The Info List - Kapampangan Language

Kapampangan, Pampango, or the Pampangan language is one of the major languages of the Philippines. It is spoken in the province of Pampanga, most parts of Tarlac
and Bataan. Kapampangan is also understood in some municipalities of Bulacan
and Nueva Ecija
Nueva Ecija
and by the Aitas or Aeta
of Zambales. The language is also referred to honorifically in the Kapampangan language
Kapampangan language
as Amánung Sísuan, meaning "breastfed/nurtured language." In 2012, Kapampangan was one of the major languages of the Philippines, taught and studied formally in schools and universities.[3]


1 Classification 2 History 3 Geographic distribution 4 Phonology

4.1 Vowels 4.2 Consonants 4.3 Stress 4.4 Historical sound changes

5 Grammar

5.1 Nouns 5.2 Pronouns

5.2.1 Examples 5.2.2 Special
forms 5.2.3 Pronoun combinations

5.3 Demonstrative pronouns 5.4 Verbs

5.4.1 Ambiguities and irregularities 5.4.2 Conjugation chart

5.5 Enclitics 5.6 Existential 5.7 Negation 5.8 Interrogative Words

6 Loan words 7 Writing systems and orthography

7.1 Orthographic history and disputes

8 Examples

8.1 Catholic prayers

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Classification[edit] Kapampangan is one of the Central Luzon
Central Luzon
languages within the Austronesian language family. Its closest relatives are the Sambal languages of Zambales
province and the Bolinao language spoken in the towns of Bolinao and Anda in Pangasinan. These languages share the same reflex /j/ of the Proto-Austronesian consonant *R. History[edit] The word Kapampangan is derived from the rootword pampáng which means "riverbank." Historically, this language was used in what was the Kingdom of Tondo, ruled by the Lakans. A number of dictionaries and grammar books were authored during the Spanish period. In the 18th century, Fr. Diego Bergaño authored two books about Kapampangan: Arte de la lengua Pampanga[4] (first published in 1729) and Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga
(first published in 1732). Kapampangan produced two literary giants in the 19th century. Father Anselmo Fajardo was noted for his works Gonzalo de Córdova and Comedia Heróica de la Conquista de Granada. Another writer, Juan Crisóstomo Soto, was noted for writing many plays including Alang Dios in 1901. The Kapampangan poetical joust "Crissotan" was coined by Amado Yuzon, Soto's fellow literary genius and Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
nominee for peace and literature in the 1950s, to immortalize his contribution to Kapampangan literature.[5] Geographic distribution[edit] Kapampangan is primarily spoken in the whole province of Pampanga
and in the southern portion of the province of Tarlac
(Bamban, Capas, Concepcion, San Jose, Gerona, La Paz, Victoria and Tarlac
City). It is also spoken in bordering communities within the provinces of Bataan (Dinalupihan, Hermosa and Orani), Bulacan
(Baliuag, San Miguel, San Ildefonso, Hagonoy, Plaridel, Pulilan and Calumpit), Nueva Ecija (Cabiao, San Isidro, Gapan City
Gapan City
and Cabanatuan City) and Zambales ( Olongapo City
Olongapo City
and Subic). The Philippine Census of 2000 stated that a total of 2,312,870 out of 76,332,470 people spoke Kapampangan as their native language. Phonology[edit]

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Standard Kapampangan has 21 phonemes: 15 consonants and five vowels. Some western dialects of Kapampangan have six vowels. Syllable structure is relatively simple. Each syllable contains at least one consonant and a vowel. Vowels[edit] Kapampangan is complete in vowel phonemes; they are:

/a/ an open front unrounded vowel similar to English "father" /ɛ/ an open-mid front unrounded vowel similar to English "bed" /i/ a close front unrounded vowel similar to English "machine" /o/ a close-mid back rounded vowel similar to English "forty" /u/ a close back rounded vowel similar to English "flute"

In addition to those, some dialects also include /ə/. In some western accents, there is a sixth monophthong phoneme /ɯ/, a close back unrounded vowel, found in for example [atɯp] "roof" and [lalɯm] "deep". However, this sound has merged with /a/ for most Kapampangan speakers. There are four main diphthongs; /aɪ/, /oɪ/, /aʊ/, and /iʊ/. However, in most dialects, including standard Kapampangan, /aɪ/ and /aʊ/ are reduced to /ɛ/ and /o/, respectively. The monophthongs have allophones in unstressed and syllable-final positions:

/a/ is raised slightly in unstressed positions except final syllables Unstressed /i u/ are usually pronounced [ɪ ʊ] as in English "bit" and "book" respectively, except final syllables. At the final syllables, /i/ can be pronounced [ɛ, i], and /u/ can be pronounced [o, u].

deni/reni (meaning "these") can be pronounced [ˈdɛnɛ]/[ˈɾɛnɛ] or [ˈdɛni]/[ˈɾɛni], seli (meaning "bought") can be pronounced [ˈsɛlɛ] or [ˈsɛli], kekami (meaning "to us" [except you]) can be pronounced [kɛkɐˈmɛ] or [kɛkɐˈmi], suerti can be pronounced [ˈswɛɾtɛ] or [ˈswɛɾti], sisilim (meaning "dusk") can be pronounced [sɪˈsilɛm] or [sɪˈsilim]. kanu (meaning "he said, she said, they said, it was said, allegedly, reportedly, supposedly") can be pronounced [kaˈno] or [kaˈnu], libru (meaning "book") can be pronounced [libˈɾo] or [libˈɾu], ninu (meaning "who") can be pronounced [ˈnino] or [ˈninu], kaku (meaning "to me") can be pronounced [ˈkako] or [ˈkaku], kamaru (meaning "cricket") can be pronounced [kamɐˈɾo] or [kamɐˈɾu].

