The KARA KOYUNLU or QARA QOYUNLU, also called the BLACK SHEEP
TURKOMANS (Persian : قره قویونلو), were a Muslim Oghuz
Turkic tribal federation that ruled over the territory comprising
* 1 The
* 5 Mausoleum of Turkmen emirs * 6 Gallery * 7 See also
* 8 Notes
* 8.1 Works cited
* 9 Further reading
THE KARA KOYUNLU TURKOMANS
In 1410, the
According to R. Quiring-Zoche in the, Encyclopedia Iranica;
* "The argument that there was a clear-cut contrast between the Sunnism of the Āq Qoyunlū and the Shiʿism of the Qara Qoyunlū and the Ṣafawīya rests mainly on later Safavid sources and must be considered doubtful."
C.E. Bosworth in, The New Islamic Dynasties, states;
* "As to the religious affiliations of the Qara Qoyunlu, although some of the later member of the family had Shi'i-type names and there were occasional Shi'i coin legends, there seems no strong evidence for definite Shi'i sympathies among many Turkmen elements of the time."
Jahan Shah made peace with the Timurid
Shahrukh Mirza ; however, this
soon fell apart. When
Shahrukh Mirza died in 1447, the Black Sheep
Turkomans annexed portions of
KARA KOYUNLU RULE
Timurids launched their final incursion into the region,
they convinced Jihanshah, Iskander's brother, to turn on his brother.
Jihanshah pursued a policy of persecution against the
Syunik and colophons to Armenian manuscripts record the sacking of the
Tatev monastery by his forces. But he, too, sought a rapprochement
with the Armenians, allotting land to feudal lords, rebuilding
churches, and approving the relocation of the seat of the Armenian
Apostolic Church 's
MAUSOLEUM OF TURKMEN EMIRS
One of the most prominent monuments built by Black Sheep dynasty
remains today in the vicinity of the Armenian capital, the Mausoleum
Graveyard in Argavand, fragment in Arabic. *
Graveyard in Argavand, fragment in Arabic.
* ^ A B Minorsky 1954 , p. 283.
* ^ Hovanissian 2004 , p. 4.
* ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Kara Koyunlu". Online Edition, 2007
Patrick Clawson . Eternal Iran. Palgrave Macmillan. 2005 ISBN
* ^ Quiring-Zoche 2009 .
* ^ Bosworth 1996 , p. 274.
* ^ Stearns, Peter N.; Leonard, William (2001). The Encyclopedia of
World History. Houghton Muffin Books. p. 122. ISBN 0-395-65237-5 .
* ^ Kouymjian, Dickran (1997), "
* Bosworth, Clifford E. (1996). The New Islamic Dynasties. Columbia
* Kouymjian, Dickran (2004). "
* Bosworth, Clifford. The New Islamic Dynasties, 1996. * (in Armenian) Khachikyan, Levon. ԺԵ դարի հայերեն ձեռագրերի հիշատակարաններ, մաս 1 (Fifteenth Century Armenian Colophons, Part 1). Yerevan, 1955. * Morby, John. The Oxford Dynasties of the World, 2002. * Sanjian, Avedis K. Colophons of Armenian manuscripts, 1301-1480: A Source for Middle Eastern History, Selected, Translated, and Annotated by Avedis K. Sanjian. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1969.
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