Kansai International Airport (関西国際空港, Kansai Kokusai Kūkō, colloquially known as Kankū (関空)) (IATA: KIX, ICAO: RJBB) is an international airport located on an artificial island in the middle of Osaka Bay off the Honshu shore, 38 km (24 mi) southwest of Ōsaka Station,[3] located within three municipalities, including Izumisano (north),[4] Sennan (south),[5] and Tajiri (central),[6] in Osaka Prefecture, Japan.

Kansai opened 4 September 1994 to relieve overcrowding at Osaka International Airport, which is closer to the city of Osaka and now handles only domestic flights. The Terminal 1 was designed by Italian architect Renzo Piano. The airport serves as an international hub for All Nippon Airways, Japan Airlines, and Nippon Cargo Airlines, and also serves as a hub for Peach, the first international low-cost carrier in Japan.

In 2016, 25.2 million passengers used the airport making it the 30th busiest airport in Asia and 3rd busiest in Japan. Freight volume was at 802,162 tonnes total, of which 757,414 t were international (18th in the world), and 44,748 t were domestic.[7] The 4,000 m × 60 m (13,123 ft × 197 ft) second runway was opened on 2 August 2007. As of June 2014, Kansai Airport has become an Asian hub, with 780 weekly flights to Asia and Australasia (including freight 119), 59 weekly flights to Europe and the Middle East (freight 5), and 80 weekly flights to North America (freight 42).[8]


3rd floor boarding lobby, part of the longest airport concourse in the world

In the 1960s, when the Kansai region was rapidly losing trade to Tokyo, planners proposed a new airport near Kobe and Osaka. Osaka International Airport, located in the densely populated suburbs of Itami and Toyonaka, was surrounded by buildings; it could not be expanded, and many of its neighbours had filed complaints because of noise pollution problems.[citation needed]

After the protests surrounding New Tokyo International Airport (now Narita International Airport), which was built with expropriated land in a rural part of Chiba Prefecture, planners decided to build the airport offshore. The new airport was part of a number of new developments to revitalize Osaka, which had been losing economic and cultural ground to Tokyo for most of the century.[9]

Initially, the airport was planned to be built near Kobe, but the city of Kobe refused the plan, so the airport was moved to a more southerly location on Osaka Bay. There it could be open 24 hours per day, unlike its predecessor in the city.


Satellite photo of Kansai Airport (lower-right island) in Osaka Bay. Kobe Airport is being built on the unfinished island near the middle of the photo. Central Osaka is in the upper-right corner, along with Osaka International.
Airport Map

An artificial island, 4 km (2.5 mi) long and 2.5 km (1.6 mi) wide, was proposed. Engineers needed to overcome the extremely high risks of earthquakes and typhoons (with storm surges of up to 3 m (10 ft)). The water depth is 18 m on top of 20 m of soft Holocene clay which holds 70% water.[10][11][12][13] A million sand drains were built into the clay to remove water and solidify the clay.[12][13]

Construction started in 1987. The sea wall was finished in 1989 (made of rock and 48,000 tetrapods). Three mountains were excavated for 21,000,000 m3 (27,000,000 cu yd),[citation needed] and 180,000,000 m3 (240,000,000 cu yd) was used to construct island 1.[11] 10 000 workers and 10 million work hours over three years, using eighty ships, were needed to complete the 30-metre (98 ft) (or 40 m)[11] layer of earth over the sea floor and inside the sea wall. In 1990, a three kilometer bridge was completed to connect the island to the mainland at Rinku Town, at a cost of $1 billion.[citation needed] Completion of the artificial island increased the area of Osaka Prefecture just enough to move it past Kagawa Prefecture in size (leaving Kagawa as the smallest by area in Japan).

