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The Kannada
Kannada
Script (IAST: Kannaḍa lipi) is an abugida of the Brahmic family,[3] used primarily to write the Kannada
Kannada
language, one of the Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
of South India
South India
especially in the state of Karnataka, Kannada
Kannada
script is widely used for writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts in Karnataka. Several minor languages, such as Tulu, Konkani, Kodava, Sanketi and Beary, also use alphabets based on the Kannada
Kannada
script.[4] The Kannada
Kannada
and Telugu scripts share high mutual intellegibility with each other, and are often considered to be regional variants of single script. Other scripts similar to Kannada
Kannada
script are Sinhala script[5] (which included some elements from the Kadamba script[6]), and Old Peguan script (used in Burma).[7] The Kannada
Kannada
script (ಅಕ್ಷರಮಾಲೆ akṣaramāle or ವರ್ಣಮಾಲೆ varṇamāle) is a phonemic abugida of forty-nine letters, and is written from left to right. The character set is almost identical to that of other Brahmic scripts. Consonantal letters imply an inherent vowel. Letters representing consonants are combined to form digraphs (ಒತ್ತಕ್ಷರ ottakṣara) when there is no intervening vowel. Otherwise, each letter corresponds to a syllable. The letters are classified into three categories: ಸ್ವರ svara (vowels), ವ್ಯಂಜನ vyañjana (consonants), and ಯೋಗವಾಹಕ yōgavāhaka (semiconsonants). The Kannada
Kannada
words for a letter of the script are ಅಕ್ಷರ akshara, ಅಕ್ಕರ akkara, and ವರ್ಣ varṇa. Each letter has its own form (ಆಕಾರ ākāra) and sound (ಶಬ್ದ śabda), providing the visible and audible representations, respectively. Kannada
Kannada
is written from left to right.[8]

Contents

1 History 2 Vowel
Vowel
letters 3 Yogavaahas 4 Consonant
Consonant
letters

4.1 Structured consonants 4.2 Unstructured consonants 4.3 Pronunciation
Pronunciation
of Kannada
Kannada
letters 4.4 Kannada
Kannada
writing order

5 Numerals 6 Akshara 7 In popular culture 8 Unicode 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] The Kannada
Kannada
script derives from the Old Kannada
Kannada
script,[9] which evolved around 10th century as the continuation of the Kadamba alphabet of the fourth century.[10] This evolved from the ancient Brahmi script
Brahmi script
of the third century BCE.

Halmidi Inscription Replica

.This is debated as recent excavation has led to Talagunda inscription of 370 AD[11] to be the oldest available. Over the centuries some changes have been made to the Kannada
Kannada
script. These changes consist of:

Modification of existing glyphs: In the early Kannada
Kannada
script, no orthographic distinction was made between the short mid [e, o] ಎ, ಒ and long mid [eː, oː] ಏ, ಓ. However, distinct signs were employed to denote the special consonants viz. the trill [r] ಱ the retroflex lateral [ɭ] ಳ and the retroflex rhotic [ɺ] ೞ found only in South Indian languages, by 5th century.[dubious – discuss][the transcriptions contradict themselves] Introduction of new characters: Kannada
Kannada
script includes characters like [ç] ಶ, [ʂ] ಷ, [rɨː] ೠ, [lɨ] ఌ, [lɨː] ౡ, [eʲ] ಐ, [oʷ] ಔ, [am] ಅಂ, [ah] ಅಃ, and mahāprāṇa characters like [kʰ] ಖ, [ɡʱ] ಘ, [tʃʰ] ಛ, [dʒʱ] ಝ, [t̪ʰ] ಥ, [d̪ʱ] ಧ, [ʈʰ] ಠ, [ɖʱ] ಢ, [pʰ] ಫ, [bʱ] ಭ. The introduction was done so that Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(and loanwords into the Kannada language from the donor language Sanskrit) could be written using the Kannada
Kannada
script.

These changes have facilitated the use of the Kannada
Kannada
script for writing many of the literary Indic languages, including Sanskrit.

