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Karl Theodor Helfferich (22 July 1872 – 23 April 1924) was a German politician, economist, and financier from Neustadt an der Weinstraße in the Palatinate.[2]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Legacy 3 Works 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading

Biography[edit] Helfferich studied law and political science at the universities of Munich, Berlin, and Strasbourg. He taught at the University of Berlin and later at the government school for colonial politics and oriental languages. In 1902 he entered upon a diplomatic career. He soon became a leader in the German government's policy of economic imperialism, and in 1906 he was appointed director of the Anatolian Railway which was financed by Deutsche Bank. In 1908 he was made chairman of the directorship of the powerful Deutsche Bank
Deutsche Bank
in Berlin.[3] At the close of the Balkan War, Helfferich was the German financial delegate to the international conference (1913). He was Secretary for the Treasury from 1916 to 1917, and was said to be responsible for financing expenses for World War I
World War I
through loans instead of taxes. He counted upon a final German victory and upon imposing heavy indemnities upon the Allies.[3] He also served as Vice-Chancellor for Chancellors Georg Michaelis
Georg Michaelis
and Georg von Hertling. After the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Helfferich was sent to Moscow
Moscow
as the German Ambassador to Russia, succeeding Wilhelm Mirbach, who was assassinated. Elected to the Reichstag of 1920, Helfferich led the conservative and monarchist right, known as the Deutsch-Nationalen, and strongly opposed reparations and the economic fulfillment of the Versailles Treaty. In particular, he directed his denunciations against the democratic Catholic leader Matthias Erzberger
Matthias Erzberger
with whom he had a celebrated lawsuit in 1920.[3] Helfferich was a prominent politician of the German National People's Party (DNVP) and gave radical anti-republican speeches against politicians who supported reparations fulfilment. In June 1920 he was selected as spokesman in the Reichstag for the parliamentary committee of inquiry into policies during the war, which he defended. During the 1923 hyperinflation, Helfferich developed a plan for a new rye currency, indexed to the price (in paper Marks) of rye and other agriculture products.[4][5] His plan was rejected because of the extreme variability in the price of rye compared to other commodities, but many of his plan elements were incorporated in the successful RentenMark that began circulation on 15 November 1923. At the end of 1923, when Helfferich applied for the post of Reichbank president, he was rejected in favor of Hjalmar Schacht. Helfferich was killed in a railway wreck near Bellinzona, Switzerland, on 23 April 1924.[2] Legacy[edit] His publications comprise chiefly economic and political studies. Works[edit]

The Reform of German Finance, 1897 Studies on Money and Banking, 1900 Money, 1903 Germany's National Wealth 1888-1913, (Deutschlands Wohlstand, 1888-1913) 1915 Speeches and Essays from the War, 1917 Do Away with Erzberger!, Verlag Scherl, Berlin, 1919, letters to the editor, the Berlin newspaper "Tag" The World War, (Der Weltkrieg) (3 vols.) published 1919 by Ullstein Berlin

See also[edit]

Weimar Republic

References[edit]

^ http://www.deutsche-biographie.de/sfz29487.html ^ a b "Helfferich Killed In Swiss Disaster. Death Of German Nationalist Chief Is Established By Finding Of Passport. His Body Not Identified Those Of Other Bellinzona
Bellinzona
Victims Charred Beyond Recognition. Four Americans Safe". New York Times. April 25, 1924.  ^ a b c  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Helfferich, Karl". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(12th ed.). London & New York.  ^ Holtfrerich, Carl-Ludwig & Balderston, Theo (1986), The German Inflation, 1914-1923, New York: De Gruyter, pp. 315–318, ISBN 3-11-009714-1 . ^ Guttmann, William; Meehan, Patricia (1975), The Great Inflation, Germany
Germany
1919-23, Farnborough: Saxon House, pp. 206–207, ISBN 0-347-00017-7 .

Further reading[edit]

Williamson, John G. (1971), Karl Helfferich, 1872-1924: Economist, Financier, Politician, Princeton University Press . New International Encyclopedia "A Crash (obituary)", Time magazine, May 5, 1924 

Political offices

Preceded by Clemens von Delbrück Vice Chancellor of Germany 1916–1917 Succeeded by Friedrich von Payer

v t e

Finance Ministers of Germany

German Empire (1871–1918)

Adolf von Scholz Franz Emil Emanuel von Burchard Karl Rudolf Jacobi Baron Helmuth von Maltzahn Arthur von Posadowsky-Wehner Max Franz Guido von Thielmann Baron Hermann von Stengel Reinhold Sydow Adolf Wermuth Hermann Kühn Karl Helfferich Siegfried von Roedern

Weimar Republic (1918–1933)

Eugen Schiffer Bernhard Dernburg Matthias Erzberger Joseph Wirth Andreas Hermes Rudolf Hilferding Hans Luther Otto von Schlieben Hans Luther Peter Reinhold Heinrich Köhler Rudolf Hilferding Paul Moldenhauer Heinrich Brüning Hermann Dietrich

Third Reich (1933–1945)

Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk

East Germany (1949–1990)

Hans Loch Willy Rumpf Siegfried Böhm Werner Schmieder Ernst Höfner Uta Nickel Walter Romberg Werner Skowron

Federal Republic of Germany (1949–)

Fritz Schäffer Franz Etzel Heinz Starke Rolf Dahlgrün Kurt Schmücker Franz Josef Strauss Alex Möller Karl Schiller Helmut Schmidt Hans Apel Hans Matthöfer Manfred Lahnstein Gerhard Stoltenberg Theo Waigel Oskar Lafontaine Hans Eichel Peer Steinbrück Wolfgang Schäuble Peter Altmaier(Acting) Olaf Scholz

v t e

Interior Ministers of Germany

Imperial Interior Secretaries (1871–1918)

Karl Hofmann Karl Heinrich von Boetticher Arthur von Posadowsky-Wehner Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg Clemens von Delbrück Karl Helfferich Max Wallraf Karl Trimborn

Weimar Republic (1918–1933)

Friedrich Ebert Hugo Preuß Eduard David Erich Koch-Weser Georg Gradnauer Adolf Köster Rudolf Oeser Wilhelm Sollmann Karl Jarres Martin Schiele Otto Geßler Wilhelm Külz Walter von Keudell Carl Severing Joseph Wirth Wilhelm Groener Wilhelm von Gayl Franz Bracht

Nazi Germany (1933–1945)

Wilhelm Frick Heinrich Himmler Paul Giesler Wilhelm Stuckart

German Democratic Republic (1949–1990)

Karl Steinhoff Willi Stoph Karl Maron Friedrich Dickel Lothar Ahrendt Peter-Michael Diestel

Federal Republic of Germany (1949–)

Gustav Heinemann Robert Lehr Gerhard Schröder Hermann Höcherl Paul Lücke Ernst Benda Hans-Dietrich Genscher Werner Maihofer Gerhart Baum Jürgen Schmude Friedrich Zimmermann Wolfgang Schäuble Rudolf Seiters Manfred Kanther Otto Schily Wolfgang Schäuble Thomas de Maizière Hans-Peter Friedrich Horst Seehofer

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 27163099 LCCN: n90686347 ISNI: 0000 0001 1610 999X GND: 118773828 SUDOC: 033758603 BNF: cb1245

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