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The KARA KOYUNLU or QARA QOYUNLU, also called the BLACK SHEEP TURKOMANS (Persian : قره قویونلو‎‎), were a Muslim Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, Armenia
Armenia
(1406), northwestern Iran
Iran
, eastern Turkey
Turkey
, and northeastern Iraq
Iraq
from about 1375 to 1468.

CONTENTS

* 1 The Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
Turkomans * 2 Religion * 3 Jahān Shāh

* 4 Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
rule

* 4.1 Armenia
Armenia

* 5 Mausoleum of Turkmen emirs * 6 Gallery * 7 See also

* 8 Notes

* 8.1 Works cited

* 9 Further reading

THE KARA KOYUNLU TURKOMANS

The Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
Turkomans at one point established their capital in Herat in eastern Iran
Iran
. They were vassals of the Jalairid Sultanate in Baghdad
Baghdad
and Tabriz
Tabriz
from about 1375, when the leader of their leading tribe ruled over Mosul
Mosul
. However, they rebelled against the Jalairids, and secured their independence from the dynasty with the conquest of Tabriz
Tabriz
by Qara Yusuf . In 1400, Timur defeated the Kara Koyunlu, and Qara Yusuf fled to Egypt
Egypt
, seeking refuge with the Mamluk Sultanate . He gathered an army and by 1406 had taken back Tabriz.

In 1410, the Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
captured Baghdad. The installation of a subsidiary Black Sheep line there hastened the downfall of the Jalairids they had once served. Despite internal fighting among Qara Yusuf's descendants after his death in 1420, and the increasing threat of the Timurid dynasty , the Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
maintained a strong grip over the areas they controlled.

RELIGION

According to R. Quiring-Zoche in the, Encyclopedia Iranica;

* "The argument that there was a clear-cut contrast between the Sunnism of the Āq Qoyunlū and the Shiʿism of the Qara Qoyunlū and the Ṣafawīya rests mainly on later Safavid sources and must be considered doubtful."

C.E. Bosworth in, The New Islamic Dynasties, states;

* "As to the religious affiliations of the Qara Qoyunlu, although some of the later member of the family had Shi'i-type names and there were occasional Shi'i coin legends, there seems no strong evidence for definite Shi'i sympathies among many Turkmen elements of the time."

JAHāN SHāH

Jahan Shah made peace with the Timurid Shahrukh Mirza ; however, this soon fell apart. When Shahrukh Mirza died in 1447, the Black Sheep Turkomans annexed portions of Iraq
Iraq
and the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula as well as Timurid-controlled western Iran. Though much territory was gained during his rule, Jahān Shāh's reign was troubled by his rebellious sons and the almost autonomous rulers of Baghdad, whom he expelled in 1464. In 1466, Jahan Shah attempted to take Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
from the Ağ Qoyunlu ("White Sheep Turkomans"), however, this was a catastrophic failure resulting in Jahān Shāh's death and the collapse of the Black Sheep Turkomans' control in the Middle East. By 1468, at their height under Uzun Hassan (1452–1478), Aq Qoyunlu defeated the Qara Qoyunlu and conquered Iraq
Iraq
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, and western Iran.

KARA KOYUNLU RULE

ARMENIA

Armenia
Armenia
fell under the control of the Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
in 1410. The principal Armenian sources available in this period come from the historian Tovma Metsopetsi and several colophons to contemporary manuscripts. According to Tovma, although the Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
levied heavy taxes against the Armenians , the early years of their rule were relatively peaceful and some reconstruction of towns took place. This peaceful period was, however, shattered with the rise of Qara Iskander , who reportedly made Armenia
Armenia
a "desert" and subjected it to "devastation and plunder, to slaughter, and captivity." Iskander's wars with and eventual defeat by the Timurids invited further destruction in Armenia, as many Armenians were taken captive and sold into slavery and the land was subjected to outright pillaging, forcing many of them to leave the region. Iskander did attempt to reconcile with the Armenians by appointing an Armenian from a noble family, Rustum, as one of his advisers.