Vowel
Vowel
letters[edit] There are thirteen vowel letters (ಸ್ವರ svara).

Brahmi script, Kanheri Caves

Letter Diacritic ISO notation

ಅ N/A a

ಆ ಾ ā

ಇ ಿ i

ಈ ೀ ī

ಉ ು u

ಊ ೂ ū

ಋ ೃ rū

ಎ ೆ e

ಏ ೇ ē

ಐ ೈ ai

ಒ ೊ o

ಓ ೋ ō

ಔ ೌ au

When a vowel follows a consonant, it is written with a diacritic rather than as a separate letter. Yogavaahas[edit] The Yōgavāha (part-vowel, part consonant) include two letters:

The anusvara: ಅಂ (aṁ) The visarga: ಅಃ (aḥ)

Another two Yōgavāha used in Sanskrit, but present in Kannada script, are known as Ardhavisarga:

The Jihvamuliya: ೱ The Upadhmaniya: ೲ

Consonant
Consonant
letters[edit] Two categories of consonant letters (ವ್ಯಂಜನ vyan̄jana) are defined in Kannada: the structured consonants and the unstructured consonants. Structured consonants[edit] The structured consonants are classified according to where the tongue touches the palate of the mouth and are classified accordingly into five structured groups. These consonants are shown here with their IAST
IAST
transcriptions.

voiceless voiceless aspirate voiced voiced aspirate nasal

Velars ಕ (ka) ಖ (kha) ಗ (ga) ಘ (gha) ಙ (ṅa)

Palatals ಚ (ca) ಛ (cha) ಜ (ja) ಝ (jha) ಞ (ña)

Retroflex ಟ (ṭa) ಠ (ṭha) ಡ (ḍa) ಢ (ḍha) ಣ (ṇa)

Dentals ತ (ta) ಥ (tha) ದ (da) ಧ (dha) ನ (na)

Labials ಪ (pa) ಫ (pha) ಬ (ba) ಭ (bha) ಮ (ma)

See place of articulation for more information on tongue positions. Unstructured consonants[edit] The unstructured consonants are consonants that do not fall into any of the above structures: ಯ (ya), ರ (ra), ಱ (ṟa) (obsolete), ಲ (la), ವ (va), ಶ (śa), ಷ (ṣa), ಸ (sa), ಹ (ha), ಳ (ḷa), ೞ (ḻ) (obsolete). Pronunciation
Pronunciation
of Kannada
Kannada
letters[edit]

Kannada Devanagari Pronunciation

ಅ अ [a]

ಆ आ [aː]

ಇ इ [i]

ಈ ई [iː]

ಉ उ [u]

ಊ ऊ [uː]

ಋ ऋ [rɨ]

ಎ ए [e]

ಏ एॅ [eː]

ಐ ऐ [eʲ]

ಒ ओ [o]

ಓ ऑ [oː]

ಔ औ [oʷ]

ಅಂ अं [am]

ಅಃ अः [ah]

ಕ क [ka]

ಖ ख [kʰa]

ಗ ग [ɡa]

ಘ घ [ɡʱa]

ಙ ङ [ŋa]

ಚ च [tʃa]

ಛ छ [tʃʰa]

ಜ ज [dʒa]

ಝ झ [dʒʱa]

ಞ ञ [ɲa]

ಟ ट [ʈa]

ಠ ठ [ʈʰa]

ಡ ड [ɖa]

ಢ ढ [ɖʱa]

ಣ ण [ɳa]

ತ त [t̪a]

ಥ थ [t̪ʰa]

ದ द [d̪a]

ಧ ध [d̪ʱa]

ನ न [n̪a]

ಪ प [pa]

ಫ फ [pʰa]

ಬ ब [ba]

ಭ भ [bʱa]

ಮ म [ma]

ಯ य [ja]

ರ र [ra]

[ṟa]

ಲ ल [l̪a]

ವ व [ʋa]

ಶ श [ça]

ಷ ष [ʂa]

ಸ स [sa]

ಹ ह [ħa]

ಳ ळ [ɭa]

[ḻa]

