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The KANNADA PEOPLE known as the KANNADIGAS and KANNADIGARU, (sometimes referred to in English as Canarese ), are the people who natively speak Kannada
Kannada
. Kannadigas are mainly found in the state of Karnataka
Karnataka
in India. Significant Kannada
Kannada
minorities are found in the Indian states of Maharashtra , Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
, Goa
Goa
and in other Indian states. The English plural is Kannadigas. After a millennium of disintegration from Old Kannada
Kannada
into various languages, sister languages and Kannada
Kannada
dialects , modern Kannada
Kannada
stands among 30 most widely spoken languages of the world as of 2001.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early settlements

* 1.1 Immigrants from Karnataka
Karnataka

* 2 Kannada
Kannada
art

* 2.1 Architecture
Architecture
* 2.2 Music * 2.3 Theater * 2.4 Dance forms * 2.5 Kalaa Kshetras (the abode of art) * 2.6 Martial arts * 2.7 Festivals

* 3 Cuisine * 4 Costumes * 5 Literature * 6 Kannada
Kannada
journalism

* 7 Contemporary popular Kannadigas

* 7.1 Spiritual leaders * 7.2 Gandhian philosophers * 7.3 Modern science and technology * 7.4 Environmentalists * 7.5 Current cricketers

* 8 Retired cricketers

* 9 The Kannadiga culture

* 9.1 Purana * 9.2 Punya Koti * 9.3 Vishwa Maanava * 9.4 Political sphere * 9.5 Horanadu Kannadiga

* 10 Kannada
Kannada
Kannadiga Karnataka
Karnataka

* 10.1 First and Second World Wars * 10.2 The post 1947 Scene

* 11 Kannada
Kannada
ethnic flag * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links

EARLY SETTLEMENTS

Main article: History of Karnataka Sala fighting the lion, the royal emblem of Hoysala Empire

Settlement in Karnataka
Karnataka
is found to be existent at least from the 2nd millennium BC as explored in Brahmagiri archaeological site near Chitradurga district, central Karnataka. Chandravalli exploration has revealed interaction of Roman and Chinese travelers around the 2nd and 3rd century BC. Talagunda and Halmidi
Halmidi
stand as the oldest excavated inscriptions as available today.

The language was once popular from Kaveri to Godavari as mentioned in the Kannada
Kannada
classic Kavirajamarga of 850 CE. Archaeological evidences show Kannada
Kannada
inscriptions found as far north as Madhya Pradesh (Inscription of Krishna III ) and Bihar . The great Karnataka Expansion provides insights to kingdoms of northern India
India
whose originators were from Kannada
Kannada
country.

The major empires and kingdoms, their regal capital and most distinguished kings were:

* Western Ganga Dynasty - Talakadu - Durvinita * Kadamba Dynasty - Banavasi - Mayurasharma (Mayuravarma) * Badami
Badami
Chalukya - Badami
Badami
- Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
* Rashtrakuta - Manyakheta
Manyakheta
- Amoghavarsha I * Hoysala
Hoysala
- Belur and Halebidu - Veera Ballala II
Veera Ballala II
* Kalyani Chalukya - Basavakalyana - Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
* Southern Kalachuri - Kalyani - Bijjala II * Vijayanagara Empire - Hampi
Hampi
- Hakka , Bukka * Keladi Nayaka - Ikkeri
Ikkeri
- Shivappa Nayaka * Haleri Kingdom
Haleri Kingdom
- Kodagu - Mudduraja * Kingdom of Mysore - Mysooru - Chikka Devaraja
Chikka Devaraja
Wodeyar
Wodeyar

Gold coins issued by Kadamba King Toyimadeva , 1048 - 1075 A.D

Minor dynasties that have played an important role in the development of Kannada
Kannada
language, culture and polity were Chutus of Banavasi (feudatory to Satavahana Empire ), Tuluva Dynasty of Canara, Rattas of Saundatti (Belgaum), Guttas of Guttal (Dharwad region), Banas of Kolar, Nolambas of Nolambavadi, Vaidumbas, Chengalvas, Kongalvas, Sendrakas of Nagarkhanda ( Banavasi province), Yalahanka Nadaprabhu kempegowda, Sindas of Yelburga (Bijapur-Gulbarga), Kadamba of Hangal
Kadamba of Hangal
.

In addition, other well known kingdoms that patronized Kannadiga poets and Kannada language were:

* Eastern Chalukyas * Kakatiya dynasty * Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri * Shilahara * Kadambas of Goa
Goa

IMMIGRANTS FROM KARNATAKA

In addition to those empires that ruled from the Karnataka
Karnataka
region, based on inscriptions and literary evidence historians have discussed the possibility that kingdoms of Kannada
Kannada
origin were established in other parts of India
India
as well.