Unstressed /e, o/ are usually pronounced [ɪ, ʊ] respectively, except final syllables.

Consonants[edit] Below is a chart of Kapampangan consonants. All of the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal occurs in all positions including at the beginning of a word. Unlike other Philippine languages, Kapampangan lacks the phoneme /h/.

Bilabial Dental / Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal

Nasal m n


Stop voiceless p t tʃ k ʔ

voiced b d dʒ g


s ʃ




l j w

/k/ has a tendency to lenite to [x] between vowels. [d] and [ɾ] are allophones in Kapampangan, and thus sometimes interchangeable. So, Nukarin la ring libru? can be Nukarin la ding libru? (Translation: Where are the books?) A glottal stop that occurs at the end of a word is often omitted when it is in the middle of a sentence.

Stress[edit] Stress is phonemic in Kapampangan. Primary stress occurs on either the last or the next-to-last syllable of a word. Vowel
lengthening accompanies primary or secondary stress except when stress occurs at the end of a word. Stress shift can occur and it may shift to the right or the left to differentiate between nominal or verbal use, as in the following examples.[6]

dápat 'should, ought to' → dapát 'deed, concern, business' dapúg 'gather, burn trash' → dápug 'trash pile'

Stress shift can also occur when one word is derived from another through affixation. Again, stress can shift to the right or the left.[6]

ábe → abáyan 'company' láso → lasáwan 'melt, digest'

Historical sound changes[edit] In Kapampangan, the Proto-Philippine schwa vowel *ə has merged to /a/ in most dialects of Kapampangan. It is preserved in some western dialects. For example, Proto-Philippine *tanəm is tanam (to plant) in Kapampangan, compared with Tagalog tanim and Cebuano tanom and Ilocano tanem (grave). Proto-Philippine *R merged with /j/. For example, the Kapampangan word for "new" is bayu, while it is bago in Tagalog, baro in Ilocano, and baru in Indonesian. Grammar[edit] Nouns[edit] While Kapampangan nouns are not inflected, they are usually preceded by case markers. There are three types of case markers: absolutive (nominative), ergative (genitive), and oblique. Unlike English and Spanish which are nominative–accusative languages and Inuit and Basque which are ergative–absolutive languages, Kapampangan has austronesian alignment, as most Philippine Languages do. It is a common misconception that Kapampangan is frequently spoken in the passive voice or active voice, as it could choose either easily. Austronesian alignment may work with either nominative and absolutive or ergative and absolutive markers and pronouns. Absolutive or nominative markers mark the actor of an intransitive verb and the object of a transitive verb. Ergative or genitive markers mark the object (usually indefinite) of an intransitive verb and the actor of a transitive one. It also marks possession. Oblique markers are similar to prepositions in English. It marks things such as location and direction. Furthermore, noun markers are divided into two classes: one for names of people (personal) and the second for everything else (common). Below is a chart of case markers.

  Absolutive Ergative Oblique

Common singular ing -ng, ning king

Common plural ding ring ring karing

Personal singular i -ng kang

Personal plural di ri ri kari

Examples: Dintang ya ing lalaki. "The man arrived." Ikit neng Juan i Maria. "Juan saw Maria." Munta ya i Elena ampo i Robertu king bale nang Miguel. "Elena and Roberto will go to Miguel's house." Nukarin la ring libro? "Where are the books?" Ibiye ke ing susi kang Carmen. I will give the key to Carmen. Pronouns[edit] Kapampangan pronouns are categorized by case: absolutive, ergative, and oblique.

  Absolutive (Independent) Absolutive (Enclitic) Ergative Oblique

1st person singular yaku, i aku, aku ku ku kanaku, kaku

2nd person singular ika ka mu keka

3rd person singular iya, ya ya na keya, kaya

1st person dual ikata kata, ta ta kekata

1st person plural inclusive ikatamu, itamu katamu, tamu tamu, ta kekatamu, kekata

