The KARAKORAM, or KARAKORUM is a large mountain range spanning the borders of Pakistan , India , and China , with the northwest extremity of the range extending to Afghanistan and Tajikistan . It is located in the regions of Gilgit–Baltistan (Pakistan), Ladakh (India), and southern Xinjiang (China), and reaches the Wakhan Corridor (Afghanistan). A part of the complex of ranges from the Hindu Kush to the Himalayan Range, it is one of the Greater Ranges of Asia . The Karakoram is home to the four most closely located peaks over 8000m in height on earth: K2 , the second highest peak in the world at 8,611 m (28,251 ft), Gasherbrum I , Broad Peak and Gasherbrum II .
The range is about 500 km (311 mi) in length, and is the most heavily glaciated part of the world outside the polar regions. The Siachen Glacier at 76 kilometres (47 mi) and the Biafo Glacier at 63 kilometres (39 mi) rank as the world's second and third longest glaciers outside the polar regions.
The Karakoram is bounded on the northeast by the edge of the Tibetan Plateau , and on the north by the Pamir Mountains . The southern boundary of the Karakoram is formed, west to east, by the Gilgit , Indus , and Shyok Rivers, which separate the range from the northwestern end of the Himalaya range proper as these rivers converge southwestward towards the plains of Pakistan .
The Tashkurghan National Nature Reserve and the Pamir Wetlands National Nature Reserve in the Karalorun and Pamir mountains have been nominated for inclusion in UNESCO in 2010 by the National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO and has tentatively been added to the list. , Pakistan
* 1 Name * 2 Exploration
* 3 Geology and glaciers
* 3.1 The Karakoram during the Ice Age
* 4 Highest peaks
* 4.1 _K_-numbers
* 5 Subranges * 6 Passes * 7 Cultural references * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links
Karakoram is a Turkic term meaning _black gravel_. The name was first applied by local traders to the Karakoram Pass . Early European travellers, including William Moorcroft and George Hayward , started using the term for the range of mountains west of the pass, although they also used the term MUZTAGH (meaning, "Ice Mountain") for the range now known as Karakoram. Later terminology was influenced by the Survey of India , whose surveyor Thomas Montgomerie in the 1850s gave the labels K1 to K6 (K for Karakoram) to six high mountains visible from his station at Mount Haramukh in Kashmir .
Due to its altitude and ruggedness, the Karakoram is much less inhabited than parts of the Himalayas further east. European explorers first visited early in the 19th century, followed by British surveyors starting in 1856.
The Muztagh Pass was crossed in 1887 by the expedition of Colonel Francis Younghusband and the valleys above the Hunza River were explored by General Sir George K. Cockerill in 1892. Explorations in the 1910s and 1920s established most of the geography of the region.
The name Karakoram was used in the early 20th century, for example by Kenneth Mason , for the range now known as the Baltoro Muztagh . The term is now used to refer to the entire range from the Batura Muztagh above Hunza in the west to the Saser Muztagh in the bend of the Shyok River in the east.
GEOLOGY AND GLACIERS
Relief map of the Karakoram
The Karakoram is in one of the world's most geologically active areas, at the plate boundary between the Indo-Australian plate and the Eurasian plate . A significant part, 28-50% of the Karakoram Range is glaciated, compared to the Himalaya (8-12%) and Alps (2.2%). Mountain glaciers may serve as an indicator of climate change, advancing and receding with long-term changes in temperature and precipitation. Karakoram glaciers are mostly stagnating or enlarging, because, unlike in the Himalayas, many Karakoram glaciers are covered in a layer of rubble which insulates the ice from the warmth of the sun. Where there is no such insulation, the rate of retreat is high.
THE KARAKORAM DURING THE ICE AGE
In the last ice age , a connected series of glaciers stretched from western Tibet to Nanga Parbat , and from the Tarim basin to the Gilgit District . To the south, the Indus glacier was the main valley glacier, which flowed 120 kilometres (75 mi) down from Nanga Parbat massif to 870 metres (2,850 ft) elevation. In the north, the Karakoram glaciers joined those from the Kunlun Mountains and flowed down to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) in the Tarim basin.
While the current valley glaciers in the Karakoram reach a maximum length of 76 kilometres (47 mi), several of the ice-age valley glacier branches and main valley glaciers, had lengths up to 700 kilometres (430 mi). During the Ice age, the glacier snowline was about 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) lower than today.