* The Karnata Dynasty (founded by Nanyadeva I) of Mithila and Nepal , However contrary evidence also suggests that this dynasty may have been of Parmar Rajput origin. * The Chalukyas of Gujarat, * The Chalukyas of Vengi (Eastern Chalukya ), * The Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri , * The Rashtrakuta family ruling from Berar (modern Amravati district , Maharashtra ), * The Rashtrakutas branch of Gujarat (Lata branch), * The Sena dynasty of Bengal * The Eastern Gangas of Orissa (descendants of the Western Ganga Dynasty)

KANNADA ART

Main articles: Folk arts of Karnataka
Karnataka
and Art and culture of Karnataka
Karnataka

ARCHITECTURE

Main article: Temples of Karnataka
Karnataka
Hampi, capital of Vijayanagara Empire

Architecture
Architecture
and Sculpture
Sculpture
has been the epitome of art in Karnataka. Be it the musical pillars of Hampi
Hampi
, which is listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site , the ekashila (monolithic ) statue of Gommateshvara Bahubali
Bahubali
that was voted by Indians as the first of Seven Wonders of India
India
, the Yelu Sutthina Kote of Chitradurga (The Fort of Seven Laps) cutting across hill or the wholesomeness of carvings of temples which bared down all desires to be left out of it and formless (above all forms) all encompassing — the inner garbhagrihas . The temples of Karnataka
Karnataka
had in them many shaili or varieties to credit. A majority of the temples were built using the locally available stones. 57-foot monolithic statue of Gommateshvara Bahubali
Bahubali
dated 978–993 AD. Traditional folk house with courtyard and tulasi katte .

Some of the places of interest are:

* Ellora Caves houses the Kailasanatha temple of Ellooru was built by the Rashtrakutas Dynasty and is declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO
UNESCO
* Elephanta Caves island was a summer resort of Rashtrakuta kings and is declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO
UNESCO
. * Ajanta Caves
Ajanta Caves
have sculptures of Rashrakutas and Badami
Badami
Chalukyas and is declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO
UNESCO
. * Hampi
Hampi
houses the ruins of the Vijayanagara Empire and is declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO
UNESCO
* Pattadakal
Pattadakal
is a vesara style of Hindu
Hindu
temple architecture , a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site * Badami
Badami
cave temples , a regal capital of the Badami
Badami
Chalukyas , now famous for its sandstone cave temples * Aihole
Aihole
is known for its many temples and inscriptions of Chalukya Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
in the Old Kannada
Kannada
script * Basavakalyan , a major centre of social and religious movement in the 12th century by Basava , consists of temples in Chalukyan architecture * Itagi is home to the Shiva temple built by Vikramāditya . Considered to be the best specimen of Kalyani Chalukyan art, it has as many as 68 decorated pillars, an ornate tower and a doorway of great workmanship * Lakkundi * Belur * Halebeedu * Shravanabelagola * Saumyakeshava Temple, Nagamangala * Lakshminarayana Temple, Hosaholalu * Mallikarjuna Temple, Basaralu * Ikkeri
Ikkeri
* Keladi
Keladi
* Banavasi

Pioneer sculptors include:

* Amarashilpi Jakanachari * Ruvari Malithamma * Chavundaraya * Siddalinga Swami * K. Venkatappa

Modern day contemporaries include visionary architects such as:

* Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya , father of modern Indian engineering, Kannambadi Katte or KRS dam * Kengal Hanumanthaiah , Vidhana Soudha

MUSIC

Main articles: Musicians of Mysore kingdom , Dasa sahitya , Haridasa , and Vachana Sahitya

DASA SAHITYA is the literature of Bhakti movement composed by devotees in honor of Lord Vishnu or one of his avatars . Dasa is literally "servant" in Kannada
Kannada
and sahitya is literature. Haridasas ("servants of God") were preachers of Bhakti to Vishnu. The bhakti literature of these Haridasas is collectively referred to as Dasa Sahitya. It is composed in the Kannada
Kannada
language.

The HARIDASAS richly contributed to the heritage of Karntataka music. They made an indelible impression on the religious and cultural life of Karnataka
Karnataka
by spreading the didactic teachings in a musical form to the hearts of the common folk. Like other doyens of Indian classical music, these scholars offered prayer to Vishnu through music, called naadopasana. The Lord is described as Samagana priya, and bhakti through music is the most preferred path to 'reach' Him.

The Haridasa compositions are popularly known as Devaranamas. Compositions like Krishna Nee Begane Baaro , Venkatachala Nilayam, Jagadoddharana, Tamboori Meetidava are some of the many examples of their scholarly work. Veena
Veena
is the most commonly used instrument in Carnatic music.

