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The KANNADA ALPHABET ( IAST : Kannaḍa lipi) is an alphabet of the Brahmic family , used primarily to write the Kannada language, one of the Dravidian languages of South India
South India
especially in the state of Karnataka
Karnataka
, Kannada script is widely used for writing Sanskrit texts in Karnataka. Several minor languages, such as Tulu , Konkani , Kodava , Sanketi and Beary , also use alphabets based on the Kannada script. The Kannada and Telugu scripts share high mutual intellegibility with each other, and are often considered to be regional variants of single script. Other scripts similar to Kannada script are Sinhala script
Sinhala script
(which included some elements from the Kadamba script ), and Old Peguan script (used in Burma ).

The Kannada script (ಅಕ್ಷರಮಾಲೆ akṣaramāle or ವರ್ಣಮಾಲೆ varṇamāle) is a phonemic abugida of forty-nine letters, and is written from left to right. The character set is almost identical to that of other Brahmic scripts . Consonantal letters imply an inherent vowel . Letters representing consonants are combined to form digraphs (ಒತ್ತಕ್ಷರ ottakṣara) when there is no intervening vowel. Otherwise, each letter corresponds to a syllable .

The letters are classified into three categories: ಸ್ವರ svara (vowels ), ವ್ಯಂಜನ vyañjana (consonants ), and ಯೋಗವಾಹಕ yōgavāhaka (semiconsonants ).

The Kannada words for a letter of the script are ಅಕ್ಷರ akshara, ಅಕ್ಕರ akkara, and ವರ್ಣ varṇa. Each letter has its own form (ಆಕಾರ ākāra) and sound (ಶಬ್ದ śabda), providing the visible and audible representations, respectively. Kannada is written from left to right.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Vowel
Vowel
letters * 3 Yogavaahas

* 4 Consonant letters

* 4.1 Structured consonants * 4.2 Unstructured consonants * 4.3 Pronunciation of Kannada letters * 4.4 Kannada writing order

* 5 Numerals * 6 Akshara * 7 In popular culture * 8 Unicode * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

HISTORY

The Kannada script derives from the Old Kannada script, which evolved around 10th century as the continuation of the Kadamba alphabet of the fourth century. This evolved from the ancient Brahmi script of the third century BCE. Halmidi Inscription Replica

.This is debated as recent excavation has led to Talagunda inscription of 370 AD to be the oldest available. Over the centuries some changes have been made to the Kannada script. These changes consist of:

* Modification of existing glyphs: In the early Kannada script, no orthographic distinction was made between the short mid ಎ, ಒ and long mid ಏ, ಓ. However, distinct signs were employed to denote the special consonants viz. the trill ಱ the retroflex lateral ಳ and the retroflex rhotic ೞ found only in South Indian languages, by 5th century. * Introduction of new characters: Kannada script includes characters like ಶ, ಷ, ೠ, ఌ, ౡ, ಐ, ಔ, ಅಂ, ಅಃ, and mahāprāṇa characters like ಖ, ಘ, ಛ, ಝ, ಥ, ಧ, ಠ, ಢ, ಫ, ಭ. The introduction was done so that Sanskrit (and loanwords into the Kannada language from the donor language Sanskrit) could be written using the Kannada script.

These changes have facilitated the use of the Kannada script for writing many of the literary Indic languages, including Sanskrit.

VOWEL LETTERS

There are thirteen vowel letters (ಸ್ವರ svara). Brahmi script, Kanheri Caves

LETTER DIACRITIC ISO NOTATION

ಅ N/A a

ಆ ಾ ā

ಇ ಿ i

ಈ ೀ ī

ಉ ು u

ಊ ೂ ū

ಋ ೃ rū

ಎ ೆ e

ಏ ೇ ē

ಐ ೈ ai

ಒ ೊ o

ಓ ೋ ō

ಔ ೌ au

When a vowel follows a consonant, it is written with a diacritic rather than as a separate letter.