The bidding and construction of the airport was a source of international trade friction during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone responded to American concerns, particularly from Senator Frank Murkowski, that bids would be rigged in Japanese companies' favour by providing special offices for prospective international contractors,[14] which ultimately did little to ease the participation of foreign contractors in the bidding process.[15] Later, foreign airlines complained that two-thirds of the departure hall counter space had been allocated to Japanese carriers, disproportionately to the actual carriage of passengers through the airport.[16]

The island had been predicted to sink 5.7 m (19 ft) by the most optimistic estimate as the weight of the material used for construction compressed the seabed silts. However, by 1999, the island had sunk 8.2 m (27 ft) – much more than predicted. The project became the most expensive civil works project in modern history after twenty years of planning, three years of construction and fifteen billion (US) dollars of investment. Much of what was learned went into the successful artificial islands in silt deposits for New Kitakyushu Airport, Kobe Airport, and Chūbu Centrair International Airport. The lessons of Kansai Airport were also applied in the construction of Hong Kong International Airport.[17]

In 1991, the terminal construction commenced. To compensate for the sinking of the island, adjustable columns were designed to support the terminal building. These are extended by inserting thick metal plates at their bases. Government officials proposed reducing the length of the terminal to cut costs, but architect Renzo Piano insisted on keeping the terminal at its full planned length.[18] The airport opened in 1994.

On 17 January 1995, Japan was struck by the Kobe earthquake, whose epicenter was about 20 km (12 mi) away from KIX and killed 6,434 people on Japan's main island of Honshū. Due to its earthquake engineering, the airport emerged unscathed, mostly due to the use of sliding joints. Even the glass in the windows remained intact. In 1998, the airport survived a typhoon with wind speeds of up to 200 km/h (120 mph).[citation needed]

On 19 April 2001, the airport was one of ten structures given the "Civil Engineering Monument of the Millennium" award by the American Society of Civil Engineers.[19]

As of 2008, the total cost of Kansai Airport was $20 billion including land reclamation, two runways, terminals and facilities. Most additional costs were initially due to the island sinking, expected due to the soft soils of Osaka Bay. After construction the rate of sinking was considered so severe that the airport was widely criticized as a geotechnical engineering disaster. The sink rate fell from 50 cm (20 in) per year during 1994 to 7 cm (2.8 in) per year in 2008.[20]


A Finnair MD-11 and KLM Boeing 777-200ER at KIX. The terminal building is in the background
4th floor ticketing hall, illustrating the terminal's airfoil roof

Opened on 4 September 1994, the airport serves as a hub for several airlines such as All Nippon Airways, Japan Airlines, and Nippon Cargo Airlines. It is the international gateway for Japan's Kansai region, which contains the major cities of Kyoto, Kobe, and Osaka. Other Kansai domestic flights fly from the older but more conveniently located Osaka International Airport in Itami, or from the newer Kobe Airport.

The airport had been deeply in debt, losing $560 million in interest every year. Airlines had been kept away by high landing fees (about $7,500 for a Boeing 747), the second most expensive in the world after Narita's. In the early years of the airport's operation, excessive terminal rent and utility bills for on-site concessions also drove up operating costs: some estimates before opening held that a cup of coffee would have to cost US$10.[21] Osaka business owners pressed the government to take a greater burden of the construction cost to keep the airport attractive to passengers and airlines.[22]

On 17 February 2005, Chubu Centrair International Airport opened in Nagoya, just east of Osaka. The opening of the airport was expected to increase competition between Japan's international airports. Despite this, passenger totals were up 11% in 2005 over 2004, and international passengers increased to 3.06 million in 2006, up 10% over 2005. Adding to the competition was the opening of Kobe Airport, less than 25 km (16 mi) away, in 2006 and the lengthening of the runway at Tokushima Airport in Shikoku in 2007. The main rationale behind the expansions was to compete with Incheon International Airport and Hong Kong International Airport as a gateway to Asia, as Tokyo area airports were severely congested. Kansai saw a 5% year-on-year increase in international traffic in summer 2013, largely supported by low-cost carrier traffic to Taiwan and Southeast Asia overcoming a decrease in traffic to China and South Korea.[23]

The airport authority was allotted 4 billion yen in government support for fiscal year 2013, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport and Ministry of Finance have agreed to reduce this amount in stages through fiscal year 2015, although local governments in the Kansai region have pressed for continued subsidies.[24]

Kansai has been marketed as an alternative to Narita Airport for international travelers from the Greater Tokyo Area. By flying to Kansai from Haneda Airport and connecting to international flights there, travelers can save the additional time required to get to Narita: up to one and a half hours for many residents of Kanagawa Prefecture and southern Tokyo.