Some noted Haridasas or composers of Dasa Sahitya are:

* Purandara Dasa , widely regarded as Karnataka
Karnataka
Sangeeta Pitamaha or "Father of Carnatic music " * Kanaka Dasa , a younger contemporary of Purandara Dasa * Sripadaraja * Vyasatirtha * Vadirajatirtha * Jagannatha Dasa * Jayatirtha * Gopala Dasa * Vijaya Dasa * Naraharitirtha

One of the oldest forms of music in the region is Karnataka Shastreeya Sangeetha which has evolved over ages. Both Hindustani and Karnataka
Karnataka
variations are respected and nurtured by Kannadigas. Bhavageete and Sugama Sangeetha are some innovations. Other forms of music include Gamaka , Joogera Pada and Lavani
Lavani
. Yakshagana
Yakshagana
is considered a unique and indigenous form of both music and dance of Karnataka.

Contemporary musical thespians are: Veene Sheshanna
Veene Sheshanna
(1852-1926) notable Veena
Veena
player and composer.

* Pandit Bhimsen Joshi
Bhimsen Joshi
, recipient of the Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna
— India\'s highest civilian honor * Gangubai Hangal
Gangubai Hangal
, awarded both Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan in 1971 and 2002 respectively * C. Aswath , recipient of Karnataka
Karnataka
Rajyotsava Prashasti for his immense contribution to Bhavageete * Veene Doraiswamy Iyengar * Puttaraj Gawai
Puttaraj Gawai
* Honnappa Bhagavathar * P. Kalinga Rao * Balappa Hukkeri
Balappa Hukkeri
* Mallikarjuna Mansur * Basavaraja Rajguru * Veene Sheshanna
Veene Sheshanna
* T. Chowdiah * Sawai Gandharva
Sawai Gandharva
* Kumar Gandharva * Mysore Ananthaswamy * Mysore Manjunath * R.K.Shrikantan * Vinayaka Torwi

THEATER

Jaanapada
Jaanapada
artists at government-sponsored Jaanapadha Jaatre

Rangabhoomi or the theater culture is a tradition with Kannadigas. While a lot of gadhya (literature) is written in praise of the heroic characters of the epics and puranas, there are major works depicting the kings and their rule. These are called Naataka (plays having wide-ranging stages for performance like Rangamancha staged in either theaters or on streets) and Bayalata (ಬಯಲಾಟ). As its etymology indicates, bayalu means open-air field and ata means theater. In southern Karnataka, the eastern and western varieties of Yakshagana
Yakshagana
are termed Bayalata, whereas in the north several other distinct genres are included under the name.

Harikathe which covers an entire night is another form where one (or more) person tells a story in an outstanding manner accompanied by music at background. It is a common feature to narrate battles, stories, devotions or vratha in front of temples on auspicious days like Dasara and Maha Shivaratri . Harikathe is a composite art form composed of story telling, poetry, music, drama, dance, and philosophy. Today, late-night Harikathe sessions are organized overseas where Kannadiga population is considerable.

Vasanta Habba (ವಸಂತ ಹಬ್ಬ), which means "spring festival" in Kannada
Kannada
is a cultural festival organized by the Nrityagram
Nrityagram
foundation in Bengaluru . It is a very popular event and is considered the classical Woodstock
Woodstock
of India. First held in 1990, it now attracts the best musicians, dancers and cultural artists from across India. Similarly,'Bengaluru Habba (ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು ಹಬ್ಬ is a congregation of art performances at places in the city which is successfully celebrated every year. It aims to provide aesthetic entertainment to a wide cultural, social and demographic cross-section of the city's people by partnering with corporates and other stakeholders since 2003. In 2006, the Government of Karnataka tried to bring the folklore and art into the city of Bengaluru by initiating JAANAPADA JAATRE (ಜಾನಪದ ಜಾತ್ರೆ) which was hugely successful and received well by art lovers. It is usually held on select weekends in Lalbagh and other parts of the city.

Some famous theatrical, cinematic and television personalities like T P Kailasam , Gubbi Veeranna , C. Honappa Bhagavathar, G V Iyer , Dr. Rajkumar , V. Shantaram , Puttanna Kanagal
Puttanna Kanagal
, Kalpana , B. S. Ranga , B V Karanth , Girish Kasaravalli
Girish Kasaravalli
, Shankar Nag , T.S. Nagabharana , T N Seetharam have contributed for its richness.