1st person plural exclusive ikami, ike kami, ke mi kekami, keke

2nd person plural ikayu, iko kayu, ko yu kekayu, keko

3rd person plural ila la da ra karela

Examples[edit] Sinulat ku. "I wrote." Silatanan na ku. "(He or She) wrote me." Dintang ya. "(He or She) has arrived." [Note: Dintang ya = "He arrived" or "He arrives"; He has arrived = Dintang ne] Sabian me kaku. "Tell it to me" Ninu ing minaus keka? "Who called you? Mamasa la. "They are reading." Mamangan la ring babi? "Are the pigs eating?" Genitive pronouns follow the word they modify. Oblique pronouns can take the place of the genitive pronoun but they precede the word they modify. Ing bale ku. Ing kakung bale. / Ing kanakung bale. "My house." The dual pronoun ikata refers to only the first and second person. The inclusive pronoun ikatamu refers to the first and second persons. The exclusive pronoun ikamí refers to the first and third persons but excludes the second. Ala katang nasi. "We (dual type) do not have rice." Ala tamung nasi. "We (inclusive) do not have rice." Ala keng nasi. / Ala kaming nasi. "We (exclusive) do not have rice." Furthermore, Kapampangan stands out among many Philippine languages
Philippine languages
in requiring the presence of the pronoun even if the noun it represents, or the grammatical antecedent, is present. Dintang ya i Erning. (not *dintang i Erning) "Ernie arrived." Mamasa la ri Maria at Juan. (not *mamasa ri Maria at Juan) "Maria and Juan are reading." Silatanan na kang José. (not *silatanan kang José) "José wrote you." As a comparison, it would be akin to saying *dumating siya si Erning, *bumabasa sila sina Maria at Juan and *sinulatan ka niya ni José in Tagalog. Special
forms[edit] The pronouns ya and la have special forms when they are used in conjunction with the words ati (there is/are) and ala (there is/are not). Ati yu king Pampanga. (not *Ati ya king Pampanga) "He is in Pampanga." Ala lu ring doktor keni./Ala lu ding doktor keni. (not *ala la ring doktor keni/ala la ding doktor keni) The doctors are no longer here. Note: for some speakers of Kapampangan (possibly certain dialects), all of the above forms can be used: Both "ati yu" and "ati ya" are equally right. Plural form ("they are") is "atilu" and "atila". Both "ala la" and "ala lu" are correct in the plural form. Singular form is "ala ya" and "ala yu" Pronoun combinations[edit] The order and forms in which Kapampangan pronouns appear in sentences are outlined in the following chart. Kapampangan pronouns follow a certain order following verbs or particles like negation words. The enclitic pronoun is always first followed by another pronoun or discourse marker. Ikit da ka. "I saw you." Silatanan na ku. "He wrote to me." However, the following constructions are incorrect: *ikit ka da and *silatanan ku na Also, pronouns combine to form one portmanteau pronoun. Ikit ke. (instead of Ikit ku ya) "I saw her." Dinan kong pera. (instead of Dinan ku lang pera.) "I will give them money." Portmanteau
pronouns are not usually used in questions and while using the word naman. Furthermore, Akakit me? (instead of akakit mu ya?) Do you see him? (Are you seeing him?) Buri nya naman yan/buri ne murin yan. (instead of buri ne naman yan) He likes that, too The chart below outlines the permitted combinations of pronouns. There are blank entries to denote combinations which are deemed impossible. The column headings (i.e. yaku, ika, etc.) in bold denote pronouns in the absolutive case while the row headings (i.e. ku, mu, etc.) denote pronouns in the ergative case.

  yaku 1 s ika 2 s ya 3 s ikata 1 dual ikatamu 1 p inc. ikami 1 p exc. ikayo 2 p ila 3 p

ku 1 s (ing sarili ku) da ka ra ka ke keya – – – da ko (ra ko) da kayu (ra kayu) ko ku la

mu 2 s mu ku (ing sarili mu) me mya – – mu ke mu kami – mo mu la

na 3 s na ku na ka ne nya (ing sarili na) na kata na katamu na ke na kami na ko na kayu no nu la

ta 1 dual – – te tya (ing sarili ta) – – – to ta la

tamu 1 p inc. – – ta ya – (ing sarili tamu) – – ta la

mi 1 p exc. – da ka ra ka mi ya – – (ing sarili mi) da ko (ra ko) da kayu (ra kayu) mi la

yu 2 p yu ku – ye ya – – yu ke yu kami (ing sarili yu) yo yu la

da 3 p da ku ra ku da ka ra ka de (re) dya da kata ra kata da katamu ra katamu da ke (ra ke) da kami (ra kami) da ko(ra ko) da kayu (ra kayu) do (ro) da la (ra la) (ing sarili da)

Demonstrative pronouns[edit] Kapampangan's demonstrative pronouns are outlined in the chart below. This particular system of demonstrative pronouns differs with other Philippine languages
Philippine languages
by having separate forms for the singular and plural.

  Absolutive Ergative Oblique Locative Existential

Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural

Nearest to speaker (this, here) ini deni reni nini dareni kanini kareni oyni oreni keni

Near speaker & addressee (this, here) iti deti reti niti dareti kaniti kareti oyti oreti keti

Nearest addressee (that, there) iyan den ren niyan daren kanyan karen oyan oren ken