Kannada
Kannada
writing order[edit]

Letter Animation

a

ā

i

ī

u

ū

e

ē

ai

o

ō

au

aṁ

aḥ

ka

kha

ga

gha

ṅa

ca

cha

ja

jha

ña

ṭa

ṭha

ḍa

ḍha

ṇa

ta

tha

da

dha

na

pa

pha

ba

bha

ma

ya

ra

la

va

śa

ṣa

sa

ha

ḷa

Numerals[edit] The decimal numerals in the script are:

Kannada
Kannada
numerals English numerals

numeral name numeral name

೦ sonne (ಸೊನ್ನೆ) 0 zero

೧ ondu (ಒಂದು) 1 one

೨ eraḍu (ಎರಡು) 2 two

೩ mūru (ಮೂರು) 3 three

೪ nālku (ನಾಲ್ಕು) 4 four

೫ aidu (ಐದು) 5 five

೬ āru (ಆರು) 6 six

೭ ēḷu (ಏಳು) 7 seven

೮ enṭu (ಎಂಟು) 8 eight

೯ oṃbattu (ಒಂಬತ್ತು) 9 nine

Akshara[edit] Written Kannada
Kannada
is composed of akshara or kagunita, corresponding to syllables. The letters for consonants combine with diacritics for vowels. The consonant letter without any diacritic, such as ಕ ka, has the inherent vowel a ಅ. This is called ದೀರ್ಘ dīrgha. A consonant without a vowel is marked with a 'killer' stroke, such as ಕ್ k. This is known as ಹ್ರಸ್ವ hrasva.

Diacritic Vowel
Vowel
letter d with vowel diacritic Pronunciation

– (ಅ, a) ದ /da/

್ – ದ್ /d/

ಾ (ಆ, ā) ದಾ /daː/

ಿ (ಇ, i) ದಿ[note 1] /di/

ೀ (ಈ, ī) ದೀ /diː/

ು (ಉ, u) ದು /du/

ೂ (ಊ, ū) ದೂ /duː/

ೆ (ಎ, e) ದೆ /de/

ೇ (ಏ, ē) ದೇ /deː/

ೈ (ಐ, ai) ದೈ /dai/

ೊ (ಒ, o) ದೊ /do/

ೋ (ಓ, ō) ದೋ /doː/

ೌ (ಔ, au) ದೌ /dau/

ಂ (ಅಂ, aṃ) ದಂ /dã/

ಃ (ಅಃ, aḥ) ದ: /dah/

^ This diacritic has the form ಿ when combined with other consonant letters.