YOGAVAAHAS

The Yōgavāha (part-vowel, part consonant) include two letters:

* The anusvara : ಅಂ (aṁ) * The visarga : ಅಃ (aḥ)

Another two Yōgavāha used in Sanskrit , but present in Kannada script, are known as Ardhavisarga:

* The Jihvamuliya: ೱ * The Upadhmaniya: ೲ

CONSONANT LETTERS

Two categories of consonant letters (ವ್ಯಂಜನ vyan̄jana) are defined in Kannada: the STRUCTURED CONSONANTS and the UNSTRUCTURED CONSONANTS.

STRUCTURED CONSONANTS

The structured consonants are classified according to where the tongue touches the palate of the mouth and are classified accordingly into five structured groups. These consonants are shown here with their IAST transcriptions.

VOICELESS VOICELESS ASPIRATE VOICED VOICED ASPIRATE NASAL

VELARS ಕ (ka) ಖ (kha) ಗ (ga) ಘ (gha) ಙ (ṅa)

PALATALS ಚ (ca) ಛ (cha) ಜ (ja) ಝ (jha) ಞ (ña)

RETROFLEX ಟ (ṭa) ಠ (ṭha) ಡ (ḍa) ಢ (ḍha) ಣ (ṇa)

DENTALS ತ (ta) ಥ (tha) ದ (da) ಧ (dha) ನ (na)

LABIALS ಪ (pa) ಫ (pha) ಬ (ba) ಭ (bha) ಮ (ma)

See place of articulation for more information on tongue positions.

UNSTRUCTURED CONSONANTS

The unstructured consonants are consonants that do not fall into any of the above structures:

ಯ (ya), ರ (ra), ಱ (ṟa) (obsolete), ಲ (la), ವ (va), ಶ (śa), ಷ (ṣa), ಸ (sa), ಹ (ha), ಳ (ḷa), ೞ (ḻ) (obsolete).

PRONUNCIATION OF KANNADA LETTERS

KANNADA DEVANAGARI PRONUNCIATION

ಅ अ

ಆ आ

ಇ इ

ಈ ई

ಉ उ

ಊ ऊ

ಋ ऋ

ಎ ए

ಏ एॅ

ಐ ऐ

ಒ ओ

ಓ ऑ

ಔ औ

ಅಂ अं

ಅಃ अः

ಕ क

ಖ ख

ಗ ग

ಘ घ

ಙ ङ

ಚ च

ಛ छ

ಜ ज

ಝ झ

ಞ ञ

ಟ ट

ಠ ठ

ಡ ड

ಢ ढ

ಣ ण

ತ त

ಥ थ

ದ द

ಧ ध

ನ न

ಪ प

ಫ फ

ಬ ब

ಭ भ

ಮ म

ಯ य

ರ र

ಲ ल

ವ व

ಶ श

ಷ ष

ಸ स

ಹ ह

ಳ ळ

KANNADA WRITING ORDER

LETTER ANIMATION

a

ā

i

ī

u

ū

e

ē

ai

o

ō

au

aṁ

aḥ

ka

kha

ga

gha

ṅa

ca

cha

ja

jha

ña

ṭa

ṭha

ḍa

ḍha

ṇa

ta

tha

da

dha

na

pa

pha

ba

bha

ma

ya

ra

la

va

śa

ṣa

sa

ha

ḷa

NUMERALS

The decimal numerals in the script are:

KANNADA NUMERALS ENGLISH NUMERALS

NUMERAL NAME NUMERAL NAME

೦ sonne (ಸೊನ್ನೆ) 0 zero

೧ ondu (ಒಂದು) 1 one

೨ eraḍu (ಎರಡು) 2 two

೩ mūru (ಮೂರು) 3 three

೪ nālku (ನಾಲ್ಕು) 4 four

೫ aidu (ಐದು) 5 five

೬ āru (ಆರು) 6 six

೭ ēḷu (ಏಳು) 7 seven

೮ enṭu (ಎಂಟು) 8 eight

೯ oṃbattu (ಒಂಬತ್ತು) 9 nine

AKSHARA

Written Kannada is composed of akshara or kagunita, corresponding to syllables. The letters for consonants combine with diacritics for vowels. The consonant letter without any diacritic, such as ಕ ka, has the inherent vowel a ಅ. This is called ದೀರ್ಘ dīrgha. A consonant without a vowel is marked with a 'killer' stroke, such as ಕ್ k. This is known as ಹ್ರಸ್ವ hrasva.