DANCE FORMS

Main article: Dances of Karnataka
Karnataka

The mystic and spirited reliving of legends and epics are the major depictions in dance forms. With the theater of battle scenes of heroism, loyalty and treachery, colour and pageantry are the main subjects. More are adapted with the course of nature and seasons adding colour to the harvesting seasons. Tribal forms of dance can be found limited in the regions inhabited by Soligas , of which Pinasee is a traditional dance form. The people of Kodagu in the Western Ghats also have their own dance forms.

Some of the folk dances and classical dance forms in Karnataka include:

* Dollu Kunitha , a popular drum dance accompanied by singing * Kamsale , danced to the tune of a rhythm instrument of the same name made of brass * Veeragase , a vigorous dance based on Hindu
Hindu
mythology which is demonstrated at the Mysore Dasara procession * Yakshagana
Yakshagana
is a musical theater popular in coastal and Malenadu regions of Karnataka
Karnataka
* Gaarudi Gombe , where dancers adorn themselves with giant doll-suits made of bamboo sticks * Moodalapaya * Bayalata featuring stories of Puranas rendered as dance * Srikrishna Parijatha * Kariyanna Kenchanna , and Somana Kunitha

KALAA KSHETRAS (THE ABODE OF ART)

Mysore religious icon painting depicting Goddess Saraswathi

* Karnataka
Karnataka
Chitrakala Parishat * Chowdiah Memorial Hall * Gaayana Samaja * Ranga Shankara
Ranga Shankara
* Nrithya Grama * Ravindra Kalakshetra
Ravindra Kalakshetra
* Gubbi Veeranna Rangamandira * Janapada Loka * Rangayana * Ninasam * Prabhat Kalavidaru * Natya Maya * Sanathana Kalakshetra

MARTIAL ARTS

The martial arts more prevalent in parts of North Karnataka
Karnataka
with Garadi Mane present in every village and a head to train the youngsters into fit individuals. Kusthi , Malla Yuddha , Kathi Varase (which can be seen depicted in Veeragase and similar to sword fighting), Malla Kambha (gymnastics on a pole structure with/without rope) are some of the prominent arts practised.

The Mysore Odeyars arrange kaalaga or fights like Vajra Mushti during Dasara festival which is made less frightening these days as they are publicly staged. Rock lifting, Bull race, Kusthi, and Kabaddi are popular sports.

Yogasana , Praanayama and health-related camps are very popular throughout the state and some of the best Yoga
Yoga
practitioners can be found here. Art of Living
Art of Living
is one such organization immensely popular all over the world.

* Malladihalli Sri Raghavendra Swami * K. Pattabhi Jois

FESTIVALS

Kannadigas celebrate festivals throughout the year presenting the diverse culture and belief of the ethnicity. Festivals have varied reasons to celebrate.

* Agriculture: Upon onset of monsoon, sowing or harvest there are festivals celebrated like Chaandramana Ugaadi (marking of new year), Makara Sankranthi and Huttari. * Monsoon: Dasara / Navarathri , Ayudha Puja
Ayudha Puja
* Puraana: Maha Shivarathri , Varamahalakshmi Vrata , Bheemana Amavasye, Swarna Gowri Vratha, Ganesha Chaturthi , Naagara Panchami, Ratha Sapthami, Krishna Janmashtami , Rama Navami, Vijaya Dashami , Vaikunta Ekadashi, Naraka Chaturdashi, Bali Padyami and others.

In the countryside, a dana jaathre (livestock fair) is held which is a conglomeration of people where a local demigod is worshiped and a ratha or theru (chariots) are moved by the bhakthas and daasoha (free food) is arranged for the visitors.

North Karnataka
Karnataka
has a unique blend of Hindu
Hindu
and Muslim
Muslim
brotherhood with people celebrating festivals in unison and exchanging goodwills owing to great revolutionary Shishunala Sharif and Guru Govinda Bhatta who had displayed their religious tolerance and spiritual unity of all religions.

Christmas
Christmas
is celebrated at large in Bengaluru and Mangalooru which host some of the oldest churches and educational institutions of the country. Buddha , Mahaveera
Mahaveera
, Shankara , Basavanna and Gandhi
Gandhi
are remembered on their birth anniversaries.

CUISINE

Main article: Cuisine of Karnataka
Karnataka
Mysore Masala dosa
Masala dosa

The cuisine of Karnataka
Karnataka
includes many vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. The varieties reflect influences from the food habits of many regions and communities from the three neighbouring South Indian states, as well as the state of Maharashtra to its north. Soopa Shastra is notable medieval Kannada
Kannada
literally work written in 1508 A.D on the subject of Kannada
Kannada
cuisine.