Second phase of Kansai International Airport under construction

The airport was at its limit during peak times, owing especially to freight flights, so a portion of Phase II expansion—the second runway—was made a priority.[25] Thus, in 2003, believing that the sinking problem was almost over, the airport operators started to construct a 4,000 m (13,000 ft) second runway and terminal.

The second runway opened on 2 August 2007, but with the originally planned terminal portion postponed. This lowered the project cost to JPY¥910 billion (approx. US$8 billion), saving ¥650 billion from the first estimate.[26] The additional runway development, which was opened in time for the IAAF world athletics championships in Osaka, has expanded the airport size to 10.5 square kilometres (2,600 acres). The second runway is used for landings and when there are incidents prohibiting take off use of runway A. The new runway allowed the airport to start 24-hour operations in September 2007.[27][28]

A new terminal building opened in late 2012.[29] There are additional plans for several new aprons, a third runway (06C/24C) with a length of 3,500 m (11,483 ft), a new cargo terminal and expanding the airport size to 13 km2 (5.0 sq mi). As of 2012, the Japanese government is postponing these plans for economic reasons.

Relationship with Itami Airport

Kansai Airport in 2006

Since July 2008, Osaka Prefecture governor Toru Hashimoto has been a vocal critic of Itami Airport, arguing that the Chuo Shinkansen maglev line will make much of its domestic role irrelevant, and that its domestic functions should be transferred to Kansai Airport in conjunction with upgraded high-speed access to Kansai from central Osaka.[30] In 2009, Hashimoto also publicly proposed moving the functions of Marine Corps Air Station Futenma to Kansai Airport as a possible solution for the political crisis surrounding the base.[31]

In May 2011, the Diet of Japan passed legislation to form a new Kansai International Airport Corporation using the state's existing equity stake in Kansai Airport and its property holdings at Itami Airport. The move was aimed at offsetting Kansai Airport's debt burden.[32]

The merger of the Itami and Kansai airport authorities was completed in July 2012. Shortly following the merger, Kansai Airport announced a 5% reduction in landing fees effective October 2012, with additional reductions during overnight hours when the airport is underutilized, and further discounts planned for the future, including subsidies for new airlines and routes. As of October 2012 these moves were intended to bring Kansai's fees closer to the level of Narita International Airport, where landing fees were around 20% lower than Kansai's, and to improve competitiveness with other Asian hubs such as Incheon International Airport in Korea.[33]

Since its formation, the new operating company has also made efforts toward international expansion, bidding for operating concessions at Yangon International Airport and Hanthawaddy International Airport in Myanmar.[34]

KIAC conducted a public tender to sell the operating rights for Kansai and Itami Airport in May 2015. Orix and Vinci SA were the sole bidder for the 45-year contract, at a price of around $18 billion.[35] The new operating company, Kansai Airports, took over on April 1, 2016.[36] It is 80% owned by Orix and Vinci, with the remaining 20% owned by Kansai-based enterprises such as Hankyu Hanshin Holdings and Panasonic.[37]


Kansai International Airport's roof
Terminal 1 Interior Escalator

Terminal 1

The main KIX passenger Terminal l is a single four-storey building designed by Renzo Piano Building Workshop (Renzo Piano and Noriaki Okabe) and has a gross floor space of 296,043 square metres (3,186,580 sq ft). As of 2008, it is the longest airport terminal in the world[citation needed], at a total length of 1.7 km (1.1 mi) from end to end. It has a sophisticated people mover system called the Wing Shuttle, which moves passengers from one end of the pier to the other.

The terminal's roof is shaped like an airfoil. This shape is used to promote air circulation through the building: giant air conditioning ducts blow air upwards at one side of the terminal, circulate the air across the curvature of the ceiling, and collect the air through intakes at the other side. Mobiles are suspended in the ticketing hall to take advantage of the flowing air.

The ticketing hall overlooks the international departures concourse, and the two are separated by a glass partition. During Kansai's early days, visitors were known to throw objects over the partition to friends in the corridor below. The partition was eventually modified to halt this practice.