ಅ ಆ ಇ ಈ ಉ ಊ ಋ ಎ ಏ ಐ ಒ ಓ ಔ ಅಂ ಅಃ —

ಕ ಕಾ ಕಿ ಕೀ ಕು ಕೂ ಕೃ ಕೆ ಕೇ ಕೈ ಕೊ ಕೋ ಕೌ ಕಂ ಕಃ ಕ್

ಖ ಖಾ ಖಿ ಖೀ ಖು ಖೂ ಖೃ ಖೆ ಖೇ ಖೈ ಖೊ ಖೋ ಖೌ ಖಂ ಖಃ ಖ್

ಗ ಗಾ ಗಿ ಗೀ ಗು ಗೂ ಗೃ ಗೆ ಗೇ ಗೈ ಗೊ ಗೋ ಗೌ ಗಂ ಗಃ ಗ್

ಘ ಘಾ ಘಿ ಘೀ ಘು ಘೂ ಘೃ ಘೆ ಘೇ ಘೈ ಘೊ ಘೋ ಘೌ ಘಂ ಘಃ ಘ್

ಙ ಙಾ ಙಿ ಙೀ ಙು ಙೂ ಙೃ ಙೆ ಙೇ ಙೈ ಙೊ ಙೋ ಙೌ ಙಂ ಙಃ ಙ್

ಚ ಚಾ ಚಿ ಚೀ ಚು ಚೂ ಚೃ ಚೆ ಚೇ ಚೈ ಚೊ ಚೋ ಚೌ ಚಂ ಚಃ ಚ್

ಛ ಛಾ ಛಿ ಛೀ ಛು ಛೂ ಛೃ ಛೆ ಛೇ ಛೈ ಛೊ ಛೋ ಛೌ ಛಂ ಛಃ ಛ್

ಜ ಜಾ ಜಿ ಜೀ ಜು ಜೂ ಜೃ ಜೆ ಜೇ ಜೈ ಜೊ ಜೋ ಜೌ ಜಂ ಜಃ ಜ್

ಝ ಝಾ ಝಿ ಝೀ ಝು ಝೂ ಝೃ ಝೆ ಝೇ ಝೈ ಝೊ ಝೋ ಝೌ ಝಂ ಝಃ ಝ್

ಞ ಞಾ ಞಿ ಞೀ ಞು ಞೂ ಞೃ ಞೆ ಞೇ ಞೈ ಞೊ ಞೋ ಞೌ ಞಂ ಞಃ ಞ್

ಟ ಟಾ ಟಿ ಟೀ ಟು ಟೂ ಟೃ ಟೆ ಟೇ ಟೈ ಟೊ ಟೋ ಟೌ ಟಂ ಟಃ ಟ್

ಠ ಠಾ ಠಿ ಠೀ ಠು ಠೂ ಠೃ ಠೆ ಠೇ ಠೈ ಠೊ ಠೋ ಠೌ ಠಂ ಠಃ ಠ್

ಡ ಡಾ ಡಿ ಡೀ ಡು ಡೂ ಡೃ ಡೆ ಡೇ ಡೈ ಡೊ ಡೋ ಡೌ ಡಂ ಡಃ ಡ್

ಢ ಢಾ ಢಿ ಢೀ ಢು ಢೂ ಢೃ ಢೆ ಢೇ ಢೈ ಢೊ ಢೋ ಢೌ ಢಂ ಢಃ ಢ್

ಣ ಣಾ ಣಿ ಣೀ ಣು ಣೂ ಣೃ ಣೆ ಣೇ ಣೈ ಣೊ ಣೋ ಣೌ ಣಂ ಣಃ ಣ್

ತ ತಾ ತಿ ತೀ ತು ತೂ ತೃ ತೆ ತೇ ತೈ ತೊ ತೋ ತೌ ತಂ ತಃ ತ್

ಥ ಥಾ ಥಿ ಥೀ ಥು ಥೂ ಥೃ ಥೆ ಥೇ ಥೈ ಥೊ ಥೋ ಥೌ ಥಂ ಥಃ ಥ್

ದ ದಾ ದಿ ದೀ ದು ದೂ ದೃ ದೆ ದೇ ದೈ ದೊ ದೋ ದೌ ದಂ ದಃ ದ್

ಧ ಧಾ ಧಿ ಧೀ ಧು ಧೂ ಧೃ ಧೆ ಧೇ ಧೈ ಧೊ ಧೋ ಧೌ ಧಂ ಧಃ ಧ್

ನ ನಾ ನಿ ನೀ ನು ನೂ ನೃ ನೆ ನೇ ನೈ ನೊ ನೋ ನೌ ನಂ ನಃ ನ್

ಪ ಪಾ ಪಿ ಪೀ ಪು ಪೂ ಪೃ ಪೆ ಪೇ ಪೈ ಪೊ ಪೋ ಪೌ ಪಂ ಪಃ ಪ್

ಫ ಫಾ ಫಿ ಫೀ ಫು ಫೂ ಫೃ ಫೆ ಫೇ ಫೈ ಫೊ ಫೋ ಫೌ ಫಂ ಫಃ ಫ್

ಬ ಬಾ ಬಿ ಬೀ ಬು ಬೂ ಬೃ ಬೆ ಬೇ ಬೈ ಬೊ ಬೋ ಬೌ ಬಂ ಬಃ ಬ್

ಭ ಭಾ ಭಿ ಭೀ ಭು ಭೂ ಭೃ ಭೆ ಭೇ ಭೈ ಭೊ ಭೋ ಭೌ ಭಂ ಭಃ ಭ್

ಮ ಮಾ ಮಿ ಮೀ ಮು ಮೂ ಮೃ ಮೆ ಮೇ ಮೈ ಮೊ ಮೋ ಮೌ ಮಂ ಮಃ ಮ್

ಯ ಯಾ ಯಿ ಯೀ ಯು ಯೂ ಯೃ ಯೆ ಯೇ ಯೈ ಯೊ ಯೋ ಯೌ ಯಂ ಯಃ ಯ್

ರ ರಾ ರಿ ರೀ ರು ರೂ ರೃ ರೆ ರೇ ರೈ ರೊ ರೋ ರೌ ರಂ ರಃ ರ್

