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Kannada
Kannada
(/ˈkɑːnədə, ˈkæn-/;[6][7] [ˈkʌnːəɖɑː]) (Kannada: ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language
Dravidian language
spoken predominantly by Kannada people
Kannada people
in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa
Goa
and abroad. The language has roughly 38 million native speakers,[8] who are called Kannadigas
Kannadigas
(Kannadigaru). Kannada
Kannada
is also spoken as second and third language by non- Kannada
Kannada
speakers living in Karnataka, which adds up to 50.8 million speakers.[9] It is one of the scheduled languages of India
India
and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka.[10] The Kannada language
Kannada language
is written using the Kannada
Kannada
script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada
Kannada
is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia, and literary Old Kannada
Kannada
flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty[11] and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty.[12][13] Kannada
Kannada
has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years.[14] Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the ministry of culture, the government of India designated Kannada
Kannada
a classical language of India.[15][16] In July 2011, a centre for the study of classical Kannada
Kannada
was established as part of the Central Institute of Indian Languages at Mysore
Mysore
to facilitate research related to the language.[17]

Contents

1 Development 2 Influence of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Prakrit 3 History

3.1 Early traces 3.2 Epigraphy 3.3 Coins

4 Literature

4.1 Old Kannada 4.2 Middle Kannada 4.3 Modern Kannada

5 Patronage of Kannada
Kannada
by Kannada
Kannada
Kingdoms 6 Areas of influence 7 Dialects 8 Status 9 Writing system

9.1 Obsolete Kannada
Kannada
letters 9.2 Kannada script
Kannada script
evolution 9.3 Dictionary 9.4 Kannada script
Kannada script
in computing

9.4.1 Transliteration 9.4.2 Unicode

10 Grammar

10.1 Compound bases 10.2 Pronouns

11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Development[edit] Kannada
Kannada
is a Southern Dravidian language, and according to Dravidian scholar Sanford B. Steever, its history can be conventionally divided into three periods: Old Kannada
Old Kannada
(Halegannada) from 450–1200 CE, Middle Kannada
Kannada
(Nadugannada) from 1200–1700, and Modern Kannada
Kannada
from 1700 to the present.[18] Kannada
Kannada
is influenced to an appreciable extent by Tamil and Sanskrit. Influences of other languages such as Prakrit
Prakrit
and Pali
Pali
can also be found in the Kannada
Kannada
language. The scholar Iravatham Mahadevan indicated that Kannada
Kannada
was already a language of rich oral tradition earlier than the 3rd century BCE, and based on the native Kannada
Kannada
words found in Prakrit
Prakrit
and Tamil inscriptions of that period, Kannada
Kannada
must have been spoken by a widespread and stable population.[19][20] The scholar K. V. Narayana claims that many tribal languages which are now designated as Kannada dialects could be nearer to the earlier form of the language, with lesser influence from other languages.[19] Influence of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Prakrit[edit] The sources of influence on literary Kannada grammar appear to be three-fold: Pāṇini's grammar, non-Paninian schools of Sanskrit grammar, particularly Katantra and Sakatayana schools, and Prakrit grammar.[21] Literary Prakrit
Prakrit
seems to have prevailed in Karnataka since ancient times. The vernacular Prakrit
Prakrit
speaking people may have come into contact with Kannada
Kannada
speakers, thus influencing their language, even before Kannada
Kannada
was used for administrative or liturgical purposes. Kannada
Kannada
phonetics, morphology, vocabulary, grammar and syntax show significant influence from these languages.[21][22] Some examples of naturalised (tadbhava) words of Prakrit
Prakrit
origin in Kannada
Kannada
are: baṇṇa (color) derived from vaṇṇa, hunnime (full moon) from puṇṇivā. Examples of naturalized Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words in Kannada
Kannada
are: varṇa (color), arasu (king) from rajan, paurṇimā, and rāya from rāja (king).[23] Kannada
Kannada
has numerous borrowed (tatsama) words such as dina (day), kopa (anger), surya (sun), mukha (face), nimiṣa (minute) and anna (rice).[24] History[edit] Early traces[edit] Main articles: Halmidi
Halmidi
inscription, Kappe Arabhatta, Shravanabelagola inscription of Nandisena, Tyagada Brahmadeva Pillar, Atakur inscription, Doddahundi nishidhi inscription, and List of people associated with the study of Kannada
Kannada
inscriptions