DIACRITIC VOWEL LETTER D WITH VOWEL DIACRITIC PRONUNCIATION

– (ಅ, a) ದ /da/

್ – ದ್ /d/

ಾ (ಆ, ā) ದಾ /DAː/

ಿ (ಇ, I) ದಿ /DI/

ೀ (ಈ, ī) ದೀ /DIː/

ು (ಉ, U) ದು /DU/

ೂ (ಊ, ū) ದೂ /DUː/

ೆ (ಎ, E) ದೆ /DE/

ೇ (ಏ, ē) ದೇ /DEː/

ೈ (ಐ, AI) ದೈ /DAI/

ೊ (ಒ, O) ದೊ /DO/

ೋ (ಓ, ō) ದೋ /DOː/

ೌ (ಔ, AU) ದೌ /DAU/

ಂ (ಅಂ, Aṃ) ದಂ /Dã/

ಃ (ಅಃ, Aḥ) ದ: /DAH/

* ^ This diacritic has the form ಿ WHEN COMBINED WITH OTHER CONSONANT LETTERS.

ಅ ಆ ಇ ಈ ಉ ಊ ಋ ಎ ಏ ಐ ಒ ಓ ಔ ಅಂ ಅಃ —

ಕ ಕಾ ಕಿ ಕೀ ಕು ಕೂ ಕೃ ಕೆ ಕೇ ಕೈ ಕೊ ಕೋ ಕೌ ಕಂ ಕಃ ಕ್

ಖ ಖಾ ಖಿ ಖೀ ಖು ಖೂ ಖೃ ಖೆ ಖೇ ಖೈ ಖೊ ಖೋ ಖೌ ಖಂ ಖಃ ಖ್

ಗ ಗಾ ಗಿ ಗೀ ಗು ಗೂ ಗೃ ಗೆ ಗೇ ಗೈ ಗೊ ಗೋ ಗೌ ಗಂ ಗಃ ಗ್

ಘ ಘಾ ಘಿ ಘೀ ಘು ಘೂ ಘೃ ಘೆ ಘೇ ಘೈ ಘೊ ಘೋ ಘೌ ಘಂ ಘಃ ಘ್

ಙ ಙಾ ಙಿ ಙೀ ಙು ಙೂ ಙೃ ಙೆ ಙೇ ಙೈ ಙೊ ಙೋ ಙೌ ಙಂ ಙಃ ಙ್

ಚ ಚಾ ಚಿ ಚೀ ಚು ಚೂ ಚೃ ಚೆ ಚೇ ಚೈ ಚೊ ಚೋ ಚೌ ಚಂ ಚಃ ಚ್

ಛ ಛಾ ಛಿ ಛೀ ಛು ಛೂ ಛೃ ಛೆ ಛೇ ಛೈ ಛೊ ಛೋ ಛೌ ಛಂ ಛಃ ಛ್

ಜ ಜಾ ಜಿ ಜೀ ಜು ಜೂ ಜೃ ಜೆ ಜೇ ಜೈ ಜೊ ಜೋ ಜೌ ಜಂ ಜಃ ಜ್

ಝ ಝಾ ಝಿ ಝೀ ಝು ಝೂ ಝೃ ಝೆ ಝೇ ಝೈ ಝೊ ಝೋ ಝೌ ಝಂ ಝಃ ಝ್

ಞ ಞಾ ಞಿ ಞೀ ಞು ಞೂ ಞೃ ಞೆ ಞೇ ಞೈ ಞೊ ಞೋ ಞೌ ಞಂ ಞಃ ಞ್

ಟ ಟಾ ಟಿ ಟೀ ಟು ಟೂ ಟೃ ಟೆ ಟೇ ಟೈ ಟೊ ಟೋ ಟೌ ಟಂ ಟಃ ಟ್

ಠ ಠಾ ಠಿ ಠೀ ಠು ಠೂ ಠೃ ಠೆ ಠೇ ಠೈ ಠೊ ಠೋ ಠೌ ಠಂ ಠಃ ಠ್

ಡ ಡಾ ಡಿ ಡೀ ಡು ಡೂ ಡೃ ಡೆ ಡೇ ಡೈ ಡೊ ಡೋ ಡೌ ಡಂ ಡಃ ಡ್

ಢ ಢಾ ಢಿ ಢೀ ಢು ಢೂ ಢೃ ಢೆ ಢೇ ಢೈ ಢೊ ಢೋ ಢೌ ಢಂ ಢಃ ಢ್

ಣ ಣಾ ಣಿ ಣೀ ಣು ಣೂ ಣೃ ಣೆ ಣೇ ಣೈ ಣೊ ಣೋ ಣೌ ಣಂ ಣಃ ಣ್

ತ ತಾ ತಿ ತೀ ತು ತೂ ತೃ ತೆ ತೇ ತೈ ತೊ ತೋ ತೌ ತಂ ತಃ ತ್

ಥ ಥಾ ಥಿ ಥೀ ಥು ಥೂ ಥೃ ಥೆ ಥೇ ಥೈ ಥೊ ಥೋ ಥೌ ಥಂ ಥಃ ಥ್

ದ ದಾ ದಿ ದೀ ದು ದೂ ದೃ ದೆ ದೇ ದೈ ದೊ ದೋ ದೌ ದಂ ದಃ ದ್