Remote (yon, yonder) ita deta reta nita dareta kanita kareta oyta oreta keta

The demonstrative pronouns ini and iti (as well as their respective forms) both mean "this" but each have distinct uses. Iti usually refers to something abstract but may also refer to concrete nouns. For example, iting musika (this music), iti ing gagawan mi (this is what we do). Ini is always concrete and never abstract. For example ining libru (this book), ini ing asu nang Juan (this is Juan's dog). Furthermore, in their locative forms, keni is used when the person spoken to is not near the subject spoken of. Keti, on the other hand, when the person spoken to is near the subject spoken of. For example, two people in the same country will refer to their country as keti however, they will refer to their respective towns as keni. Both mean here. The plural forms of demonstrative pronouns and its existential form for nearest addressee are exceptions. The plural form of iyan is den/ren, not *deyan/reyan; the plural form of niyan is daren, not *dareyan; the plural form of kanyan is karen, not *kareyan; the plural form of oyan is oren, not *oreyan; the existential form of iyan is ken, not *keyan. Nanu ini? "What's this?" Mangabanglu la rening sampaga./Mangabanglu la dening sampaga. "These flowers smell good." Ninu ing lalaking ita? "Who is that man/guy?" Me keni/munta ka keni. "Come here." Ati ku keti/atsu ku keni/atyu ku keni. "I am here." Mangan la keta. "They will eat there." Ninu ing anak a yan? "Who is that child?" Uyta/Oyta ya pala ing salamin mu! "So that's where your glasses are!" E ku pa menakit makanyan/makanini. "I haven't seen one of these before" Manyaman la ren./Manyaman la den. Those are delicious. Ayni/Areni/Oreni la reng adwang regalo para keka. "Here are the two gifts for you." Buri daka! "I like You" Kaluguran daka! " I Love You" Mangan Tana! "Let's Eat" Edaka buring mawala! "I don't want to lose you!" Verbs[edit] Kapampangan verbs are morphologically complex and take on a variety of affixes reflecting focus, aspect, mode, and others. Kapampangan follows Austronesian Alignment, which means the verbs change according to triggers within the sentence, better known as voices. Kapampangan has five voices: Agent Trigger, Patient Trigger, Goal Trigger, Locative Trigger, and Cirumstantial Trigger. The circumstantial trigger prefix selects for instrument and benefactee subjects. The direct case morpheme in Kapampangan is ing, which marks singular subjects, and reng, which is for plural subjects. Non-subject agents are marked with ergative case, ning, while non-subject patients are marked with accusative case, -ng, which is cliticized onto the preceding word.[7]

(1) Agent Trigger

S‹um›ulat   yang   poesia   ing   lalaki   king   pen   king   papil.











"The boy will write a poem with a pen on the paper."

(2) Patient Trigger

I-sulat   ne   ning   lalaki   ing   poesia   king   mestra.










"The boy will write the poem to the teacher."

(or "The poem will be written by boy to the teacher.")

(3) Goal Trigger

Sulat-anan   ne   ning   lalaki   ing   mestro.








"The boy will write to the teacher."

(or "The teacher will be written to by the boy.")

(4) Locative Trigger

Pi-sulat-an   neng   poesia   ning   lalaki   ing   blackboard.









"The boy will write a poem on the blackboard."

(or "The blackboard will be written a poem on by the boy.")

(5) a.   Circumstantial Trigger (with instrument subject)

Panyulat   neng   poesia   ning   lalaki   ing   pen.










"The boy will write a poem with the pen."

(or "The pen will be written a poem with by the boy.")

(5) b.   Circumstantial Trigger (with benefactee subject)

Pamasa   nong   libru   ning   babai   reng   anak.










"The woman will read a book for the children."

(or "The children will be read a book for by the woman.")

Ambiguities and irregularities[edit] Speakers of other Philippine languages
Philippine languages
find Kapampangan verbs to be more difficult than their own languages' verbs due to some verbs belonging to unpredictable verb classes as well as ambiguity with certain verb forms. To illustrate this, let us take the rootword sulat (write) which exists in both Tagalog and Kapampangan. For example:

susulat means "is writing" in Kapampangan but "will write" in Tagalog. sumulat means "will write" in Kapampangan but "wrote" in Tagalog. This form is also the infinitive in both languages. sinulat means "wrote" in both languages. However, in Kapampangan it is either in the actor focus (with long i: [ˌsi:ˈnu:lat]) or object focus (with short i: [siˈnu:lat]), but object focus only in Tagalog

The object-focus suffix -an represents two types of focuses. However, the only difference between the two is that one of the conjugations preserves -an in the completed aspect while it is dropped in the other conjugation. Take the two verbs below:

bayaran (to pay someone): bayaran (will pay someone), babayaran (is paying someone), beyaran (paid someone)

bayaran (to pay for something): bayaran (will pay for something), babayaran (is paying for something), binayad (paid for something)

Note that other Philippine languages
Philippine languages
have separate forms. For example, there is -in and -an in Tagalog, -on and -an in Bikol and in most of the Visayan languages, and -en and -an in Ilokano. This is due to historical sound changes concerning Proto-Philippine /*e/ mentioned above. There are a number of actor-focus verbs which do not use the infix -um- but are usually conjugated like other verbs that do. For example, gawa (to do), bulus (to immerse), terak (to dance), lukas (to take off), sindi (to smoke), saklu (to fetch), takbang (to step), tuki (to accompany), etc. are used instead of *gumawa, *bumulus, *tumerak, *lumukas, *sumindi, *sumaklu, *tumakbang, *tumuki, Many of the verbs mentioned in the previous paragraph undergo a change of their vowel rather than use the infix -in- (completed aspect). In the actor focus (i.e. -um- verbs), this happens only to verbs having the vowel /u/ in the first syllable. For example, the verb lukas (to take off) is conjugated lukas (will take off), lulukas (is taking off), and likas (took off) (rather than *linukas). This change of vowel also applies to certain object-focus verbs in the completed aspect. In addition to /u/ becoming /i/, /a/ becomes /e/ in certain cases. For example, dela (brought something) and not *dinala, semal (worked on something) and not *sinamal, and seli (bought) and not *sinali. Furthermore, there is no written distinction between the two mag- affixes in writing. Magsalita can either mean is speaking or will speak. There is an audible difference, however. [mɐɡsaliˈtaʔ] means "will speak" while [ˌmaːɡsaliˈtaʔ] means "is speaking". Conjugation chart[edit] Below is a chart of the basic Kapampangan verbal affixes.