Terminal 2

Terminal 2 departures lobby
Terminal 2 Restricted area shops

Terminal 2 is a low-cost carrier (LCC) terminal designed to attract more LCCs by providing lower landing fees than Terminal 1. It is exclusively occupied by Peach. Other LCCs serving Kansai, such as Jetstar Airways, Jetstar Japan, and Cebu Pacific Air, use the main Terminal 1.[38] A significant expansion opened in January 2017; Spring Airlines plans to relocate its international flights to Terminal 2 in March 2017 (Spring Airlines Japan domestic flights will remain in Terminal 1).[39][40]

Peach requested that Terminal 2 have a simplified design in order to minimize operating costs.[41] The terminal is a single-story building, thus eliminating the cost of elevators. Passageways to aircraft have no air conditioning.[42] The terminal also has no jet bridges, having one boarding gate for domestic departures and one boarding gate for international departures. In case of rain, passengers are lent umbrellas to use as they walk to the aircraft.[43]

Terminal 2 is not directly connected to Terminal 1 or to Kansai Airport Station. Free shuttle buses run between the two terminals, and between Terminal 2 and the railway and ferry stations. It is also possible to walk between the terminals through the KIX Sora Park, a four-hectare park located adjacent to Terminal 2.[44]

Airlines and destinations


Kansai airport passenger destinations
Airlines Destinations
AirAsia X Honolulu,[45] Kuala Lumpur–International
Air Busan Busan, Daegu[46]
Air Canada Rouge Seasonal: Vancouver
Air China Beijing–Capital, Chengdu, Dalian, Shanghai–Pudong, Tianjin
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle
Air India Delhi, Hong Kong, Mumbai
Air Macau Macau
Air New Zealand Seasonal: Auckland
Air Seoul Seoul–Incheon[47]
Aircalin Nouméa
All Nippon Airways Beijing–Capital, Dalian, Fukuoka, Hangzhou, Hong Kong, Ishigaki, Miyako, Naha, Qingdao, Sapporo–Chitose, Shanghai–Pudong, Tokyo–Haneda
Seasonal: Asahikawa, Memanbetsu
Asiana Airlines Seoul–Gimpo, Seoul–Incheon
Seasonal: Saipan
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong, Taipei–Taoyuan
Cebu Pacific Manila
China Airlines Kaohsiung, Tainan, Taipei–Taoyuan
China Eastern Airlines Beijing–Capital, Dalian,[48] Hangzhou, Nanjing, Ningbo, Qingdao, Shanghai–Pudong, Yanji,[49] Yantai
China Eastern Airlines
operated by Shanghai Airlines
China Southern Airlines Changsha, Dalian, Guangzhou, Guiyang, Harbin, Shanghai–Pudong, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Wuhan, Zhengzhou
Delta Air Lines Honolulu
Eastar Jet Busan, Seoul–Incheon
EgyptAir Charter: Cairo, Luxor[50]
Emirates Dubai–International
EVA Air Kaohsiung, Taipei–Taoyuan
Finnair Helsinki
Garuda Indonesia Denpasar/Bali, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta
Hainan Airlines
operated by Beijing Capital Airlines
Hawaiian Airlines Honolulu
Hong Kong Airlines Hong Kong
HK Express Hong Kong
Japan Airlines Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Honolulu, Los Angeles, Sapporo–Chitose, Shanghai–Pudong, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Haneda
Japan Airlines
operated by Japan Transocean Air
Ishigaki, Naha
Jeju Air Busan, Seoul–Gimpo, Seoul–Incheon
Seasonal: Muan (begins 30 April 2018)[51]
Jetstar Airways Cairns, Melbourne
Jetstar Asia Airways Clark,[52] Manila, Singapore, Taipei–Taoyuan
Jetstar Japan Fukuoka, Hong Kong, Naha, Sapporo–Chitose, Tokyo–Narita
Seasonal: Manila, Taipei–Taoyuan
Jetstar Pacific Da Nang, Hanoi[53]
Jin Air Busan,[54] Seoul–Incheon
Juneyao Airlines Nanjing,[55] Shanghai–Pudong
KLM Amsterdam
Korean Air Busan, Jeju, Seoul–Gimpo, Seoul–Incheon
Lufthansa Frankfurt
Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur–International
Okay Airways Tianjin
Peach Busan, Fukuoka, Hong Kong, Ishigaki, Kagoshima, Kaohsiung, Kushiro (begins 1 August 2018),[56] Matsuyama, Miyazaki, Nagasaki, Naha, Niigata,[57] Sapporo–Chitose, Sendai, Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Narita
Philippine Airlines Cebu, Manila, Taipei–Taoyuan[58]
Qantas Sydney[59][60]
S7 Airlines Vladivostok[61]
Scoot Bangkok–Don Mueang, Honolulu, Kaohsiung, Singapore
Shandong Airlines Jinan, Qingdao,[62] Ürümqi[62]
Shenzhen Airlines Beijing–Capital,[63] Nantong,[64] Shenzhen, Wuxi
Sichuan Airlines Chengdu
Singapore Airlines Singapore
Spring Airlines Chongqing, Luoyang, Qingdao, Shanghai–Pudong, Tianjin, Wuhan, Xi'an,[65] Yangzhou, Huai'an
StarFlyer Tokyo–Haneda
Thai AirAsia X Bangkok–Don Mueang
Thai Airways Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi
Tianjin Airlines Tianjin
Tigerair Taiwan Kaohsiung,[66] Taipei–Taoyuan
T'way Airlines Busan,[67] Daegu, Muan, Guam,[68] Jeju,[67] Seoul–Incheon
United Airlines Guam, San Francisco
Vanilla Air Amami Oshima,[69] Tokyo–Narita (ends 15 June 2018),[70] Taipei–Taoyuan
Vietnam Airlines Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City
XiamenAir Fuzhou, Xiamen