The highest peaks of the Karakoram are:
* K2 : 8,611 metres (28,251 ft) * Gasherbrum I : 8,080 metres (26,510 ft) * Broad Peak : 8,051 metres (26,414 ft) * Gasherbrum II : 8,035 metres (26,362 ft) * Gasherbrum III : 7,952 metres (26,089 ft) * Gasherbrum IV : 7,925 metres (26,001 ft) * Distaghil Sar : 7,885 metres (25,869 ft) * Kunyang Chhish : 7,852 metres (25,761 ft) * Masherbrum I : 7,821 metres (25,659 ft) * Batura I : 7,795 metres (25,574 ft) * Rakaposhi : 7,788 metres (25,551 ft) * Batura II : 7,762 metres (25,466 ft) * Kanjut Sar : 7,760 metres (25,460 ft) * Saltoro Kangri : 7,742 metres (25,400 ft) * Batura III : 7,729 metres (25,358 ft) * Saser Kangri : 7,672 metres (25,171 ft) * Chogolisa : 7,665 metres (25,148 ft) * Passu Sar : 7,478 metres (24,534 ft) * Malubiting : 7,458 metres (24,469 ft) * Sia Kangri : 7,442 metres (24,416 ft) * K12 : 7,428 metres (24,370 ft) * Skil Brum : 7,410 metres (24,310 ft) * Haramosh Peak : 7,397 metres (24,268 ft) * Ultar Peak : 7,388 metres (24,239 ft) * Momhil Sar : 7,343 metres (24,091 ft) * Baintha Brakk : 7,285 metres (23,901 ft) * Baltistan Peak : 7,282 metres (23,891 ft) * Muztagh Tower : 7,273 metres (23,862 ft) * Diran : 7,266 metres (23,839 ft) * Gasherbrum V : 7,147 metres (23,448 ft)
The majority of the highest peaks are in the Gilgit–Baltistan region of Pakistan. Baltistan has more than 100 mountain peaks exceeding 6,100 metres (20,000 ft) height from sea level.
View from the top of K2
* K1: Masherbrum * K2: an unnamed 8,611m peak at the head of the Godwin-Austen Glacier * K3: Gasherbrum IV * K3a: Gasherbrum III * K4: Gasherbrum II * K5: Gasherbrum I * K6: Baltistan Peak * K7: an unnamed 6,934m peak at the head of the Charakusa Valley * K8: an unnamed 7,422m peak on the western flank of the Siachen Glacier * K9: an unnamed 7,000m (approx) peak near Trango Towers * K10: Saltoro Kangri I * K11: Saltoro Kangri II * K12: an unnamed 7,428m subsidiary peak of Saltoro Kangri * K13: Dansam 6,666m peak south west of Saltoro Kangri * K22: Saser Kangri I * K25: Pastan Kangri 6,523m peak south of the Saltoro group * K35: Mamostong Kangri
The naming and division of the various subranges of the Karakoram is not universally agreed upon. However, the following is a list of the most important subranges, following Jerzy Wala. The ranges are listed roughly west to east.
* Batura Muztagh * Rakaposhi-Haramosh Mountains * Spantik-Sosbun Mountains * Hispar Muztagh * South Ghujerab Mountains * Panmah Muztagh * Wesm Mountains * Masherbrum Mountains * Baltoro Muztagh * Saltoro Mountains * Siachen Muztagh * Rimo Muztagh * Saser Muztagh
Chinese and Pakistani border guards at Khunjerab Pass
From west to east
The Karakoram mountain range has been referred to in a number of novels and movies. Rudyard Kipling refers to the Karakorum mountain range in his novel _Kim _, which was first published in 1900. Marcel Ichac made a film titled _Karakoram_, chronicling a French expedition to the range in 1936. The film won the Silver Lion at the Venice Film Festival of 1937. Greg Mortenson details the Karakoram, and specifically K2 and the Balti , extensively in his book _Three Cups of Tea _, about his quest to build schools for children in the region. In the _ Gatchaman _ TV series, the Karakoram range houses Galactor's headquarters. _K2 Kahani_ (The K2 Story) by Mustansar Hussain Tarar describes his experiences at K2 base camp.