  Infinitive & Contemplative Progressive Completed

Actor Focus1a -um- CV- -in-

Actor Focus1b – CV- -in- -i-

Actor Focus1c m- mVm- min- me-

Actor Focus2 mag- mág- mig-, meg-

Actor Focus3 ma- má- ne-

Actor Focus4 maN- máN- meN-

Object Focus1 -an CV- ... -an -in- -i- -e-

Object Focus2 Benefactive Focus i- iCV- i- -in- i- -i- i- -e-

Object Focus3 Locative Focus -an CV- ... -an -in- ... -an -i- ... -an -e- ... -an

Instrument Focus ipaN- páN- piN-, peN

Reason Focus ka- ká- ke-

Enclitics[edit] 1. warî: used optionally in yes-and-no questions and other types of questions. 2. agyaman, man: even, even if, even though. 3. nung: condition particle that expresses unexpected event; if. 4. kanu: reporting or hearsay particle that expresses that the information is second-hand; he said, she said, they said, it was said, allegedly, reportedly, supposedly. 5. din/rin: inclusive particle that adds something to what was said before; also, too. 6. iká: expresses hope, unrealized condition (with verb in completed aspected), used in conditional aspects. 7. itá: expresses uncertainty and unrealized idea; perhaps, probably, seems. 8. mu: limiting particle; only, just. 9. na and pa

na: now, already, yet, anymore. pa: still, else.

10. namán: used in making contrasts and softens requests and emphasis. 11. nanu ita: expresses cause; because, because of. 12. pin: used in affirmations or emphasis and also softens imperatives; indeed. 13. palá: realization particle that expresses that the speaker has realized and/or suddenly remembered something. 14. pu/opu: politeness particle. Swerti kanu iti kanaku. It was said that it is lucky to me. Edukado ya rin ing nobyu mu./Edukado ya din ing nobyu mu. Your boyfriend is also educated. Existential[edit] To express existence (there is/are) and possession (to have), the word atí is used. Atí la namang konsyensya. They also have conscience. Negation[edit] There are two negation words: alí and alá. Alí negates verbs and equations. It means no and/or not. Alí ya sinali. He did not buy. Alá is the opposite of atí. Alá na mo kanung lugud. They say that there is no more love. But in several statements, e is used instead of "ali." E ke seli. I did not buy it. Interrogative Words[edit] Komustá is used to inquire how something is (are). It is frequently used as a greeting meaning How are you? It is derived from the Spanish ¿cómo está? Komustá na ka? "How are you?" Komustá ya ing pasyente? "How is the patient?" Nanu means what. Nanu ya ing gagawan mu? "What are you doing?" Ninu means who. Ninu la reng lalaki?/Ninu la deng lalaki? "Who are those men?" Ninu i Jennifer? "Who is Jennifer?" Nukarin means where but is used to inquire about the location of an object and not used with verbs. Nukarin ya ing drayber? "Where is the driver?" Note: Drayber is the Kapampangan phonetic spelling of "driver." Nukarin ya i Henry? "Where is Henry?" Loan words[edit] Kapampangan borrowed many words from Chinese especially from Cantonese and Hokkien. Examples are:

ápû 阿婆 "(maternal) grandmother" impû 外婆 "(paternal) grandmother' ingkung 外公 "(paternal) grandfather" atchi 阿姐 "eldest sister" koya 哥仔 "eldest brother" susi 鎖匙 "key" pansit 便食 "noodles" (lit."instant meal") buisit 無衣食 "bad luck" (lit."without clothes and food")

Due to the influence of Buddhism and Hinduism, Kapampangan also acquired words from Sanskrit. A few examples are:

alaya "home" from Sanskrit आलय alaya kalma "fate" from Sanskrit कर्म karma damla "divine law" from Sanskrit धर्म dharma mantala "magic formulas" from Sanskrit मन्त्र mantra upaya "power" from Sanskrit उपाय upaya siuala "voice" from Sanskrit स्वर svara lupa "face" from Sanskrit रुपा rupa sabla "every" from Sanskrit सर्व sarva lawu "eclipse" from Sanskrit राहु rahu galura "giant eagle" (a surname) from Sanskrit गरुड garuda laksina "south" (a surname) from Sanskrit दक्षिण dakshin laksamana "admiral" (a surname) from Sanskrit लक्ष्मण lakshmana

Also, there are many Spanish loan words present today, given its more than three hundred years of occupation. Among a few examples are suerti from Spanish suerte (luck), kurus from cruz (cross), karni from carne (meat), korsunada from corazonada (crush), kasapego and casa fuego (matchbox) Examples of words Manyaman - masarap Maritak - konti/makonti Malagu -maganda


-panget Maragul -malaki Malati - maliit Writing systems and orthography[edit] See also: Kulitan alphabet

Amánung Sísuan (honorific name for mother language: literally nurtured/suckled language) in Kulitan, the indigenous writing system of Kapampangan