Airlines Destinations
Air China Cargo Beijing–Capital, Shanghai–Pudong
ANA Cargo Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Dalian, Naha, Qingdao, Saga, Shanghai–Pudong, Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita, Xiamen
Asiana Cargo Seoul–Gimpo, Seoul–Incheon
Cargolux Luxembourg
Cargo Garuda Indonesia Denpasar/Bali, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta
Cathay Pacific Cargo Hong Kong, Seoul–Incheon
China Airlines Cargo Anchorage, Los Angeles, Taipei–Taoyuan
China Cargo Airlines Shanghai–Pudong, Xiamen
China Postal Airlines Shanghai–Pudong
China Southern Cargo[71] Shanghai–Pudong
Cathay Pacific Cargo Hong Kong
DHL Aviation
operated by Air Hong Kong
Hong Kong
DHL Aviation
operated by AeroLogic
DHL Aviation
operated by Kalitta Air
Anchorage, Cincinnati, Hong Kong
EVA Air Cargo Taipei–Taoyuan
FedEx Express Anchorage, Beijing–Capital, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Indianapolis, Memphis, Oakland, Singapore, Shanghai–Pudong, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Narita
Hong Kong Airlines Cargo Hong Kong
Korean Air Cargo Seoul–Gimpo, Seoul–Incheon
Lufthansa Cargo Frankfurt, Krasnoyarsk
National Airlines (N8) Anchorage, Los Angeles
Nippon Cargo Airlines Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Beijing–Capital, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong, Singapore, Tokyo–Narita
Polar Air Cargo Chicago–O'Hare, Shanghai–Pudong
Singapore Airlines Cargo Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Singapore
UPS Airlines Anchorage, Shanghai–Pudong, Shenzhen
Yakutia Airlines Shanghai–Pudong

Ground transportation


Haruka, JR West's Kansai Airport Limited Express
rapi:t, Nankai Railway's limited express train

Kansai International Airport is connected only by the Sky Gate Bridge R, a road/railroad bridge to Rinku Town and the mainland. The lower railroad level of the bridge is used by two railroad operators: JR West and Nankai Electric Railway.

JR West operates the Haruka limited express train services for Kansai Airport Station from Tennōji, Shin-Ōsaka, and Kyoto Station. JR West also offers "Kansai Airport Rapid" services for Kansai Airport Station from Ōsaka, Kyōbashi Station, and several stations on the way. Various connections, such as buses, subways, trams, and other railroads, are available at each station.

Nankai operates the rapi:t, a limited express train service to Namba Station on the southern edge of downtown Osaka. Osaka Municipal Subway connections are available at Namba and Tengachaya Station.


Kansai Airport Transportation Enterprise[72] and other bus operators offer scheduled express bus services, called "Airport Limousines", for Kansai International Airport.