The Halmidi inscription
Halmidi inscription
at Halmidi
Halmidi
village, in old-Kannada, is usually dated to AD 450 (Kadamba Dynasty)

Old- Kannada
Kannada
inscription dated AD 578 (Badami Chalukya dynasty), outside Badami cave no.3

Old- Kannada
Kannada
inscription of c. AD 726, discovered in Talakad, from the rule of King Shivamara I or Sripurusha (Western Ganga Dynasty)

Old- Kannada
Kannada
inscription of the 9th century (Rashtrakuta Dynasty) at Durga Devi temple in Hampi, Karnataka

The famous Atakur inscription
Atakur inscription
(AD 949) from Mandya district, a classical Kannada
Kannada
composition in two parts; a fight between a hound and a wild boar, and the victory of the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
over the Chola dynasty in the famous battle of Takkolam

Old Kannada
Old Kannada
inscription dated 1057 A.D. of Western Chalukya King Someshvara I at Kalleshwara Temple, Hire Hadagali
Kalleshwara Temple, Hire Hadagali
in Bellary district

Old- Kannada
Kannada
inscription ascribed to King Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
(Western Chalukya Empire), dated AD 1112, at the Mahadeva Temple in Itagi, Koppal district of Karnataka
Karnataka
state

Old- Kannada
Kannada
inscription of AD 1220 (Hoysala Empire) at Ishwara temple of Arasikere town in the Hassan district

Kannada
Kannada
inscription dated 1509 A.D., of King Krishnadevaraya (Vijayanagara Empire), at the Virupaksha temple in Hampi
Hampi
describes his coronation