Kapampangan, like most Philippine languages, use the Latin alphabet. Before the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, it was written using the Kulitan script. Kapampangan is usually written in one of three different writing systems: the sulat Baculud, sulat Wawa, and a hybrid of the two, the Amung Samson system.[8] The first system, the sulat Baculud, also known as tutung Capampangan (or tutung Kapampangan in the sulat Wawa system), is based on Spanish orthography, a feature of which involved the use of letters ⟨c⟩ and ⟨q⟩ in representing the phoneme /k/ depending on the vowel sound following the phoneme. ⟨C⟩ was used before /a/, /o/, and /u/ (i.e "ca", "co", and "cu") while ⟨q⟩ was used alongside ⟨u⟩ before the vowels /e/ and /i/ (as in "que" and "qui"). The Spanish-based orthography is primarily associated with the spelling on literature by authors from Bacolor, and the text used on the Kapampangan Pasion.[8] The second system, the Sulat Wawa, is an "indigenized" form that preferred ⟨k⟩ over ⟨c⟩ and ⟨q⟩ in representing the phoneme /k/ as used in the Spanish-based sulat Baculud. This orthography, based on the Abakada alphabet was used by writers from Guagua, which rivaled the writers from the nearby town of Bacolor.[8] The third system, the Amung Samson hybrid orthography, is a system intended to resolve the conflict on spelling between the proponents of the sulat Baculud and sulat Wawa. This system was created by former Catholic priest Venancio Samson in the 1970s for official translations of the Bible into Kapampangan. It resolved conflicts between the use of ⟨q⟩ and ⟨c⟩ (in sulat Baculud) and ⟨k⟩(in sulat Wawa) by using ⟨k⟩ before ⟨e⟩ and ⟨i⟩ over ⟨qu⟩, and preferring ⟨c⟩ before ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, and ⟨u⟩ over ⟨k⟩. The system also removed ⟨ll⟩ and ⟨ñ⟩ (from Spanish) and replaced them with ⟨ly⟩ and ⟨ny⟩.[8] The orthography has been an issue of debate among writers of Kapampangan and the usage of the different orthographic styles may vary depending on the writer. The sulat Wawa system has become the popular method of writing for recent generations due to the influence of the Tagalog-based national language Filipino and its orthography. The "sulat Wawa" system is used by the Akademyang Kapampapangan, and the poet Jose Gallardo.[8] Orthographic history and disputes[edit] Around circa 10th century AD – 1571 AD, before the Spanish conquest of Lúsung Guo that resulted in the creation of the Province of Pampanga
in 1571, Kapampangans used their own indigenous writing system known as Kulitan or Sulat Kapampangan. The Augustinian missionaries studied the Kapampangan language
Kapampangan language
and writing system.[9] As late as 1699, more than a hundred years after the Spanish conquest, Spaniards continued to study the Kapampangan language
Kapampangan language
together with its indigenous writing system. The Spanish introduced a Romanized orthographic known as the Bacolor Orthography or Súlat Bacúlud, referred as Tutûng Kapampángan (English: "genuine Kapampangan") due to the great number of written volume of Kapampangan works written in this orthography. This orthography contains the letters ‘Q and C’ and includes F, Ñ and LL.[8] By the end of the Spanish era, the ABAKADA, also known as Súlat Wáwâ or Guagua script, this replaced C and Q with the letter K. The Kapampangan nationalist writers from Wáwâ (Guagua) wanted to create a distinct identity different from the Bacúlud literary tradition. The inspiration came from José Rizal, the Philippine National Hero, who proposed indigenizing Philippine writing when he proposed of simplifying Romanized Tagalog by replacing the letters C and Q with K. Two Kapampangan writers from Wáwâ (Guagua), Aurelio Tolentino
Aurelio Tolentino
and Monico Mercado with his translation of Rizal's Mi Último Adiós
Mi Último Adiós
have adapted Rizal's proposal into Kapampangan writing.[8]

A Kapampangan calligraphist writes in Kulitan script during the inauguration of the University of the Philippines
Diliman Extension Program in Pampanga's new campus.

On December 31, 1937, Commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon proclaimed the language based on Tagalog as the national language of the Philippines. Zoilo Hilario propose to standardize Kapampangan orthography. Being a member of the Institute of National Language (INL), Hilario sought to adopt the ABAKADA used in Tagalog and impose it as the Kapampangan language's standard orthographic system. This legal imposition of Tagalog as the Philippine national language whereby all other Philippine languages, including Kapampangan, were placed in a subordinate position to Tagalog. The conflict between the so-called purists and antipurists that plagued the Tagalog literary scene also found its way among Kapampangan writers.[8] In 1970, prior to his official translation of the Christian Bible in the Kapampangan language, Venancio Samson called the existing dispute in Kapampangan orthography to the attention of the Philippine Bible Society. Samson submitted a proposal aimed at reconciling the old and the new spelling in Kapampangan writing with what is known as Ámugng Samson's Hybrid Orthography. Samson's synthesis was readily accepted by the Catholic Archdiocese of Pampanga, which utilized it in most of its Kapampangan language
Kapampangan language
publications during the early part of the 1970s.[8] In 1997, Batiáuan Foundation stated that the major obstacle to popularizing Kapampangan was the intense squabble over orthography. The prediction that the Kapampangan ethnic group would be completely absorbed by the Tagalogs was seen by various Kapampangan groups as a real threat, given the fact that Tagalog words were replacing more and more indigenous terms in the spoken Kapampangan language. They simply revised the use of the ABAKADA in Kapampangan writing by removing the letter W and the insistent use of the simplified diacritical marks. Akademyang Kapampangan believes that the Batiáuan revision complicates Kapampangan writing and confuses adherents to their proposed orthography. Batiáuan insists that the diacritical marks are essential in Kapampangan writing because there are many words in the Kapampangan language
Kapampangan language
that are spelled the same way but pronounced differently. From this perspective, diacritical marks facilitate understanding rather than complicating the language.[8] Examples[edit] Catholic prayers[edit]

The Church of the Pater Noster
Church of the Pater Noster
in Jerusalem
with a Kapampangan text of the Lord's Prayer
Lord's Prayer
at the right.