* ^ Bessarabov, Georgy Dmitriyevich (7 February 2014). "Karakoram Range". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 3 May 2015. * ^ " Hindu Kush Himalayan Region". ICIMOD. Retrieved 17 October 2014. * ^ Voiland, Adam (2013). "The Eight-Thousanders". _Nasa Earth Observatory_. Retrieved 23 December 2016. * ^ BBC, _Planet Earth_, "Mountains", Part Three * ^ Tajikistan's Fedchenko Glacier is 77 kilometres (48 mi) long. Baltoro and Batura Glaciers in the Karakoram are 57 kilometres (35 mi) long, as is Bruggen or Pio XI Glacier in southern Chile. Measurements are from recent imagery, generally supplemented with Russian 1:200,000 scale topographic mapping as well as Jerzy Wala,_Orographical Sketch Map: Karakoram: Sheets 1 & 2_, Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, Zurich, 1990. * ^ "Karakorum-Pamir". unesco. Retrieved 16 February 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Mason, Kenneth (1928). _Exploration of the Shaksgam Valley and Aghil ranges, 1926_. pp. 72ff. ISBN 9788120617940 . * ^ Close C, Burrard S, Younghusband F, et al. (1930). "Nomenclature in the Karakoram: Discussion". _The Geographical Journal_. Blackwell Publishing. 76 (2): 148–158. JSTOR 1783980 . doi :10.2307/1783980 . * ^ French, Patrick . (1994). _Younghusband: The Last Great Imperial Adventurer_, pp. 53, 56-60. HarperCollins_Publishers_, London. Reprint (1995): Flamingo. London. ISBN 0-00-637601-0 . * ^ Kala, Chandra Prakash (2005). "Indigenous Uses, Population Density, and Conservation of Threatened Medicinal Plants in Protected Areas of the Indian Himalayas". _Conservation Biology_. 19 (2): 368–378. doi :10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00602.x . * ^ Kala, Chandra Prakash (2005). "Health traditions of Buddhist community and role of amchis in trans-Himalayan region of India" (PDF). _Current Science_. 89 (8): 1331. * ^ Searle, Michael P., Geological evolution of the Karakoram Ranges, Ital.J.Geosci, (Boll.Soc.Geo.It.), Vol. 130, No. 2 (2011), pp. 147-159, 5 figs. (DOI: 10.3301/IJG.2011.08) * ^ Gansser (1975). _Geology of the Himalayas_. London: Interscience Publishers. * ^ Gallessich, Gail (2011). "Debris on certain Himalayan glaciers may prevent melting". _sciencedaily.com_. Retrieved January 30, 2011. * ^ Collins, Nick. "Himalayan glaciers growing despite global warming". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved October 11, 2012. * ^ Veettil, B.K. (2012). "A Remote sensing approach for monitoring debris-covered glaciers in the high altitude Karakoram Himalayas". _International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences_. 2 (3): 833–841. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kuhle, M. (1988). "The Pleistocene Glaciation of Tibet and the Onset of Ice Ages- An Autocycle Hypothesis. Tibet and High Asia. Results of the Sino-German Joint Expeditions (I)". _GeoJournal_. 17 (4): 581–596. doi :10.1007/BF00209444 . * ^ Kuhle, M. (2006). "The Past Hunza Glacier in Connection with a Pleistocene Karakoram Ice Stream Network during the Last Ice Age (Würm)". In Kreutzmann, H.; Saijid, A. _ Karakoram in Transition_. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press. pp. 24–48. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kuhle, M. (2011). "The High Glacial (Last Ice Age and Last Glacial Maximum) Ice Cover of High and Central Asia, with a Critical Review of Some Recent OSL and TCN Dates". In Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P.L.; Hughes, P.D. _Quaternary Glaciation - Extent and Chronology, A Closer Look_. Amsterdam: Elsevier BV. pp. 943–965. (glacier maps downloadable) * ^ _A_ _B_ Kuhle, M. (2001). " Tibet and High Asia (VI): Glaciogeomorphology and Prehistoric Glaciation in the Karakoram and Himalaya". _GeoJournal_. 54 (1–4): 109–396. doi :10.1023/A:1021307330169 . * ^ Kuhle, M. (1994). "Present and Pleistocene Glaciation on the North-Western Margin of Tibet between the Karakoram Main Ridge and the Tarim Basin Supporting the Evidence of a Pleistocene Inland Glaciation in Tibet. Tibet and High Asia. Results of the Sino-German and Russian-German Joint Expeditions (III)". _GeoJournal_. Dordrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer. 33 (2/3): 133–272. doi :10.1007/BF00812877 .