Kannada
Kannada
inscription dated 1654 A.D., at Yelandur with exquisite relief

Pre-old[clarification needed] Kannada
Kannada
(or Purava HaleGannada) was the language of Banavasi
Banavasi
in the early Common Era, the Satavahana, Chutu Satakarni (Naga) and Kadamba periods and thus has a history of over 2500 years.[20][25][26][27][28][29][30] The Ashoka rock edict
Ashoka rock edict
found at Brahmagiri (dated to 230 BCE) has been suggested to contain words in identifiable Kannada.[31] According to Jain tradition, Brahmi, the daughter of Rishabhadeva, the first Tirthankara of Jainism, invented 18 alphabets, including Kannada, which points to the antiquity of the language. Supporting this tradition, an inscription of about the 9th century CE, containing specimens of different alphabets, mostly Dravidian, was discovered in a Jain temple in the Deogarh fort.[32] Greek dramatists of the 5th–4th century BCE were purportedly familiar with the Kannada
Kannada
country and language. This would show a far more intimate contact of the Greeks with Kannada
Kannada
culture than with Indian culture elsewhere.[33] The Kannada
Kannada
word Ooralli (lit in a village[clarification needed]) is said to be written on a huge wall constructed in Alexandria in the 4th century BCE as part of the remnants of 36,000 palm manuscripts that had been burnt in an accidental fire in Alexander's time. The palm manuscripts contained texts written not only in Greek, Latin and Hebrew, but also in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Kannada.[34] In the 150 CE Prakrit
Prakrit
book Gaathaa Saptashati, written by Haala Raja, Kannada
Kannada
words like tIr or Teer (meaning to be able), tuppa, peTTu, poTTu, poTTa, piTTu (meaning to strike), Pode (Hode) have been used. On the Pallava Prakrit
Prakrit
inscription of 250 CE of Hire Hadagali's Shivaskandavarman, the Kannada
Kannada
word kOTe transforms into koTTa. In the 350 CE Chandravalli Prakrit
Prakrit
inscription, words of Kannada
Kannada
origin like punaaTa, puNaDa have been used. In one more Prakrit
Prakrit
inscription of 250 CE found in Malavalli, Kannada
Kannada
towns like vEgooraM (bEgooru), kundamuchchaMDi find a reference.[20][35] Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(23 – 79 CE) was a naval and army commander in the early Roman Empire. He writes about pirates between Muziris and Nitrias (Netravati River). He also mentions Barace (Barcelore). Nitrias of Pliny and Nitran of Ptolemy
Ptolemy
refer to the Netravati River as also[clarification needed] the modern port city of Mangaluru, upon its mouth. Many of these are Kannada
Kannada
origin names of places and rivers of the Karnataka
Karnataka
coast of 1st century CE.[36][37][38] The Greek geographer Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(150 CE) mentions places such as Badiamaioi (Badami), Inde (Indi), Kalligeris (Kalkeri), Modogoulla (Mudagal), Petrigala (Pattadakal), Hippokoura (Huvina Hipparagi), Nagarouris (Nagur), Tabaso (Tavasi), Tiripangalida (Gadahinglai), Soubouttou or Sabatha (Savadi), Banaouase (Banavasi), Thogorum (Tagara), Biathana (Paithan), Sirimalaga (Malkhed), Aloe(Ellapur) and Pasage (Palasige) indicating prosperous trade between Egypt, Europe and Karnataka. He also mentions Pounnata (Punnata) and refers to beryls, i.e., the Vaidhurya gems of that country. He mentions Malippala (Malpe) a coastal town of Karnataka. In this work Larika and Kandaloi are identified as Rastrika and Kuntala. Ptolemy
Ptolemy
writes in the midst of the false mouth and the Barios, there is a city called Maganur (Mangalore). He mentions of inland centres of pirates called Oloikhora (Alavakheda). He mentions Ariake Sadinon meaning Aryaka Satakarni and Baithana as capital of Siro(e) P(t)olmaios, i.e., Sri Pulimayi clearly indicating his knowledge of the Satavahana
Satavahana
kings. The word Pulimayi means One with body of Tiger in Kannada, which bears testimony to the possible Kannada
Kannada
origin of Satavahana
Satavahana
kings.[39][40] A possibly more definite reference to Kannada
Kannada
is found in the 'Charition Mime' ascribed to the late 1st to early 2nd century CE.[41][42] The farce, written by an unknown author, is concerned with a Greek lady named Charition who has been stranded on the coast of a country bordering the Indian Ocean. The king of this region, and his countrymen, sometimes use their own language, and the sentences they speak could be interpreted as Kannada, including Koncha madhu patrakke haki ("Having poured a little wine into the cup separately") and paanam beretti katti madhuvam ber ettuvenu ("Having taken up the cup separately and having covered it, I shall take wine separately.").[43] The language employed in the papyrus indicates that the play is set in one of the numerous small ports on the western coast of India, between Karwar
Karwar
and Kanhangad.[43] Epigraphy[edit] The earliest examples of a full-length Kannada language
Kannada language
stone inscription (shilaashaasana) containing Brahmi
Brahmi
characters with characteristics attributed to those of proto- Kannada
Kannada
in Hale Kannada (lit Old Kannada) script can be found in the Halmidi
Halmidi
inscription, usually dated c. AD 450, indicating that Kannada
Kannada
had become an administrative language at that time. The Halmidi inscription
Halmidi inscription