Some typical everyday dishes in Kannadiga homes include Bisi Bele Bath , Jolada Rotti , Ragi Rotti , Akki Rotti , Saaru , Huli, Davanagere Benne Dosa , Ragi mudde , Chitranna (lemon rice) and Uppittu . The famous masala dosa traces its origin to Udupi cuisine . Plain and rave Idli
Idli
, Mysore Masala Dosa
Masala Dosa
and Maddur Vade are very popular in South Karnataka. Kadabu, a kind of rice dumplings , is a popular and ethnic food in South Malnad regions such as Sakaleshpura
Sakaleshpura
, Mudigere , Somwarapete , etc. and is consumed with huchellu (black sesame ) chutney.

Among sweets, Mysore Pak , Dharwad Pedha , Chiroti, Belagavi Kunda are well known. Hurnagadab, Hurnaholige, Karadantu of Gokak
Gokak
and Amingarh , Shenga Holige and Sajka have origins in the Malnad region. Indis (chutneys ) of Karnataka
Karnataka
have a very distinct taste and flavour. Some popular ones include Shenga indi (groundnut ), Agashi indi, Karal indi, Inichi indi and Mavina indi (mango). Similarly, Karnataka uppinakai (pickles ) too are very distinct from the rest like Mavina thokku (fine mango pickles), Nimbekai uppinakai (lemon pickles), Tenga Mavina uppinakai (entire mango pickle), gaajri uppinkai (carrot pickle) and menshinikai uppinakai (chili pickle).

COSTUMES

Children dressed in traditional clothes

The costume of Kannada
Kannada
people varies from place to place. The Kannadiga male costume mainly include Panchey (some tie as Kachche) or Lungi (wrapping style depends on the region), Angi a traditional form of shirt and Peta turban worn in Mysuru style or Dharwad style. Shalya is a piece of long cloth which is put on shoulder commonly seen in countryside. Many use Khadi
Khadi
in their clothing till date of which politicians are prominent ones.

Female costumes include Seere of which Ilakal Seere and Mysore silk are famous. Seere has variations of draping depending on regions like Kodagu, North and South Karnataka
Karnataka
and Karavali . Young women in some parts of Karnataka
Karnataka
traditionally wear the Langa davani . Kasuti is a form of embroidery work which is very popularly sought-after art on dress and costumes.

An Urban male costumes comprises a trouser, shirt and sandals while that of females include shalwar and moderate heeled sandals. Jeans are popular among the youth, while new age Khadi/silk printed with art or emblem also find place.

Karnataka
Karnataka
has the only village in the country which produces authentic Indian national flags according to manufacturing process and specifications for the flag are laid out by the Bureau of Indian Standards at Hubli .

LITERATURE

Main articles: Kannada
Kannada
literature , Karnataka
Karnataka
literature , and Modern Kannada
Kannada
literature

Kannada
Kannada
literature is filled with literary figures and pioneers all through. With an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years, the excellence of Kannada
Kannada
literature continues into the present day: works of Kannada
Kannada
literature have received eight Jnanpith awards and fifty-six Sahitya Akademi awards.

Pampa , Ranna and Ponna are considered as three jewels of Old Kannada (Halegannada). Janna
Janna
was another notable poet of this genre.

Basavanna , Akka Mahadevi , Allama Prabhu , Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
, Vidyaranya , Harihara , Raghavanka , Kumara Vyasa , Sarvajna , Purandara Dasa , Kanaka Dasa , Shishunala Shareefa , Raghavendra Swami etc. were pioneers of Nadugannada. All these have been inviolved with social and cultural movements and hence this was the golden era of literature which brought about a renaissance in Kannada
Kannada
literature. They all had a characteristic naamankita (insignia) which would denote a power equaling a God in popular comparison. The literature saw the Vachana (said), Tattva
Tattva
(that-ness), Sharana
Sharana
(saviour of God), and Dasa (servant to God) Padas (short poetries) reach the common man's ignorance into great depths leading to Siddhanta (philosophies).

Kuvempu
Kuvempu
, D. V. Gundappa
D. V. Gundappa
, Da Ra Bendre , B. M. Srikantaiah , Masti Venkatesha Iyengar , Shivaram Karanth
Shivaram Karanth
, V K Gokak
Gokak
, U R Ananthamurthy , P. Lankesh , Girish Karnad
Girish Karnad
, G S Shivarudrappa , Gorur Ramaswamy Iyengar , Pu thi Narasimhachar , Chennavira Kanavi, Gopalakrishna Adiga , TaRaSu , A N Krishna Rao
A N Krishna Rao
, Govinda Pai , S.L. Bhyrappa
S.L. Bhyrappa
, Poornachandra Tejaswi , Thriveni , K. S. Nissar Ahmed , K.S. Narasimhaswamy , Chandrashekhara Kambara , Siddhaiah Puranik, G.P. Rajarathnam , T P Kailasam , Anupama Niranjana , M. K. Indira , M M Kalburgi , T. V. Venkatachala Sastry , Dodda Rangegowda etc. are popular literary figures. This period was amalgamation of literature works which crossed across boundaries under a vast roof encompassed by art and theater fields. The literature works of Kannada
Kannada
in Navodaya is crowned with eight Jnanpith awards.