When the Timurids launched their final incursion into the region, they convinced Jihanshah, Iskander's brother, to turn on his brother. Jihanshah pursued a policy of persecution against the Armenians in Syunik and colophons to Armenian manuscripts record the sacking of the Tatev monastery by his forces. But he, too, sought a rapprochement with the Armenians, allotting land to feudal lords, rebuilding churches, and approving the relocation of the seat of the Armenian Apostolic Church 's Catholicos to Etchmiadzin Cathedral
Etchmiadzin Cathedral
in 1441. For all this, Jihanshah continued to attack Armenian towns and take Armenian captives as the country saw further devastation in the final years of Jihanshah's failed struggles with the Aq Qoyunlu.

MAUSOLEUM OF TURKMEN EMIRS

One of the most prominent monuments built by Black Sheep dynasty remains today in the vicinity of the Armenian capital, the Mausoleum of Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
emirs . Turkmenistan and Armenia
Armenia
both contribute to the restoration and preservation of this medieval piece of architecture.

GALLERY

*

«Erivan tower». 1838
1838
*

Graveyard in Argavand, fragment in Arabic. *

Graveyard in Argavand, fragment in Arabic.

SEE ALSO

* List of rulers of Kara Koyunlu * Turkmen invasions of Georgia * List of Shia Muslim dynasties

NOTES

* ^ A B Minorsky 1954 , p. 283. * ^ Hovanissian 2004 , p. 4. * ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Kara Koyunlu". Online Edition, 2007 * ^ Patrick Clawson . Eternal Iran. Palgrave Macmillan. 2005 ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.23 * ^ Quiring-Zoche 2009 . * ^ Bosworth 1996 , p. 274. * ^ Stearns, Peter N.; Leonard, William (2001). The Encyclopedia of World History. Houghton Muffin Books. p. 122. ISBN 0-395-65237-5 . * ^ Kouymjian, Dickran (1997), " Armenia
Armenia
from the Fall of the Cilician Kingdom (1375) to the Forced Migration under Shah Abbas (1604)" in The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume II: Foreign Dominion to Statehood: The Fifteenth Century to the Twentieth Century, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian
Richard G. Hovannisian
, New York: St. Martin's Press, p. 4. ISBN 1-4039-6422-X . * ^ Kouymjian. "Armenia", p. 4. * ^ A B Kouymjian. "Armenia", p. 5. * ^ Kouymjian. "Armenia", pp. 6-7.

WORKS CITED

* Bosworth, Clifford E. (1996). The New Islamic Dynasties. Columbia University Press. * Kouymjian, Dickran (2004). " Armenia
Armenia
from the fall of the Cilician Kingdom (1375) to the forced emigration under Shah Abbas". In Hovannisian, Richard G. The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-6421-2 . * Minorsky, V. (1954). "Jihān-Shāh Qara-Qoyunlu and His Poetry (Turkmenica, 9)". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 16 (2): 271–97. * Quiring-Zoche, R. (2009-10-29). AQ QOYUNLŪ. Encyclopedia Iranica.

FURTHER READING

* Bosworth, Clifford. The New Islamic Dynasties, 1996. * (in Armenian) Khachikyan, Levon. ԺԵ դարի հայերեն ձեռագրերի հիշատակարաններ, մաս 1 (Fifteenth Century Armenian Colophons, Part 1). Yerevan, 1955. * Morby, John. The Oxford Dynasties of the World, 2002. * Sanjian, Avedis K. Colophons of Armenian manuscripts, 1301-1480: A Source for Middle Eastern History, Selected, Translated, and Annotated by Avedis K. Sanjian. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1969.