provides invaluable information about the history and culture of Karnataka.[44][45][46][47] The 5th century Tamatekallu inscription of Chitradurga
Chitradurga
and the Chikkamagaluru
Chikkamagaluru
inscription of 500 AD are further examples.[48][49][50] Recent reports indicate that the Old Kannada Nishadi inscription discovered on the Chandragiri hill, Shravanabelagola, is older than Halmidi inscription
Halmidi inscription
by about fifty to hundred years and may belong to the period AD 350–400.[51] The noted archaeologist and art historian S. Shettar is of the opinion that an inscription of the Western Ganga King Kongunivarma Madhava (c. 350–370) found at Tagarthi (Tyagarthi) in Shikaripura taluk of Shimoga district is of 350 CE and is also older than the Halmidi inscription.[52][53] Current estimates of the total number of existing epigraphs written in Kannada
Kannada
range from 25,000 by the scholar Sheldon Pollock to over 30,000 by the Amaresh Datta of the Sahitya Akademi.[54][55] Prior to the Halmidi
Halmidi
inscription, there is an abundance of inscriptions containing Kannada
Kannada
words, phrases and sentences, proving its antiquity. The 543 AD Badami cliff inscription of Pulakesi I is an example of a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
inscription in old Kannada
Kannada
script.[56][57] Kannada inscriptions
Kannada inscriptions
are not only discovered in Karnataka
Karnataka
but also quite commonly in Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Telangana, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Tamil Nadu. Some inscriptions were also found in Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. The Northern most Kannada
Kannada
inscription of the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
of 964 CE is the Jura record found near Jabalpur in present-day Madhya Pradesh, belonging to the reign of Krishna III. This indicates the spread of the influence of the language over the ages, especially during the rule of large Kannada
Kannada
empires.[58] Pyu sites of Myanmar yielded variety of Indian scripts including those written in a script especially archaic, most resembling the Kadamba (Kannada-speaking Kadambas
Kadambas
of 4th century CE Karnataka
Karnataka
and Andhra Pradesh[59]) form of common Kannada-Telugu script from Andhra Pradesh.[60][61] The earliest copper plates inscribed in Old Kannada
Old Kannada
script and language, dated to the early 8th century AD, are associated with Alupa King Aluvarasa II from Belmannu (the Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
district), and display the double crested fish, his royal emblem.[62] The oldest well-preserved palm leaf manuscript in Old Kannada
Old Kannada
is that of Dhavala. It dates to around the 9th century and is preserved in the Jain Bhandar, Mudbidri, Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
district.[63] The manuscript contains 1478 leaves written using ink.[63] Coins[edit] Some early Kadamba Dynasty
Kadamba Dynasty
coins bearing the Kannada
Kannada
inscription Vira and Skandha were found in Satara collectorate.[64] A gold coin bearing three inscriptions of Sri and an abbreviated inscription of king Bhagiratha's name called bhagi (c. AD 390–420) in old Kannada exists.[65] A Kadamba copper coin dated to the 5th century AD with the inscription Srimanaragi in Kannada script
Kannada script
was discovered in Banavasi, Uttara Kannada
Kannada
district.[66] Coins with Kannada
Kannada
legends have been discovered spanning the rule of the Western Ganga Dynasty, the Badami Chalukyas, the Alupas, the Western Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Hoysalas, the Vijayanagar Empire, the Kadamba Dynasty
Kadamba Dynasty
of Banavasi, the Keladi Nayakas and the Mysore
Mysore
Kingdom, the Badami Chalukya coins being a recent discovery.[67][68][69] The coins of the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Goa
Goa
are unique in that they have alternate inscription of the king's name in Kannada
Kannada
and Devanagari in triplicate,[70] a few coins of the Kadambas of Hangal
Hangal
are also available.[71] Literature[edit] Main articles: Kannada
Kannada
literature, List of important milestones in Kannada
Kannada
literature, and List of notable epics in the Kannada
Kannada
language Old Kannada[edit] Main articles: Rashtrakuta literature, Western Ganga literature, Kannada literature
Kannada literature
in the Western Chalukya Empire, and Hoysala literature The oldest existing record of Kannada poetry in Tripadi metre is the Kappe Arabhatta
Kappe Arabhatta
record of AD 700.[72] Kavirajamarga
Kavirajamarga
by King Nripatunga Amoghavarsha
Amoghavarsha
I (AD 850) is the earliest existing literary work in Kannada. It is a writing on literary criticism and poetics meant to standardise various written Kannada dialects used in literature in previous centuries. The book makes reference to Kannada
Kannada
works by early writers such as King Durvinita of the 6th century and Ravikirti, the author of the Aihole record of 636 AD.[73][74] Since the earliest available Kannada
Kannada
work is one on grammar and a guide of sorts to unify existing variants of Kannada grammar and literary styles, it can be safely assumed that literature in Kannada
Kannada
must have started several centuries earlier.[73][75] An early extant prose work, the Vaddaradhane by Shivakotiacharya