Kannada
Kannada
Thantramsha or software is developed under Kuvempu
Kuvempu
University . There is a sizable open-source community based in Bengaluru.

Some of the contemporary active institutions of Kannada
Kannada
literature are

* Kannada
Kannada
Sahitya Parishat * Academies operating as its wings include Tulu , Konkani , Kodava , and Urdu . A Byari academy is the latest academy opened in Karnataka. * Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate
Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate

Noted travellers and linguists have also contributed during pre and post imperial era like Germany's Ferdinand Kittel , England's Thomas Hodson , Persia's Abd-al-Razzāq Samarqandī and China's Huen-tsang .

KANNADA JOURNALISM

Bhashyam Bhashyachar published "Mysuru Vrittanta Bodhini" in 1859.

Mangaluru Samachara was the first Kannada
Kannada
news publication as early as 1843 by German missionary Hermann Mögling . Followed by Bhashyam Bhashyachar who is credited with publishing the first Kannada
Kannada
weekly from Mysore "Mysuru Vrittanta Bodhini" in 1859 under the royal patronage of Krishnaraja Wadiyar III . Shortly after Indian independence in 1948, K. N. Guruswamy founded The Printers (Mysore) Private Limited and began publishing two newspapers, Deccan Herald and Prajavani. Presently the Times of India
India
and Vijaya Karnataka
Karnataka
are the largest-selling English and Kannada
Kannada
newspapers respectively. D. V. Gundappa was notable Kannada
Kannada
journalist, he was awarded third-highest civilian award Padmabhushan in 1974.

List of a few major newspapers:

* Prajavani * Samyuktha Karnataka
Karnataka
* Kannadaprabha * Udayavani * Vijayavani * Hosa Digantha * Vishwavani News * Vijaya Karnataka
Karnataka

CONTEMPORARY POPULAR KANNADIGAS

SPIRITUAL LEADERS

* Shivakumara Swami , Siddaganga Matha , Tumkur , Karnataka
Karnataka
* Balagangadharanatha Swamiji , Sri Adichunchanagiri Maha Samsthana Math * Shivamurthy Shivacharya Mahaswamiji * Taralabalu Jagadguru Brihanmath, Sirigere * Sri Vishwesha Teertharu (Pejavara Shreegalavaru) * Beerendra Keshava Tarakananda Puri * Ravi Shankar , Art of Living
Art of Living

GANDHIAN PHILOSOPHERS

* H. Narasimhaiah * Kollur Mallappa * B D Jatti - former president and vice president of India * Mailara Mahadevappa * Gudleppa Hallikeri * Dore Swamy

MODERN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

* Raja Ramanna - Indian nuclear scientist and father of the Indian nuclear bomb. * Udipi Ramachandra Rao - Indian space scientist and father of the Indian modern space technology. * Dr. M.C. Modi - Ophthalmologist and humanist. * C. N. R. Rao - Notable Solid-state scientist and chairman of Science Advisory Council of GOI. Recently awarded with India's highest civilian award Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna
* K. N. Shankara - Indian space scientist and master in satellite payload technology. * Shakuntala Devi - Mathematics. * Vivek Murthy American physician serves as the 19th Surgeon General of the United States. * Dr. Jayaram K. Udupa - Father of 3-D Medical Imaging, PhD 1991- Chief of Medical Imaging Section, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Medical UPENN MED * Narayan Hosmane
Narayan Hosmane
- Biochemistry and Cancer research. * S. K. Shivkumar - Scientist, ISRO
ISRO
telemetry ( ISRO
ISRO
), associated with Chandrayaan-1
Chandrayaan-1
lunar probe. * Roddam Narasimha
Roddam Narasimha
- senior scientist IISc
IISc
, chairman JNCASR . * C. R. Rao - Statistics, Mathematician. * Shrinivas Kulkarni - Professor of astrophysics and planetary science at Caltech
Caltech
, United States
United States
of America . * S. Shankar Sastry - Dean of the College of Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
. * L. S. Shashidhara - Developmental biologist, geneticist and a professor and chair of Biology at Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISER). * M. Visvesvaraya - Indian scholar and engineer, who also served as the Diwan of Mysore. * C. R. Rao - Professor emeritus at Penn State University . * U. R. Rao - Space scientist, former chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation and current chancellor of Indian Institute for Space Science and Technology (IIST ).