ಧ ಧಾ ಧಿ ಧೀ ಧು ಧೂ ಧೃ ಧೆ ಧೇ ಧೈ ಧೊ ಧೋ ಧೌ ಧಂ ಧಃ ಧ್

ನ ನಾ ನಿ ನೀ ನು ನೂ ನೃ ನೆ ನೇ ನೈ ನೊ ನೋ ನೌ ನಂ ನಃ ನ್

ಪ ಪಾ ಪಿ ಪೀ ಪು ಪೂ ಪೃ ಪೆ ಪೇ ಪೈ ಪೊ ಪೋ ಪೌ ಪಂ ಪಃ ಪ್

ಫ ಫಾ ಫಿ ಫೀ ಫು ಫೂ ಫೃ ಫೆ ಫೇ ಫೈ ಫೊ ಫೋ ಫೌ ಫಂ ಫಃ ಫ್

ಬ ಬಾ ಬಿ ಬೀ ಬು ಬೂ ಬೃ ಬೆ ಬೇ ಬೈ ಬೊ ಬೋ ಬೌ ಬಂ ಬಃ ಬ್

ಭ ಭಾ ಭಿ ಭೀ ಭು ಭೂ ಭೃ ಭೆ ಭೇ ಭೈ ಭೊ ಭೋ ಭೌ ಭಂ ಭಃ ಭ್

ಮ ಮಾ ಮಿ ಮೀ ಮು ಮೂ ಮೃ ಮೆ ಮೇ ಮೈ ಮೊ ಮೋ ಮೌ ಮಂ ಮಃ ಮ್

ಯ ಯಾ ಯಿ ಯೀ ಯು ಯೂ ಯೃ ಯೆ ಯೇ ಯೈ ಯೊ ಯೋ ಯೌ ಯಂ ಯಃ ಯ್

ರ ರಾ ರಿ ರೀ ರು ರೂ ರೃ ರೆ ರೇ ರೈ ರೊ ರೋ ರೌ ರಂ ರಃ ರ್

ಱ ಱಾ ಱಿ ಱೀ ಱು ಱೂ ಱೃ ಱೆ ಱೇ ಱೈ ಱೊ ಱೋ ಱೌ ಱಂ ಱಃ ಱ್

ಲ ಲಾ ಲಿ ಲೀ ಲು ಲೂ ಲೃ ಲೆ ಲೇ ಲೈ ಲೊ ಲೋ ಲೌ ಲಂ ಲಃ ಲ್

ವ ವಾ ವಿ ವೀ ವು ವೂ ವೃ ವೆ ವೇ ವೈ ವೊ ವೋ ವೌ ವಂ ವಃ ವ್

ಶ ಶಾ ಶಿ ಶೀ ಶು ಶೂ ಶೃ ಶೆ ಶೇ ಶೈ ಶೊ ಶೋ ಶೌ ಶಂ ಶಃ ಶ್

ಷ ಷಾ ಷಿ ಷೀ ಷು ಷೂ ಷೃ ಷೆ ಷೇ ಷೈ ಷೊ ಷೋ ಷೌ ಷಂ ಷಃ ಷ್

ಸ ಸಾ ಸಿ ಸೀ ಸು ಸೂ ಸೃ ಸೆ ಸೇ ಸೈ ಸೊ ಸೋ ಸೌ ಸಂ ಸಃ ಸ್

ಹ ಹಾ ಹಿ ಹೀ ಹು ಹೂ ಹೃ ಹೆ ಹೇ ಹೈ ಹೊ ಹೋ ಹೌ ಹಂ ಹಃ ಹ್

ಳ ಳಾ ಳಿ ಳೀ ಳು ಳೂ ಳೃ ಳೆ ಳೇ ಳೈ ಳೊ ಳೋ ಳೌ ಳಂ ಳಃ ಳ್

ೞ ೞಾ ೞಿ ೞೀ ೞು ೞೂ ೞೃ ೞೆ ೞೇ ೞೈ ೞೊ ೞೋ ೞೌ ೞಂ ೞಃ ೞ್

The formations shown BOLDFACE above are seldom used in the normal course of the language.

IN POPULAR CULTURE

Due to its resemblance to an eye and an eyebrow, the Kannada letter ಠ ṭha is used in a popular emoticon called the "look of disapproval" (displayed as "ಠ_ಠ") used to convey disapproval or contempt. Similarly, the akshara ರೃ rr̥a has been used in emoticons to represent a monocle, while ಥ tha has been used to represent a tearing eye.

UNICODE

Main article: Kannada ( Unicode block)