* v * t * e

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
articles

HISTORY

EARLY

* Kura–Araxes culture
Kura–Araxes culture
* Khojaly–Gadabay culture
Khojaly–Gadabay culture
* Shulaveri-Shomu culture * Mughan culture * Jar-Burial Culture * Leyla-Tepe culture * Mannaeans * Medes * Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
* Atropatene * Caucasian Albania * Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
* Arran (Caucasus) * Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
* Shirvan

MIDDLE AGES

* Sajid dynasty
Sajid dynasty
* Sallarid dynasty
Sallarid dynasty
* Rawwadids * Shaddadids * Shirvanshahs * Kingdom of Syunik ( Siunia dynasty ) * Eldiguzids * Ilkhanate * Principality of Khachen (House of Dop , House of Hasan-Jalalyan ) * Kara Koyunlu * Aq Qoyunlu * Safavid dynasty * Afsharid dynasty * Zand dynasty
Zand dynasty
* Qajar dynasty * Russo-Persian War (1804–13) * Treaty of Gulistan * Russo-Persian War (1826–1828)
Russo-Persian War (1826–1828)
* Treaty of Turkmenchay

MODERN

* Armenian–Tatar massacres * March Days * Armenian–Azerbaijani War * Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic * Soviet Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* Nagorno-Karabakh War * Black January * Independent Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan

BY TOPIC

* History of the name Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* The Land of Fire
The Land of Fire

GEOGRAPHY

* Bodies of water * Caspian Sea * Climate * Earthquakes

* Environment

* issues

* Extreme points * Fauna * Flora * Geology * Mountains * National parks * Orography * Protected areas * State reserves * Wildlife * more...

SUBDIVISIONS

* Administrative divisions * Borders * Cities * World Heritage Sites * more...

POLITICS

GOVERNMENT

* Cabinet * Constitution * Elections

* Foreign relations

* European Union

* Human rights

* LGBT

* Law enforcement * Ministry of National Security * National Assembly * Political parties * Politics * President * Prime Minister

MILITARY

* History * Air and Air Defence Force * Caspian Guard * Internal Troops * Land Forces * National Guard * Navy * Peacekeeping forces * State Border Service * Gabala Radar Station
Gabala Radar Station
* Ministry of Defense * Ministry of Defence Industry * more...

ECONOMY

* Agriculture * Central Bank * Companies * Energy * Manat (currency) * Mineral industry * Petroleum industry * Telecommunications * Tourism * Transport * more...

CULTURE

* Architecture * Art * Cinema * Cuisine * Dances * Dress * Folklore * Language * Literature * Media

* Music

* Ashiq * Meykhana * Mugham

* Novruz (New Year) * Public holidays * Rugs * Sport * Theatre * more...

DEMOGRAPHICS

* Education * Ethnic minorities * Health * Languages * LGBT rights

* People

* list

* more...

RELIGION

* Freedom of religion * Bahá\'í * Christianity * Hinduism * Islam * Judaism * Zoroastrianism * more...

SYMBOLS

* Flag * National anthem * National emblem

* Outline * Index

* Book
Book
* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

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History of Turkey
Turkey

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States in late medieval Anatolia (after 1071)

MUSLIM STATES

* Ahis * Akkoyunlu * Alaiye * Artuqids * Aydınids
Aydınids
* Canik * Chobanids * Çubukoğulları * Danishmends * Dilmaç * Beylik of Dulkadir
Beylik of Dulkadir
* Eretnids
Eretnids
* Erzincan * Eshrefids * Germiyanids
Germiyanids
* Hacıemir * Hamidids * İnal * Isfendiyarids
Isfendiyarids
* Kadi Burhan al-Din * Kara Koyunlu * Karamanids * Karasids
Karasids
* Ladik * Mengujekids
Mengujekids
* Menteshe * Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* Pervâneoğlu * Ramazanids * Shah-Armens
Shah-Armens
* Sultanate of Rum * Sahib Ataids
Sahib Ataids
* Saltukids * Sarukhanids
Sarukhanids
* Tacettinids * Tanrıbermiş * Teke * Tzachas