ENVIRONMENTALISTS

Karnataka
Karnataka
is one of the few states which, while a leading contributor for GDP of the country and home for industries, has preserved its forests and wildlife. The evergreen Sahyadri and Western Ghats are home to protected Wildlife of Karnataka
Karnataka
. The Kannadiga culture protects and balances Kaadu (forest) and Naadu (state) as can be seen. Although seen scantly still the state enjoys the diversity owing to tribal sects of Soliga , Badaga, Jenu Kuruba , Hakki Pikki, Lambani , Siddis and other inhabitants of forests. See Appiko Chaluvali .

Some noted environmentalists include

* Ullas Karanth (tiger research biologists/zoologist) * S. R. Ramaswamy * Saalumarada Thimmakka
Saalumarada Thimmakka
* Suresh Heblikar * Poornachandra Tejaswi (ornithologist / littérateur) * Snake Shyam
Snake Shyam
* Krupakar-Senani

CURRENT CRICKETERS

* KL Rahul * Abhimanyu Mithun * Vinay Kumar * Stuart Binny * Sreenath Arvind * Karu Jain

RETIRED CRICKETERS

* Anil Kumble * Javagal Srinath * Gundappa Vishwanath * Vijay Bhardwaj * Venkatesh Prasad
Venkatesh Prasad
* B.S. Chandrashekhar * E. A. S. Prasanna * Roger Binny * Sunil Joshi * Syed Kirmani
Syed Kirmani
* Sujith Somasunder * Dodda Ganesh * David Johnson

THE KANNADIGA CULTURE

PURANA

The Puranas describe the region as Kishkindha in the ages of Ramayana. There are also literary evidences for the region of Mysore called as Mahisha Mandala after a demon named Mahishasura. Parashurama and Hanumantha are some epic characters to be cited relating to place.

PUNYA KOTI

One of the most popular and acknowledged Jaanapada
Jaanapada
songs is "Dharani mandala madhyadolage" which narrates an incidence between mother cow and an aggressive tiger in a place called Karnataka.

VISHWA MAANAVA

Karnataka
Karnataka
as now can be viewed as a multicultural state — almost all the religions that can be found in India
India
can be found here and there has been lot emigration as well due to which multi-ethnic diaspora can be seen. As the kingdoms provided a safe centres for development of all cultures we can see a huge diversities from region to region. Even the language and dialects varies from place to place. The language has evolved distinctly in both the backyard (folk/basic/prakrutha) and frontyard (refined and related to Samskrutha/Sankrit) of the culture. It can be said that the major works of Sanskrit have originated and continues to evolve here. Shringeri
Shringeri
, Udupi are some of nerve centres. One of the leading examples include a village near Shivamogga where people speak only Sanskrit till date. Bengaluru has almost all language speakers of India. Tha aikya linga of Basavanna — the ab-initio of social spiritual reformation and a known vachanakaara, at Kudalasangama

One of the most acknowledged concept is to be a Vishwa Maanava or universal being. In Kuvempu's ideology this has a renowned explanation "Every Child is born as a Vishwa Maanava or a Universal Human. It is we who make him Alpa Maanava or Little Human by putting various constrictions of borders rituals and castes. It hence becomes responsibility of our culture to again make him a Universal Being unbound and free." The Kannadiga culture is known to provide shelter and self-respect to people by owning them and their culture. Two colonies for refugees from Tibet are formed, one near Mundgod
Mundgod
and one near Kushalanagara , protecting them from Chinese atrocities. Karnataka
Karnataka
has sheltered flood victims of northeastern India
India
like Assam and provided them jobs. One of the easily seen diversity is the surnames which vary from hugely like some may involve names involving a Hindu
Hindu
and Muslim
Muslim
name or having a Hindu
Hindu
Christian
Christian
name (more found in Mangalore) or even a Muslim
Muslim
Christian
Christian
name.

Karnataka
Karnataka
and parts of Maharashtra are the only states which have diversity of including Malenadu Nithyaharidwarna — evergreen ghats and Bayaluseeme
Bayaluseeme
which have different ways of living in the same state. Not only this but it acts as a gateway to North and South Indian cultures . It may come as a surprise that Karnataka
Karnataka
is next only to Rajasthan
Rajasthan
in India
India
when it comes to area under arid land but still Southern Karnataka
Karnataka
is referred to as Gandhada Gudi — temple of sandalwood found in its protected forests.