KANNADA Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+0C8x ಀ ಁ ಂ ಃ

ಅ ಆ ಇ ಈ ಉ ಊ ಋ ಌ

ಎ ಏ

U+0C9x ಐ

ಒ ಓ ಔ ಕ ಖ ಗ ಘ ಙ ಚ ಛ ಜ ಝ ಞ ಟ

U+0CAx ಠ ಡ ಢ ಣ ತ ಥ ದ ಧ ನ

ಪ ಫ ಬ ಭ ಮ ಯ

U+0CBx ರ ಱ ಲ ಳ

ವ ಶ ಷ ಸ ಹ

಼ ಽ ಾ ಿ

U+0CCx ೀ ು ೂ ೃ ೄ

ೆ ೇ ೈ

ೊ ೋ ೌ ್

U+0CDx

ೕ ೖ

U+0CEx ೠ ೡ ೢ ೣ

೦ ೧ ೨ ೩ ೪ ೫ ೬ ೭ ೮ ೯

U+0CFx

ೱ ೲ

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

SEE ALSO

* Pyu script * Goykanadi * Bhattiprolu script * Kadamba script * Kannada Braille
Braille
* Kannada grammar * Kannada literature * Kannada poetry * Lari * Official script

REFERENCES

* ^ "Kannada, Stone inscriptions". Retrieved 2014-07-03. * ^ Himelfarb, Elizabeth J. "First Alphabet Found in Egypt", Archaeology 53, Issue 1 (Jan./Feb. 2000): 21. * ^ Campbell, George L. (1997-11-06). Handbook of scripts and alphabets (1st ed.). Routledge , New York . pp. 84–5. ISBN 978-0-415-13715-7 . OCLC 34473667 . * ^ Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh (2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 804, 805. ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5 . * ^ "Romanization, Sinhala (Sinhalese) Script" (PDF). KAMALAKAR. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 September 2010. Retrieved 2009-05-07. * ^ "Ancient scripts, hala". Retrieved 2009-05-07. * ^ "Telugu & Sinhalese script similarities". Retrieved 2009-05-07.