CHRISTIAN STATES

* Byzantine Empire * Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia * Empire of Nicaea * Empire of Trebizond * Knights Hospitaller * Latin Empire * Philaretos Brachamios
Philaretos Brachamios
* Zaccaria family

* v * t * e

Iran
Iran
topics

HISTORY

Prehistory
Prehistory

ANCIENT

3400–550 BCE

* Kura-Araxes culture (3400–2000 BC) * Proto-Elamite civilization (3200–2800 BC) * Elamite dynasties (2800–550 BC) * Akkadian Empire (c.2334 BC–c.2154 BC) * Kassites (c.1500–c.1155 BC) * Kingdom of Mannai (10th–7th century BC) * Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–609 BC) * Urartu (860 BC–590 BC) * Median Empire
Median Empire
(728–550 BC) * (Scythian Kingdom) (652–625 BC) * Neo-Babylonian Empire (626–539 BC)

550 BC – 224 AD

* Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(550–330 AD) * Kingdom of Armenia
Armenia
(331 BC–428 AD) * Atropatene (320s BC–3rd century AD) * Kingdom of Cappadocia
Kingdom of Cappadocia
(320s BC–17 AD) * Seleucid Empire (330 BC–150 AD) * Kingdom of Pontus (281 BC–62 AD) * Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
(248 BC – 224 AD)

224–651 AD

* Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
(224–651 AD)

MEDIEVAL

637 – 1055

* Patriarchal Caliphate (637–651) * Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) * Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258) * Tahirid dynasty (821–873) * Alavid dynasty (864–928) * Saffarid dynasty (861–1003) * Samanid dynasty (819–999) * Ziyarid dynasty
Ziyarid dynasty
(928–1043) * Buyid dynasty (934–1062)

975–1432

* Ghaznavid Empire (975–1187) * Ghurid dynasty (1011–1215) * Seljuk Empire (1037–1194) * Khwarazmian dynasty (1077–1231) * Eldiguzids (1135/36-1225) * Ilkhanate (1256–1335) * Kurt dynasty
Kurt dynasty
(1231–1389) * Muzaffarid dynasty (1314–1393) * Chobanid dynasty (1337–1357) * Jalairid Sultanate
Jalairid Sultanate
dynasty (1339–1432)

1370–1925

* Timurid Empire (1370–1507) * Qara Qoyunlu Turcomans (1375–1468) * Ag Qoyunlu Turcomans (1378–1508) * Safavid Empire (1501 – 1722 / 1736) * Afsharid dynasty (1736–50) * Zand Dynasty (1750–94)

* Qajar Dynasty (1794–1925)

* Khanates of the Caucasus
Khanates of the Caucasus
(18th century–20th century)

MODERN

1925–1979

* Pahlavi dynasty (1925–1979) * Iran
Iran
Constituent Assembly, 1949 * 1953 coup d\'état * Iranian Revolution (1979) * Interim Government

ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

* History (1979–)

* Arab separatism in Khuzestan

* Embassy siege (1980)

* Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War (1980–88) * Iranian pilgrim massacre (1987) * Iran
Iran
Air Flight 655 shootdown (1988) * PJAK insurgency * Balochistan conflict * Syrian Civil War * Military intervention against ISIL
Military intervention against ISIL

SEE ALSO

* Ancient Iran
Iran
* Greater Iran
Iran
* Iranic peoples (languages ) * Kura–Araxes culture
Kura–Araxes culture
* Jiroft culture * Aryans * Persian people * Azerbaijanis * Caucasian peoples * Kings of Persia * Cities * Military history * History of democracy * List of years in Iran
Iran

GEOGRAPHY

* Cities (list ) * Earthquakes * Iranian Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* Iranian Balochistan * Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests * Caucasus
Caucasus
* Iranian Kurdistan
Iranian Kurdistan
* Iranian Plateau * Lake Urmia * Islands * Mountains * Provinces * Wildlife