* ^ Jerzy Wala, _Orographical Sketch Map of the Karakoram_, Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, Zurich, 1990. * ^ Tarar, Mustansar Hussain (1994). _K2 kahani_. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel (published in Urdu). p. 179. ISBN 9693505239 .
* Curzon, George Nathaniel . 1896. _The Pamirs and the Source of the Oxus_. Royal Geographical Society, London. Reprint: Elibron Classics Series, Adamant Media Corporation. 2005. ISBN 1-4021-5983-8 (pbk); ISBN 1-4021-3090-2 (hbk). * Kreutzmann, Hermann, _ Karakoram in Transition: Culture, Development, and Ecology in the Hunza Valley_, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-19-547210-3 * Mortenson, Greg and Relin, David Oliver. 2008. _Three Cups of Tea _. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-14-103426-3 (pbk); Viking Books ISBN 978-0-670-03482-6 (hbk); Tantor Media ISBN 978-1-4001-5251-3 (MP3 CD). * Kipling, Rudyard 2002. _ Kim (novel) _; ed. by Zohreh T. Sullivan. New York: W. W. Norton ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v
* t * e
Geography of South Asia
MOUNTAINS AND PLATEAUS
* Western Ghats * Eastern Ghats * Aravalli Range * Nilgiris * Vindhya Range * Satpura Range * Garo Hills * Shivalik Hills * Mahabharat Range * Khasi Hills * Annamalai Hills * Cardamom Hills * Sulaiman Mountains * Toba Kakar Range * Karakoram * Hindu Kush * Chittagong Hill Tracts * Deccan Plateau * Thar Desert * Makran * Chota Nagpur * Naga Hills * Mysore Plateau * Ladakh Plateau * Gandhamardan Hills * Malwa
LOWLANDS AND ISLANDS
* Indo-Gangetic plain * Doab * Indus Valley * Indus River Delta * Ganges Basin * Ganges Delta * Terai * Atolls of the Maldives * Coromandel Coast * Konkan * Lakshadweep * Andaman and Nicobar Islands * Sundarbans Reserve Forest * Greater Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch * Protected areas in Tamil Nadu
* v * t * e
Mountain ranges of China
Geography of China
* ALTAI MOUNTAINS * Dzungarian Alatau
* TIAN SHAN
* KUNLUN MOUNTAINS
* HIMALAYAS * Transhimalaya
* KUNLUN MOUNTAINS
* TANGGULA MOUNTAINS * Nyenchen Tanglha Mountains
* HENGDUAN MOUNTAINS
Landforms of China
* v * t * e
Ürümqi (capital )
* Islamicisation and Turkicisation of Xinjiang
* Republic of China
* People\'s Republic of China
* PRC incorporation
* Cities * Tian Shan * Dzungarian Basin * Tarim Basin * Gurbantünggüt Desert * Kumtag Desert * Taklimakan Desert * Turpan Depression * Karakoram Mountains * Altai Mountains * Kunlun Shan * Pamir Mountains * Torugart Pass * Irkeshtam Pass * Karakoram Pass * Lanzhou– Xinjiang Railway
* 1989 Ürümqi unrest * Baren Township riot * 1992 Ürümqi bombings * Ghulja incident * 1992 Ürümqi bombings * 1997 Ürümqi bus bombings * Xinjiang raid * 2008 Uyghur unrest * 2008 Kashgar attack * Shaoguan incident * July 2009 Ürümqi riots * September 2009 Xinjiang unrest * 2010 Aksu bombing * 2011 Hotan attack * 2011 Kashgar attacks * Pishan hostage crisis * 2012 Yecheng attack * Tianjin Airlines Flight 7554 * April 2013 Bachu unrest * June 2013 Shanshan riots * 2013 Tiananmen Square attack * 2014 Kunming attack * 2014 China–Vietnam border shootout * April 2014 Ürümqi attack * May 2014 Ürümqi attack * Assassination of Juma Tayir
* Amursana * Mingrui * Jahangir Khoja * Yaqub Beg * Zuo Zongtang * Yang Zengxin * Jin Shuren * Sheng Shicai * Ehmetjan Qasim * Wang Zhen * Saifuddin Azizi * Rebiya Kadeer * Nur Bekri * Li Zhi * Wang Lequan * Zhang Chunxian * Ilham Tohti
* Independence movement
* CATEGORY * COMMONS
* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 247643385 * GND : 4073227-7
Links: ------ /wiki/Pakistan /wiki/India /wiki/China