ಱ ಱಾ ಱಿ ಱೀ ಱು ಱೂ ಱೃ ಱೆ ಱೇ ಱೈ ಱೊ ಱೋ ಱೌ ಱಂ ಱಃ ಱ್

ಲ ಲಾ ಲಿ ಲೀ ಲು ಲೂ ಲೃ ಲೆ ಲೇ ಲೈ ಲೊ ಲೋ ಲೌ ಲಂ ಲಃ ಲ್

ವ ವಾ ವಿ ವೀ ವು ವೂ ವೃ ವೆ ವೇ ವೈ ವೊ ವೋ ವೌ ವಂ ವಃ ವ್

ಶ ಶಾ ಶಿ ಶೀ ಶು ಶೂ ಶೃ ಶೆ ಶೇ ಶೈ ಶೊ ಶೋ ಶೌ ಶಂ ಶಃ ಶ್

ಷ ಷಾ ಷಿ ಷೀ ಷು ಷೂ ಷೃ ಷೆ ಷೇ ಷೈ ಷೊ ಷೋ ಷೌ ಷಂ ಷಃ ಷ್

ಸ ಸಾ ಸಿ ಸೀ ಸು ಸೂ ಸೃ ಸೆ ಸೇ ಸೈ ಸೊ ಸೋ ಸೌ ಸಂ ಸಃ ಸ್

ಹ ಹಾ ಹಿ ಹೀ ಹು ಹೂ ಹೃ ಹೆ ಹೇ ಹೈ ಹೊ ಹೋ ಹೌ ಹಂ ಹಃ ಹ್

ಳ ಳಾ ಳಿ ಳೀ ಳು ಳೂ ಳೃ ಳೆ ಳೇ ಳೈ ಳೊ ಳೋ ಳೌ ಳಂ ಳಃ ಳ್

ೞ ೞಾ ೞಿ ೞೀ ೞು ೞೂ ೞೃ ೞೆ ೞೇ ೞೈ ೞೊ ೞೋ ೞೌ ೞಂ ೞಃ ೞ್

The formations shown boldface above are seldom used in the normal course of the language. In popular culture[edit] Due to its resemblance to an eye and an eyebrow, the Kannada
Kannada
letter ಠ ṭha is used in a popular emoticon called the "look of disapproval" (displayed as "ಠ_ಠ") used to convey disapproval or contempt.[12] Similarly, the akshara ರೃ rr̥a has been used in emoticons to represent a monocle, while ಥ tha has been used to represent a tearing eye. Unicode[edit] Main article: Kannada
Kannada
( Unicode
Unicode
block)

Kannada[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+0C8x ಀ ಁ ಂ ಃ

ಅ ಆ ಇ ಈ ಉ ಊ ಋ ಌ

ಎ ಏ

U+0C9x ಐ

ಒ ಓ ಔ ಕ ಖ ಗ ಘ ಙ ಚ ಛ ಜ ಝ ಞ ಟ

U+0CAx ಠ ಡ ಢ ಣ ತ ಥ ದ ಧ ನ

ಪ ಫ ಬ ಭ ಮ ಯ

U+0CBx ರ ಱ ಲ ಳ

ವ ಶ ಷ ಸ ಹ

಼ ಽ ಾ ಿ

U+0CCx ೀ ು ೂ ೃ ೄ

ೆ ೇ ೈ

ೊ ೋ ೌ ್

U+0CDx

ೕ ೖ

U+0CEx ೠ ೡ ೢ ೣ

೦ ೧ ೨ ೩ ೪ ೫ ೬ ೭ ೮ ೯

U+0CFx

 ೱ   ೲ 

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

See also[edit]