Two six story parking structures, called P1 and P2, are located above a railroad terminal station, while the other two level parking facilities, called P3 and P4, are situated next to "Aeroplaza", a hotel complex.

The airport is only accessible from the Sky Gate Bridge R, a part of Kansai Airport Expressway. The expressway immediately connects to Hanshin Expressways Route 5, "Wangan Route", and Hanwa Expressway.

Ferry service

In July 2007, high-speed ferry service began. OM Kobe operates "Bay Shuttle" between Kobe Airport and KIX. The journey takes about thirty minutes.

Other facilities

Kensetsu-to, the headquarters of Peach Aviation and the Kansai International Airport Land Development Co., Ltd.
Sky Gate Bridge to the mainland
  • Kansai Airport Agency Company Building (航空会社北ビル, Kūkō Kaisha Kita Biru) – Houses the Kansai Airport Agency Co., Ltd. (株式会社 関西エアポートエージェンシー, Kabushiki Kaisha Kansai Eapōto Ējenshī)[73][74]
  • Kensetsu-to (建設棟, Kensetsu-tō)
    • The head office of the Kansai International Airport Land Development Co., Ltd. (KALD, 関西国際空港用地造成株式会社 Kansai Kokusai Kūkō Yōchi Zōsei Kabushiki Kaisha) is on the fourth floor.[75]
    • The Peach Aviation head office is on the fifth floor.[76][77]
  • Aeroplaza (エアロプラザ, Earopuraza) is located on the west side of Kansai Airport Station. It includes a hotel, restaurants, rental car counters, and other businesses[78]
    • Hotel Nikko Kansai Airport (north portion of Kansai Airport)[4]
    • Head office of Peach Aviation was previously located on the third floor (central portion of Kansai Airport)[79][80]
  • Central power station (KEPCO) energy center, 40 MW
  • JAL Cargo import and export facilities (in southern portion)[5]
  • Japan Coast Guard Kansai airport Coast Guard air base
  • Japan Coast Guard Special Security Team Base
  • Osaka international post office (As of 2010 carrying about 19,000 tonnes per year of international postal matter)
  • Oil tanker berths (three berths) and Fuel Supply center
  • Airport access bridge ("The Sky Gate Bridge R"), which as of 2011 is the longest[citation needed] truss bridge in the world at 3,750 m (12,303 ft). The double-decker bridge consists of a lower deck devoted to rail, with the upper for road.