* ^ A Grammar of the Kannada Language. F. Kittel (1993), p. 5 * ^ "Old Kannada". Retrieved 2009-05-07. * ^ "Kadamba". Retrieved 2009-05-07. * ^ http://www.deccanherald.com/content/591046/kannada-inscription-talagunda-may-replace.html * ^ "Browser Extension of the Week: Look of Disapproval". Maximum PC. Retrieved 2013-04-24.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* "The Unicode Book: Chapter 9" (PDF). (634 KB) — South and Southeast Asian Scripts * "The Unicode Standard 5.0" (PDF). — Kannada Code Chart (111 KB) * Kannada alphabet — From Omniglot * Kannada lessons, alphabet worksheet — Kannada library

* v * t * e

Kannada language

* Kannada dialects * Kannada literature * Kannada alphabet * Cinema of Karnataka
Karnataka
* Kannada poetry * Kannada Saahithya Parishath

* v * t * e

Types of writing systems

OVERVIEW

* History of writing * Grapheme

LISTS

* Writing systems

* undeciphered * inventors * constructed

* Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

TYPES

ABJADS

* Numerals

* Aramaic

* Hatran

* Arabic * Pitman shorthand

* Hebrew

* Ashuri * Cursive * Rashi * Solitreo

* Tifinagh * Manichaean * Nabataean * Old North Arabian * Pahlavi * Pegon

* Phoenician

* Paleo-Hebrew

* Proto-Sinaitic * Psalter * Punic * Samaritan

* South Arabian

* Zabur * Musnad

* Sogdian

* Syriac

* ʾEsṭrangēlā * Serṭā * Maḏnḥāyā

* Teeline Shorthand * Ugaritic

ABUGIDAS

BRAHMIC

NORTHERN

* Asamiya (Ôxômiya) * Bānglā * Bhaikshuki * Bhujinmol * Brāhmī * Devanāgarī * Dogri * Gujarati * Gupta * Gurmukhī * Kaithi
Kaithi
* Kalinga * Khojki * Khotanese * Khudawadi * Laṇḍā * Lepcha * Limbu * Mahajani * Meitei Mayek * Modi * Multani * Nāgarī * Nandinagari * Odia * \'Phags-pa * Newar * Ranjana * Sharada * Saurashtra * Siddhaṃ * Soyombo * Sylheti Nagari * Takri

* Tibetan

* Uchen * Umê

* Tirhuta
Tirhuta
* Tocharian * Zanabazar Square

* Zhang-Zhung

* Drusha * Marchen * Marchung * Pungs-chen * Pungs-chung

SOUTHERN

* Ahom * Balinese * Batak * Baybayin * Bhattiprolu * Buhid * Burmese * Chakma * Cham * Grantha * Goykanadi * Hanunó\'o * Javanese * Kadamba * Kannada * Kawi * Khmer * Kulitan * Lanna * Lao * Leke * Lontara * Malayalam

* Maldivian

* Dhives Akuru
Dhives Akuru
* Eveyla Akuru * Thaana

* Mon * Old Makassarese * Old Sundanese * Pallava * Pyu * Rejang * Rencong * Sinhala * Sundanese * Tagbanwa * Tai Le * Tai Tham * Tai Viet * Tamil * Telugu * Thai * Tigalari

* Vatteluttu

* Kolezhuthu * Malayanma

* Visayan

OTHERS

* Boyd\'s syllabic shorthand

* Canadian syllabics

* Blackfoot * Déné syllabics

* Fox I * Ge\'ez * Gunjala Gondi * Japanese Braille * Jenticha * Kayah Li * Kharosthi
Kharosthi
* Mandombe * Masaram Gondi * Meroitic * Miao * Mwangwego * Sorang Sompeng * Pahawh Hmong * Thomas Natural Shorthand
Thomas Natural Shorthand

ALPHABETS

LINEAR

* Abkhaz * Adlam * Armenian * Avestan * Avoiuli * Bassa Vah * Borama * Carian * Caucasian Albanian * Coorgi–Cox alphabet * Coptic * Cyrillic * Deseret

* Duployan shorthand

* Chinook writing

* Early Cyrillic * Eclectic shorthand * Elbasan * Etruscan * Evenki * Fox II * Fraser * Gabelsberger shorthand * Garay

* Georgian

* Asomtavruli * Nuskhuri * Mkhedruli

*