Pyu script Goykanadi Bhattiprolu script Kadamba script Kannada
Kannada
Braille Kannada
Kannada
grammar Kannada
Kannada
literature Kannada
Kannada
poetry Lari Official script

References[edit]

^ "Kannada, Stone inscriptions". Retrieved 2014-07-03.  ^ Himelfarb, Elizabeth J. "First Alphabet
Alphabet
Found in Egypt", Archaeology 53, Issue 1 (Jan./Feb. 2000): 21. ^ Campbell, George L. (1997-11-06). Handbook of scripts and alphabets (1st ed.). Routledge, New York. pp. 84–5. ISBN 978-0-415-13715-7. OCLC 34473667.  ^ Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh (2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 804, 805. ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5.  ^ "Romanization, Sinhala (Sinhalese) Script" (PDF). KAMALAKAR. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 September 2010. Retrieved 2009-05-07.  ^ "Ancient scripts, hala". Retrieved 2009-05-07.  ^ "Telugu & Sinhalese script similarities". Retrieved 2009-05-07.  ^ A Grammar of the Kannada
Kannada
Language. F. Kittel (1993), p. 5 ^ "Old Kannada". Retrieved 2009-05-07.  ^ "Kadamba". Retrieved 2009-05-07.  ^ http://www.deccanherald.com/content/591046/kannada-inscription-talagunda-may-replace.html ^ "Browser Extension of the Week: Look of Disapproval". Maximum PC. Retrieved 2013-04-24. 

External links[edit]

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Simplified Traditional Oracle bone script Bronze Script Seal Script

large small bird-worm

Hanja Idu Kanji Chữ nôm Zhuang

Chinese-influenced

Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut

Cuneiform

Akkadian Assyrian Elamite Hittite Luwian Sumerian

Other logo-syllabic

Anatolian Bagam Cretan Isthmian Maya Proto-Elamite Yi (Classical)

Logo-consonantal

Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs

Numerals

Hindu-Arabic Abjad Attic (Greek) Muisca Roman

Semi-syllabaries

Full

Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom

Redundant

Espanca Pahawh Hmong Khitan small script Southwest Paleohispanic Zhuyin fuhao

Somacheirograms

ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation

Syllabaries

Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese

Hiragana Katakana Man'yōgana Hentaigana Sogana Jindai moji

Kikakui Kpelle Linear B Linear Elamite Lisu Loma Nüshu Nwagu Aneke script Old Persian Cuneiform Vai Woleai Yi (Modern) Yugtun

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Braille
Braille
 ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

Braille
Braille
cell

1829 braille International uniformity ASCII braille Unicode
Unicode
braille patterns

Braille
Braille
scripts

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

Devanagari
Devanagari
(Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav

Reordered scripts

Algerian Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Frequency-based scripts

American Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Independent scripts

Japanese Korean Two-Cell Chinese

Eight-dot scripts

Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

Symbols in braille

Braille
Braille
music Canadian currency marks Computer Braille
Braille
Code Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) Nemeth braille code

Braille
Braille
technology

Braille
Braille
e-book Braille
Braille
embosser Braille
Braille
translator Braille
Braille
watch Mountbatten Brailler Optical braille recognition Perforation Perkins Brailler Refreshable braille display Slate and stylus Braigo

Persons

Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait

Organisations

Braille
Braille
Institute of America Braille
Braille
Without Borders Japan Braille
Braille
Library National Braille
Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
Braille
literacy RoboBraille

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Electronic writing systems

Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode

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Internet slang
Internet slang
dialects

3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
Leet
("1337") Lolspeak / LOLspeak / Kitteh Martian language (Chinese) Miguxês (Portuguese) Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon
(Russian) Translit Volapuk

See also English internet slang (at Wiktio

.