The Sign of the Cross Uli ning tanda ning Santa Cruz, karing masamá kekami, ikabus Mu kami, Ginu ming Dios. King lagyu ning +Ibpa, ampon ning Anak, ampon ning Espiritu Santo. Amen. The Creed Sasalpantaya ku king Dios, Ibpang mayupayang tutu, linalang king banwa't yatu. At kang Hesukristong Anak nang Bugtung a Ginu tamu. Pengagli Ya king upaya ning Banal a Espiritu, mibayit Ya kang Santa Mariang Birhen. Linasa Ya lalam nang upaya nang Poncio Pilato. Mipaku ya king krus, mete Ya't mikutkut. Tinipa Ya karing mete. King katlung aldo, sinubli yang mebie. Pepaitas Ya banua, makalukluk wanan ning Dios Ibpang mayupayang tutu. Ibat karin, magbalik Ya naman keti ban mukum karing mabie ampon mengamate. Sasalpantaya ku king Banal a Espiritu, ang Santa Iglesia Katolika, ang pamisamak ding Santos, ang pangapatauadda ring kasalanan, king pangasubli rang mie ring mete, at king bie alang angga. Amen. The Lord's Prayer Ibpa mi, a atiu banua. Misamban ya ing lagyu Mu. Datang kekami ing kayarian Mu. Mipamintuan ing lub Mu, keti sulip anti banua. Ing kakanan mi king aldo-aldo ibie Mu kekami king aldo ngeni. Ampon ipatawad Mo kekami ring sala mi Keka, anti ing pamamatauad mi karing mikasala kekami. E Mu ke ipaisaul ang tuksu, nune ikabus Mu kami karing sablang marok. Amen. Angelic Salutation (Hail, Mary!) Bapu, Maria! Mitmu ka king grasya. Ing Ginung Dios atyu keka. Nuan ka karing sablang babayi, at nuan ya pa naman ing bunga ning atian mu, i Jesús. Santa Maria, Indu ning Dios. Ipanalangin mu keng makasalanan, ngeni, ampon king oras ning kamatayan mi. Amen. The Gloria Patri Ligaya king Ibpa, at ang Anak, at ang Espiritu Santo. Antimo ing sadya nang ligaya ibat king kamumulan, ngeni't kapilan man, mangga man king alang angga. Amen. The Salve Regina Bapu Reyna, Indung Mamakalulu, bie ampon yumu, manga panaligan mi, Bapu Reyna, ikang ausan mi, ikeng pepalakuan a anak nang Eva; ikang pangisnawan ming malalam, daralung ke manga tatangis keni king karinan ning luwa.

Ngamu na Reyna, Patulunan mi, balicdan mu kami karing mata mung mapamakalulu, ampon nung mapupus, pangalako mu queti sulip, pakit me kekami i Hesus, a bungang masampat ning atian mu. O malugud ! O mapamakalulu! O Santa Maria Birhen a mayumu! V:Ipanalangin mu kami, O Santang Indu ning Dios. R: Ba’keng sukat makinabang karing pengaku nang Hesukristong Ginu tamu. Some words in the dominant dialect of the Kapampangan language, as spoken in key towns in Pampanga: Numbers 1 - isa (used when reciting the numbers); metung (used for counting) 2 - addua 3 - atlu 4 - apat 5 - lima 6 - anam 7 - pitu 8 - walu 9 - s'yam 10 - apulu Sentences: My name is John. - Juan ya ing lagyu ku. I am here! - Atyu ku keni! / Ati ku keni! Where are you? - Nukarin ka (kanyan)? I love you. - Kaluguran daka. What do you want? - Nanu ya ing buri mu? I will go home. - Muli ku. They don't want to eat. - Ali la bisang mangan. He bought rice. - Sinali yang nasi. She likes that. - Buri ne ita. May I go out? - Malyari ku waring lumwal? I can't sleep. - Ali ku mipapatudtud. We are afraid. - Tatakut kami. My pet died yesterday. - Mete ya ing sese ku napun. How old are you? - Pilan na kang banua? How did you do that? - Makananu meng gewa ita? How did you get here? Katnamu ka miparas keni? How big is it? - Makananu ya karagul? / Nu anti ya karagul? When will you be back? - Kapilan ka mibalik?

Words: I - yaku, i aku You - ika (singular); ikayu (plural) You and I - ikata we - ikami us - itamu/ikatamu all of us - itamu ngan/ikatamu ngan all of you - ikayu nga/iko ngan love - lugud anger - muwa beautiful - malagu (for female) handsome - masanting - (for male, and usually for inanimate objects) beauty - lagu sun - aldo moon - bulan star - batuin sky - banua cloud - ulap earth (planet) - yatu morning - abak noon - ugtu afternoon - gatpanapun dusk - sisilim night - bengi midnight - kapitangang bengi dawn / daybreak - ganing aldo path / road - dalan bridge - tete air - angin soil - gabun water - danum fire - api food - pamangan shrimp paste - baguk fermented fish - buru recycled leftovers - lataklatak dog - asu cat - pusa mouse / rat - dagis ant - panas/salusad snake - ubingan/bingan mosquito - amuk fly (insect) - lango termite - ane butterfly - paru-paru dragonfly - tulang lizard - butiki cockroach - ipas bee - bubuyug spider - babagwa bird - ayup crocodile / alligator - dapu pig / boar - babi chicken - manuk duck - bibi fish - asan carabao - damulag cow - baka shrimp - paro crab - ema catfish - bulig milkfish - bangus plant - tanaman flower - sampaga vegetable - gule fruit - prutas house - bale school - iskuwela church - pisamban chapel - bisitas hospital - uspital cemetery - campo santo/kabisantu rain - uran thunder - duldul lightning - kildap earthquake - ayun typhoon / storm - bagyu tornado / twister - ipu-ipu/buawi flood - albug town / municipality - balen child - anak parent - pengari sibling - kapatad uncle - bapa aunt - dara cousin - pisan sister-in-law / brother-in-law - bayo/bilas grandchildren - apu godparent - tegawan See also[edit]