See also


  1. ^ "New Management Setup of Kansai Airport" (PDF). Kansai Airports. Kansai Airports. 2016-04-01. Retrieved 2016-04-24. 
  2. ^ "FedEx Opens North Pacific Regional Hub at Kansai International Airport". newswit.com. 3 July 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  3. ^ AIS Japan
  4. ^ a b Home Archived 8 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Hotel Nikko Kansai Airport. Retrieved on 23 July 2011. "Hotel Nikko Kansai Airport 1, Senshu-kuko Kita, Izumisano-shi, Osaka, 549-0001, Japan "
  5. ^ a b "OSAKA KANSAI (Kansai International Airport)." JAL Cargo. Retrieved on 23 July 2011. "Departure JAL Export Cargo Bldg. 1 Senshu Airport Minami, Sennan, Osaka Arrival JALKAS Import Cargo Bldg. 1 Senshu Airport Minami, Sennan, Osaka"
  6. ^ "航空運送事業の許可について(Peach・Aviation 株式会社)." Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism. 7 July 2011 (Heisei 23). Retrieved on 21 July 2011. "1.本社所在地 大阪府泉南郡田尻町泉州空港中1番地(関西空港内)"
  7. ^ Kansai International Airport Statistics Archived 29 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. – Kansai International Airport Co., Ltd.
  8. ^ Kansai International Airport 2014 summer Flight Schedules – Kansai International Airport Co., Ltd.
  9. ^ Osaka Journal; Impatient City's Mission: Steal Tokyo's Thunder, New York Times, 9 December 1989.
  10. ^ Peter Rice (4 September 1994). "Kansai International Airport terminal building". Engineering Timelines / Arup Group. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  11. ^ a b c Mesri, G. (30 October 2014). "Settlement of the Kansai International Airport Islands (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0)". 141 (2). ASCE Library / Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering / Volume 141 Issue 2 - February 2015. doi:10.1061/(asce)gt.1943-5606.0001224. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  12. ^ a b "Kansai International Airport Land Co., Ltd - Technical Information - Land Settlement - Why Settlement Occurs". Kansai. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  13. ^ a b "Kansai International Airport Land Co., Ltd - Technical Information - Approach to Settlement - Condition of the Settlement". Kansai. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  14. ^ Some Minor Gains on Trade Conflicts, New York Times, 2 May 1987.
  15. ^ US Cancels A Plan To Begin Sanctions After Japan Acts, New York Times, 27 October 1993.
  16. ^ Osaka Notebook, International Herald Tribune, 24 August 1992.
  17. ^ Sinking Feeling at Hong Kong Airport, International Herald Tribune, 22 January 1982.
  18. ^ Osaka Journal; Huge Airport Has Its Wings Clipped, New York Times, 3 July 1991.
  19. ^ U.S. Engineering Society names Kansai International Airport a Civil Engineering Monument of the Millennium Archived 13 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine. – Press release from American Society of Civil Engineers
  20. ^ "Kansai International Airport Land Co., Ltd - Technical Information - Approach to Settlement - Condition of the Settlement". Retrieved 4 June 2015. 
  21. ^ Will Fees Sink New Osaka Airport?, International Herald Tribune, 5 August 1994.
  22. ^ Pride and (Ouch!) Price: The $14 Billion Airport, New York Times, 16 December 1993.
  23. ^ "関空、夏季の国際線旅客5%増 台湾・東南ア顧客が増加見通し". 日本経済新聞. 19 July 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  24. ^ "関空支援を国に要望 促進協、ターミナル整備など". 日本経済新聞. 22 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 
  25. ^ The reason for construction of The 2nd runway Archived 22 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine.– Kansai International Airport Co., Ltd.
  26. ^ – Daily Yomiuri Online – Opening of new KIX runway celebrated
  27. ^ "Kansai opens its Second Runway", Airports – September/October 2007 (Key Publishing), P7
  28. ^ "24 hours operation from 1st September 2007" from Sankei Newspaper (Japanese) on 24 August 2007.
  29. ^ KIX Terminal2 Archived 16 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Kansai-airport.or.jp (28 October 2012). Retrieved on 16 August 2013.
  30. ^ Airport wars roil Kansai region, Japan Times
  31. ^ Will the U.S. Marines charge ashore at Kansai airport?, Japan Today
  32. ^ 関空・伊丹統合法が成立 1兆円超す負債解消目指す, Asahi Shimbun
  33. ^ 関空、国際線着陸料5%下げ LCC誘致へ10月から, Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  34. ^ 新関空会社、ミャンマーの国際空港入札に参加 海外2カ所目, Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  35. ^ Fujita, Junko (22 May 2015). "Orix only confirmed bidder for Kansai airport rights after more drop out". Reuters. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  36. ^ New Management Set-up of Kansai Airports
  37. ^ 伊藤, 正泰 (11 September 2015). "新関空会社とオリックス陣営、空港運営権の売却で大筋合意". The Nikkei. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  38. ^ Commercial offer to the fore as Kansai opens budget terminal. TheMoodieReport.com. Retrieved on 16 August 2013.
  39. ^ "新ターミナルの利用は3月から 春秋航空、関空で". The Nikkei (in Japanese). 2017-01-17. Retrieved 2017-01-23. 
  40. ^ "関西国際空港|【Peach、春秋航空(国際線)をご利用のお客様へ】第2ターミナルビルご利用方法の変更について". www.kansai-airport.or.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved 2017-02-01. 
  41. ^ Kansai Airport opens new terminal for low-cost carriers – AJW by The Asahi Shimbun Archived 1 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Ajw.asahi.com. Retrieved on 16 August 2013.
  42. ^ (in Japanese) :日本経済新聞. Nikkei.com. Retrieved on 16 August 2013.
  43. ^ (in Japanese) :日本経済新聞. Nikkei.com. Retrieved on 16 August 2013.
  44. ^ Large "Ecopark" Outside Kansai Terminal 2 with Fields, "Ecofarm" and More – Airport News Japan. En.airportnews.jp (25 October 2012). Retrieved on 16 August 2013.
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Further reading

External links