Socialism
Socialism
in One Country Socialist market economy Post-capitalism Trade
Trade
union Mode of production

Anthem

"The Internationale"

Politics portal Socialism
Socialism
portal

v t e

Communism

Theory and practice

Commune Commune
Commune
(model of government) Communist
Communist
society Anti-capitalism Class struggle Class consciousness Classless society Collective leadership Collectivism Common ownership Free association From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs Gift economy Planned economy Proletarian internationalism Labour movement Social revolution Stateless society Wage slavery Workers' self-management World revolution

Aspects

History of communism Communist
Communist
revolution Communist
Communist
party Communist
Communist
state Communist
Communist
symbolism

Variants

Pre-Marxist Anarchist Marxism World National War Religious

Christian Islamic

List of communist ideologies List of communist parties Primitive

Internationals

Communist
Communist
League First International Second International Third International Fourth International

People

Thomas More Tommaso Campanella Gracchus Babeuf Robert Owen Wilhelm Weitling Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Élisée Reclus Peter Kropotkin Errico Malatesta Rosa Luxemburg Clara Zetkin Vladimir Lenin Alexander Berkman Emma Goldman Sacco and Vanzetti Leon Trotsky Nestor Makhno Alexandra Kollontai Antonio Gramsci Joseph Stalin Buenaventura Durruti Antonie Pannekoek Ho Chi Minh Mao Zedong Josip Broz Tito Albert Camus Herbert Marcuse Jean-Paul Sartre Enver Hoxha Simone de Beauvoir Che Guevara Pier Paolo Pasolini Kim Il-sung Cornelius Castoriadis Guy Debord Murray Bookchin Nelson Mandela Fidel Castro Subcomandante Marcos

Related topics

Anarchism Anti-communism Anti-communist mass killings Anti-fascism Anti-globalization movement Anti-nationalism Capitalism Cold War Communitarianism Criticisms of communist party rule Internationalism Intentional community Left-wing politics

Old Left New Left

Mass killings under communist regimes New class Post-communism Red Scare Revolution Second World Socialism Social anarchism Social democracy Socialist economics Socialist mode of production Syndicalism Third-Worldism Trade
Trade
union Worker cooperative

Anthem

"The Internationale"

Communism
Communism
portal

v t e

Philosophy of religion

Concepts in religion

Afterlife Euthyphro dilemma Faith Intelligent design Miracle Problem of evil Religious belief Soul Spirit Theodicy Theological veto

Conceptions of God

Aristotelian view Brahman Demiurge Divine simplicity Egoism Holy Spirit Misotheism Pandeism Personal god Process theology Supreme Being Unmoved mover

God in

Abrahamic religions Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Jainism Judaism Mormonism Sikhism Bahá'í Faith Wicca

Existence of God

For

Beauty Christological Consciousness Cosmological

Kalam Contingency

Degree Desire Experience Fine-tuning of the Universe Love Miracles Morality Necessary existent Ontological Pascal's Wager Proper basis Reason Teleological

Natural law Watchmaker analogy

Transcendental

Against

747 gambit Atheist's Wager Evil Free will Hell Inconsistent revelations Nonbelief Noncognitivism Occam's razor Omnipotence Poor design Russell's teapot

Theology

Acosmism Agnosticism Animism Antireligion Atheism Creationism Dharmism Deism Demonology Divine command theory Dualism Esotericism Exclusivism Existentialism

Christian Agnostic Atheistic

Feminist theology

Thealogy Womanist theology

Fideism Fundamentalism Gnosticism Henotheism Humanism

Religious Secular Christian

Inclusivism Theories about religions Monism Monotheism Mysticism Naturalism

Metaphysical Religious Humanistic

New Age Nondualism Nontheism Pandeism Panentheism Pantheism Perennialism Polytheism Possibilianism Process theology Religious skepticism Spiritualism Shamanism Taoic Theism Transcendentalism more...

Religious language

Eschatological verification Language-game Logical positivism Apophatic theology Verificationism

Problem of evil

Augustinian theodicy Best of all possible worlds Euthyphro dilemma Inconsistent triad Irenaean theodicy Natural evil Theodicy

Philosophers of religion

(by date active)

Ancient and Medieval

Anselm of Canterbury Augustine of Hippo Avicenna Averroes Boethius Erasmus Gaunilo of Marmoutiers Pico della Mirandola Heraclitus King James VI and I Marcion of Sinope Thomas Aquinas Maimonides

Enlightenment

Augustin Calmet René Descartes Blaise Pascal Baruch Spinoza Nicolas Malebranche Gottfried W Leibniz William Wollaston Thomas Chubb David Hume Baron d'Holbach Immanuel Kant Johann G Herder

1800 1850

Friedrich Schleiermacher Karl C F Krause Georg W F Hegel

William Whewell Ludwig Feuerbach Søren Kierkegaard Karl Marx Albrecht Ritschl Afrikan Spir

1880 1900

Ernst Haeckel W. K. Clifford Friedrich Nietzsche Harald Høffding William James

Vladimir Solovyov Ernst Troeltsch Rudolf Otto Lev Shestov Sergei Bulgakov Pavel Florensky Ernst Cassirer Joseph Maréchal

1920 postwar

George Santayana Bertrand Russell Martin Buber René Guénon Paul Tillich Karl Barth Emil Brunner Rudolf Bultmann Gabriel Marcel Reinhold Niebuhr

Charles Hartshorne Mircea Eliade Frithjof Schuon J L Mackie Walter Kaufmann Martin Lings Peter Geach George I Mavrodes William Alston Antony Flew

1970 1990 2010

William L Rowe Dewi Z Phillips Alvin Plantinga Anthony Kenny Nicholas Wolterstorff Richard Swinburne Robert Merrihew Adams

Peter van Inwagen Daniel Dennett Loyal Rue Jean-Luc Marion William Lane Craig Ali Akbar Rashad

Alexander Pruss

Related topics

Criticism of religion Ethics in religion Exegesis History of religions Religion Religious language Religious philosophy Relationship between religion and science Political science of religion Faith
Faith
and rationality more...

Portal Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 49228757 LCCN: n79006935 ISNI: 0000 0001 2279 6570 GND: 118578537 SELIBR: 205490 SUDOC: 027329305 BNF: cb11914934t (data) BIBSYS: 90051270 ULAN: 500234949 MusicBrainz: 22aff6e2-a76c-4511-a116-1f0905272e6f NLA: 35331985 NDL: 00449037 NKC: jn19990005454 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV00882 BNE: XX949564 SNAC: w6fr00h5

^ These volumes were at one time put online by the Marxists Internet Archive, until the original publishers objected on copyright grounds: "Marx/Engels Collected Works". Marxists Internet Archive. Retrieved Ma

.