Shivakotiacharya
of AD 900 provides an elaborate description of the life of Bhadrabahu of Shravanabelagola.[76] Kannada
Kannada
works from earlier centuries mentioned in the Kavirajamarga are not yet traced. Some ancient texts now considered extinct but referenced in later centuries are Prabhrita (AD 650) by Syamakundacharya, Chudamani (Crest Jewel—AD 650) by Srivaradhadeva, also known as Tumbuluracharya, which is a work of 96,000 verse-measures and a commentary on logic (Tatwartha-mahashastra).[77][78][79] Other sources date Chudamani to the 6th century or earlier.[80][81] The Karnateshwara Katha, a eulogy for King Pulakesi II, is said to have belonged to the 7th century; the Gajastaka, a work on elephant management by King Shivamara II, belonged to the 8th century,[82] and the Chandraprabha-purana by Sri Vijaya, a court poet of King Amoghavarsha
Amoghavarsha
I, is ascribed to the early 9th century.[83] Tamil Buddhist commentators of the 10th century AD (in the commentary on Nemrinatham, a Tamil grammatical work) make references that show that Kannada literature
Kannada literature
must have flourished as early as the AD 4th century.[84] Around the beginning of the 9th century, Old Kannada
Old Kannada
was spoken from Kaveri
Kaveri
to Godavari. The Kannada
Kannada
spoken between the rivers Varada and Malaprabha
Malaprabha
was the pure well of Kannada
Kannada
undefiled.[85] The late classical period gave birth to several genres of Kannada literature, with new forms of composition coming into use, including Ragale (a form of blank verse) and meters like Sangatya and Shatpadi. The works of this period are based on Jain and Hindu principles. Two of the early writers of this period are Harihara and Raghavanka, trailblazers in their own right. Harihara established the Ragale form of composition while Raghavanka popularised the Shatpadi (six-lined stanza) meter.[86] A famous Jaina writer of the same period is Janna, who expressed Jain religious teachings through his works.[87] The Vachana
Vachana
Sahitya tradition of the 12th century is purely native and unique in world literature, and the sum of contributions by all sections of society. Vachanas were pithy poems on that period's social, religious and economic conditions. More importantly, they held a mirror to the seed of social revolution, which caused a radical re-examination of the ideas of caste, creed and religion. Some of the important writers of Vachana
Vachana
literature include Basavanna, Allama Prabhu and Akka Mahadevi.[88] Emperor Nripatunga Amoghavarsha
Amoghavarsha
I of 850 CE recognised that the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
style of Kannada literature
Kannada literature
was Margi (formal or written form of language) and Desi (folk or spoken form of language) style was popular and made his people aware of the strength and beauty of their native language Kannada. In 1112 CE, Jain poet Nayasena of Mulugunda, Dharwad district, in his Champu work Dharmamrita, a book on morals, warns writers from mixing Kannada
Kannada
with Sanskrit
Sanskrit
by comparing it with mixing of clarified butter and oil. He has written it using very limited Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words which fit with idiomatic Kannada. In 1235 CE, Jain poet Andayya, wrote Kabbigara Kava (Poet's Defender), also called Sobagina Suggi (Harvest of Beauty) or Madana-Vijaya and Kavana-Gella (Cupid's Conquest), a Champu work in pure Kannada
Kannada
using only indigenous (desya) Kannada
Kannada
words and the derived form of Sanskrit words – tadbhavas, without the admixture of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words. He succeeded in his challenge and proved wrong those who had advocated that it was impossible to write a work in Kannada
Kannada
without using Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words. Andayya may be considered as a protector of Kannada poets who were ridiculed by Sanskrit
Sanskrit
advocates. Thus Kannada
Kannada
is the only Dravidian language
Dravidian language
which is not only capable of using only native Kannada
Kannada
words and grammar in its literature (like Tamil), but also use Sanskrit
Sanskrit
grammar and vocabulary (like Telugu, Malayalam, Tulu, etc.) The Champu style of literature of mixing poetry with prose owes its origins to the Kannada language
Kannada language
which was later incorporated by poets into Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and other Indian languages.[89][90][91][92][93][94] Middle Kannada[edit] Main articles: Kannada literature
Kannada literature
in Vijayanagara empire and Literature of the Kingdom of Mysore During the period between the 15th and 18th centuries, Hinduism
Hinduism
had a great influence on Middle Kannada
Kannada
(Nadugannada) language and literature. Kumara Vyasa, who wrote the Karnata Bharata Kathamanjari, was arguably the most influential Kannada
Kannada
writer of this period. His work, entirely composed in the native Bhamini Shatpadi (hexa-meter), is a sublime adaptation of the first ten books of the Mahabharata.[95] During this period, the Sanskritic influence is present in most abstract, religious, scientific and rhetorical terms.[96][97][98] During this period, several Hindi
Hindi