portal Language portal

Languages of the Philippines Malayo-Polynesian Pampanga Tarlac Bataan Kulitan



^ Kapampangan at Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Pampanga". Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Ulrich Ammon; Norbert Dittmar; Klaus J. Mattheier (2006). Sociolinguistics: an international handbook of the science of language and society. Volume 3. Walter de Gruyter. p. 2018. ISBN 978-3-11-018418-1.  ^ Bergaño ^

In many gatherings Kapampangans seem more confident and articulate in exchanging views and ideas among their own [Kabalen] ‘countrymen’ in Tagalog which is the vernacular in the Philippines, than they would in their own [native language]. For instance, many Catholic priests are now delivering their homilies in the Tagalog language
Tagalog language
during a Kapampangan liturgy while high school student meetings are conducted in the Tagalog language
Tagalog language
even if all the participants are Kapampangans. — [1]

^ a b Forman, Michael, 1971, pp.28-29 ^ In the examples, the word to which the accusative case marker attaches is a pronoun or portmanteau pronoun that is obligatorily present in the same clause as the noun with which it is co-referential. In sentences with an agent trigger, the pronoun co-refers with the agent subject. In sentences with a non-agent trigger, the portmanteau pronoun co-refers with both the ergative agent and the non-agent subject, which is marked with direct case. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Pangilinan, M. R. M. (2006, January). Kapampángan or Capampáñgan: settling the dispute on the Kapampángan Romanized orthography. In Paper at Tenth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan (pp. 17-20). ^ Pangilinan, Michael (2012). An introduction to Kulitan, the indigenous Kapampangan script. Center for Kapampangan Studies, Philippines. 


Bautista, Ma. Lourdes S. 1996. An Outline: The National Language and the Language of Instruction. In Readings in Philippine Sociolinguistics, ed. by Ma. Lourdes S. Bautista, 223. Manila: De La Salle University Press, Inc. Bergaño, Diego. 1860. Vocabulario de la Lengua Pampanga
en Romance. 2nd ed. Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier. Castro, Rosalina Icban. 1981. Literature of the Pampangos. Manila: University of the East Press. Fernández, Eligío. 1876. Nuevo Vocabulario, ó Manual de Conversaciónes en Español, Tagálo y Pampángo. Binondo: Imprenta de M. Perez Forman, Michael. 1971. Kapampangan Grammar Notes. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press Gallárdo, José. 1985–86. Magaral Tang Capampangan. Ing Máyap a Balità, ed. by José Gallárdo, May 1985- June 1986. San Fernando: Archdiocese of San Fernando. Henson, Mariano A. 1965. The Province of Pampanga
and Its Towns: A.D. 1300–1965. 4th ed. revised. Angeles City: By the author. Kitano Hiroaki. 1997. Kapampangan. In Facts About The World's Major Languages, ed. by Jane Garry. New York: H.W. Wilson. Pre-published copy Lacson, Evangelina Hilario. 1984. Kapampangan Writing: A Selected Compendium and Critique. Ermita, Manila: National Historical Institute. Manlapaz, Edna Zapanta. 1981. Kapampangan Literature: A Historical Survey and Anthology. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. Panganiban, J.V. 1972. Diksyunaryo-Tesauro Pilipino-Ingles. Quezon City: Manlapaz Publishing Co. Pangilinan, Michael Raymon M. 2004. Critical Diacritical. In Kapampangan Magazine, ed. by Elmer G. Cato,32-33, Issue XIV. Angeles City: KMagazine. Samson, Venancio. 2004. Problems on Pampango Orthography. In Kapampangan Magazine, ed. by Elmer G. Cato,32-33, Issue XII. Angeles City: KMagazine. Tayag, Katoks (Renato). 1985. "The Vanishing Pampango Nation", Recollections and Digressions. Escolta, Manila: Philnabank Club c/o Philippine National Bank. Turla, Ernesto C. 1999. Classic Kapampangan Dictionary. Offprint Copy

External links[edit]

edition of, the free encyclopedia

Bansa Kapampangan-English Dictionary Kapampangan Wiktionary 10 ICAL Paper – Issues in Orthography 10 ICAL Paper – Importance of Diacritical Marks 10 ICAL Paper – Transitivity & Pronominal Clitic Order Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database Electronic Kabalen – New Writing on Kapampangan Life & Letters Dying languages State can still save Kapampangan Wikibook Kapampangan Siuala ding Meangubie Online E-book of Arte de la Lengua Pampanga
by Diego Bergaño. Originally published in 1736. [2]

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