POLITICAL SPHERE

After the Odeyar era who already had established democracy by naming elected representative called Saamantha in southern regions as early as the 19th century, the 1947 partition brought a centre into being under democracy and Karnataka
Karnataka
accepted a bicameral legislature. But this was a functionally a failure as there always has been a tug of war from centre and states to an extent that from the 1990s to 2010 there have always been different political parties operating at centre and state. North Karnataka
Karnataka
had other problems of getting independence more from Nizams. So there were two spheres. Lack of will and coordination and constant fights have been hallmark of politics which has prevented a regional party/media from arising in the land. Kerala being a neighbour where hugely successful communist ideology in bringing up literacy levels has a backing here and a few naxalite outfits function in Karnataka.

Functional failure of all pillars of democracy even being upper riparian state can be clearly seen in the Kaveri River
Kaveri River
Water Dispute issue. The failure extended to bureaucracy and Karnataka
Karnataka
reached the position of being fourth most corrupt state of India
India
due to political and bureaucratic lobby. Because of this, Lokayukta (see N. Venkatachala ) was formed but could not get the required powers to deal with the powerful. In the field of press and journalism P. Lankesh and S. Gurumurthy are some of the noted ones famous for their leftist affiliations.

HORANADU KANNADIGA

Horanadu Kannadigas (or non-resident Kannadigas) are Kannadigas who have migrated to another state or country, people of Kannada
Kannada
origin born outside Karnataka, or people of Kannada
Kannada
origin who reside permanently outside of Karnataka. N R Narayana Murthy , speaking at the 2011 World Kannada
Kannada
Conference, opined that Kannadigas who move out of the state are respected everywhere. Although the failure in political arena has reflected in the cultural isolation of emigrants, some of the successful functional bodies include Singara ( Singapore
Singapore
), Dehali Kannadiga ( New Delhi ), Mumbai
Mumbai
Karnataka
Karnataka
Sangha ( Mumbai
Mumbai
), Mallige Kannada
Kannada
Balaga ( Mauritius
Mauritius
), North America Vishwa Kannada Association (NAVIKA) and Association of Kannada
Kannada
Kootas of America (AKKA) in the United States
United States
have promoted cultural involvement through events such as Kannadotsava . The Kannadiga diaspora are found all over the world, mainly in the USA , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Singapore , the UAE
UAE
.

KANNADA KANNADIGA KARNATAKA

Main articles: Unification of Karnataka and History of Karnataka

FIRST AND SECOND WORLD WARS

After occupying Mysore, British had baited 8 acres "> Karnataka Emblem Karnataka
Karnataka
Popular Flag

The Kannada
Kannada
ethnic flag is a banner with two horizontal stripes, yellow on top and red on the bottom. The flag neither is official nor represents any legendary empire but has become accepted in recent times representing a symbol of welfare.The flag was first conceived by Ma Ramamurthy, a Bangalore-based writer, journalist and social activist, often considered as a commander of Kannada
Kannada
movement in 1960s.

SEE ALSO

* Karnataka
Karnataka
portal

* Kannada
Kannada
film industry * Kannada language * Kannada
Kannada
literature * Kannada
Kannada
poetry * Karnataka
Karnataka
* Karnataka
Karnataka
literature * List of people from Bangalore
Bangalore
* List of people from Karnataka
Karnataka
* List of people of North Karnataka
Karnataka
* North Karnataka
Karnataka
* Sanganakallu * Siribhoovalaya - a unique literary work

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Kannada
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Kannada
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Kannada
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FURTHER READING

* John Keay, History of India, 2000, Grove publications, New York, ISBN 0-8021-3797-0 * Suryanath U. Kamat, A Concise history of Karnataka
Karnataka
from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC, Bangalore, 2001 (Reprinted 2002) OCLC: 7796041 * Dr. Romila Thapar
Romila Thapar
, The Penguin History of Early India, From Origin to 1300 AD., 2003, Penguin, New Delhi, ISBN 0-14-302989-4 * Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1934), The Rashtrakutas And Their Times; being a political, administrative, religious, social, economic and literary history of the Deccan during c. 750 AD to c. 1000 AD, Oriental Book Agency, Poona, OCLC 3793499 * K.A. Nilakanta Sastri
K.A. Nilakanta Sastri
, History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, 1955, OUP, New Delhi (Reprinted 2002), ISBN 0-19-560686-8 * R. Narasimhacharya, History of Kannada
Kannada
Literature, 1988, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras, 1988 ISBN 81-206-0303-6 . * Malini Adiga (2006), The Making of Southern Karnataka: Society, Polity and Culture in the early medieval period, AD 400-1030, Orient Longman, Chennai, ISBN 81-250-2912-5 * George M. Moraes (1931), The Kadamba Kula, A History of Ancient and Medieval Karnataka, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras, 1990 ISBN 81-206-0595-0 * Rice, B.L. (2001). Mysore Gazetteer Compiled for Government-vol 1. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0977-8 . * Chopra P.N., Ravindran T.K., Subrahmanian N. (2003), History of South India