POLITICS

GENERAL

* Censorship * Constitution ( Persian Constitutional Revolution
Persian Constitutional Revolution
) * Elections (2009 presidential * Green Revolution ) * Foreign relations * Human rights (LGBT ) * Judicial system * Military (Army * Air Force * Navy ) * Ministry of Intelligence and National Security * Cyberwarfare * Nuclear program (UN Security Council Resolution 1747 ) * Political parties * Principlists * Propaganda * Reformists * Terrorism (state-sponsorship allegations ) * White Revolution (1963) * Women\'s rights movement

COUNCILS

* Assembly (or Council) of Experts * Expediency Discernment Council
Expediency Discernment Council
* City and Village Councils * Guardian Council * Islamic Consultative Assembly (parliament) * Supreme National Security Council
Supreme National Security Council

OFFICIALS

* Ambassadors * President * Provincial governors * Supreme Leader

ECONOMY

GENERAL

* Bonyad (charitable trust) * Brain drain * Companies (Automotive industry ) * Corruption * Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) * Economic history * Economic Reform Plan * Energy * Environmental issues * Foreign direct investment * Intellectual property * International oil bourse * International rankings * Iran
Iran
and the World Trade Organization * Taxation * Main economic laws * Economy of the Middle East
Economy of the Middle East
* Milad Tower and complex * Military equipment manufactured * Nuclear program (UN Security Council Resolution 1747 ) * Privatization * Rial (currency) * Space Agency * Setad * Supreme Audit Court * Tehran Stock Exchange * Venture capital (Technology start-ups )

SECTORS

* Agriculture (fruit ) * Banking and insurance (Banks (Central Bank ) * Electronic banking ) * Construction * Defense * Health care (Pharmaceuticals ) * Industry * Mining * Petroleum ( Anglo-Persian Oil Company
Anglo-Persian Oil Company
) * Telecommunications and IT (TCI ) * Transport (airlines * metro * railways * shipping ) * Tourism

State-owned companies

* Defense Industries Organization (DIO) * Industrial Development and Renovation Organization (IDRO) * Iran
Iran
Aviation Industries Organization (IAIO) * Iran
Iran
Electronics Industries (IEI) * National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) * National Development Fund

PLACES

* Asaluyeh industrial corridor * Chabahar Free Trade-Industrial Zone * Kish Island Free Trade Zone * Research centers

SOCIETY

DEMOGRAPHICS

LANGUAGES

* Persian (Farsi) * Armenian * Azerbaijani * Kurdish * Georgian * Neo-Aramaic * Iranian languages

PEOPLES

* Iranian citizens (abroad )

* Ethnic minorities

* Armenians * Assyrians * Azerbaijanis * Circassians * Georgians * Kurds * Persian Jews
Persian Jews
* Turkmen

RELIGION

* Islam * Bahá\'í (persecution ) * Christianity * Zoroastrians (persecution ) * minorities

OTHER

* Corruption * Crime * Education (higher * scientists and scholars * universities ) * Brain drain * Health care * International rankings * Nationality * Water supply and sanitation * Women

CULTURE

* Architecture (Achaemenid * architects ) * Art (modern / contemporary ) * Blogs * Calendars (Persian New Year (Nowruz) ) * Chādor (garment) * Chicago Persian antiquities dispute * Cinema * Crown jewels * Cuisine * Folklore * Intellectual movements * Iranians * Iranian studies * Islam (Islamization ) * Literature * Media (news agencies (student ) * newspapers ) * Mythology * National symbols (Imperial Anthem ) * Opium consumption * Persian gardens * Persian name * Philosophy * Public holidays * Scouting * Sport (football )

MUSIC

* Folk * Heavy metal * Pop * Rap and hip-hop * Rock and alternative * Traditional * Ey Iran
Iran

OTHER TOPICS

* Science and technology * Anti-Iranian sentiment
Anti-Iranian sentiment
* Tehrangeles
Tehrangeles

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal
* WikiProject * Commons

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