and Marathi words came into Kannada, chiefly relating to feudalism and militia.[99] Hindu saints of the Vaishnava
Vaishnava
sect such as Kanakadasa, Purandaradasa, Naraharitirtha, Vyasatirtha, Sripadaraya, Vadirajatirtha, Vijaya Dasa, Jagannatha Dasa, Prasanna Venkatadasa produced devotional poems in this period.[100] Kanakadasa's Ramadhanya Charite is a rare work, concerning with the issue of class struggle.[101] This period saw the advent of Haridasa
Haridasa
Sahitya (lit Dasa literature) which made rich contributions to Bhakti
Bhakti
literature and sowed the seeds of Carnatic music. Purandara Dasa is widely considered the Father of Carnatic music.[102][103][104] Modern Kannada[edit] Main articles: Modern Kannada literature
Kannada literature
and Kannada
Kannada
poetry The Kannada
Kannada
works produced from the 19th century make a gradual transition and are classified as Hosagannada or Modern Kannada. Most notable among the modernists was the poet Nandalike Muddana whose writing may be described as the "Dawn of Modern Kannada", though generally, linguists treat Indira Bai or Saddharma Vijayavu by Gulvadi Venkata Raya as the first literary works in Modern Kannada. The first modern movable type printing of "Canarese" appears to be the Canarese Grammar of Carey printed at Serampore
Serampore
in 1817, and the "Bible in Canarese" of John Hands in 1820.[105] The first novel printed was John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, along with other texts including Canarese Proverbs, The History of Little Henry and his Bearer by Mary Martha Sherwood, Christian Gottlob Barth's Bible Stories and "a Canarese hymn book."[106] Modern Kannada
Kannada
in the 20th century has been influenced by many movements, notably Navodaya, Navya, Navyottara, Dalita and Bandaya. Contemporary Kannada literature
Kannada literature
has been highly successful in reaching people of all classes in society. Further, Kannada
Kannada
has produced a number of prolific and renowned poets and writers such as Kuvempu, Bendre, and V K Gokak. Works of Kannada literature
Kannada literature
have received eight Jnanpith
Jnanpith
awards,[107] the highest number awarded to any Indian language.[108] Patronage of Kannada
Kannada
by Kannada
Kannada
Kingdoms[edit] The Kannada
Kannada
was patronized by many Kannada
Kannada
Kingdoms. The Kadambas [109] are considered the earliest indigenous rulers to use Kannada
Kannada
as an administrative language. That period saw one of the first writings of Kannada. It further got boost from Chalukya dynasty, under whom Kannada
Kannada
began to grow. Even though literary works of this time have been lost, there are references of great writers and poets having lived in this kingdom and wrote in Kannada
Kannada
as stated in Kavirajamarga.[110] Next came the Rashtrakuta Empire, wherein several well known kannada works were written. Kavirajamarga
Kavirajamarga
by Amoghavarsha
Amoghavarsha
I, Adipurana
Adipurana
and Vikramarjuna Vijaya by Pampa, Vaddaradhane by Shivakotiacharya
Shivakotiacharya
are few examples. Later, Western Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and Hoysalas
Hoysalas
continued the tradition of Royal patronage of Kannada
Kannada
writers. These Kannada
Kannada
writers were secular in thinking and writings. For Example, the great Kannada writer Pampa was a Jain but wrote on Hindu epics. With the arrival Vijayanagara Empire, the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement peaked with its style and transformed the way Kannada literature
Kannada literature
was written. This literary movement started under Western Chalukyas
Chalukyas
as a tool of social reformation in the form of Vachana
Vachana
Sahitya and continued until late 16th century under Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
which is typically known for Dasa Sahithya. Instead of writing with strict rules which was inherited from Sanskrit, this movement's writers wrote in common people language and quickly gained prominence. This was the golden period of Kannada literature
Kannada literature
in being able to reach large sections of common folks with its simple and serene prose and poetry. Several smaller Kannada
Kannada
Kingdoms too enriched the Kannada
Kannada
language with their zeal and love for the land's language. Each kingdom provided their contribution in an unique way, for example, in Rashtrakuta Empire, the literature was heavily influenced by Sanskrit. But in Kalachuri kingdom, the vachana literature was subtle. It is a true testament to the determination of these glorious kingdoms and its writers to proliferate the kannada words on stones and scrolls, that today Kannada
Kannada
is among the reputed languages in the world with its beautiful and rich literature. It is to be noted that Kannada
Kannada
Kings were not only patronage of Kannada
Kannada
but of other languages as well. For example under Vijayanagar and Eastern ChalukyasEastern Chalukyas#Connection between Kannada
Kannada
and Telugu literature empires, Telugu got its royal patronage along with kannada, Kadambas
Kadambas
of Goa
Goa
patronized Konkani along with kannada, tamil was used in tamil areas under Rashtrakuta empire along with kannada[111]. This shows how kannada kings respected other sister languages of Kannada
Kannada
instead of forcing kannada on non-kannada speaking people over which they were ruling. Areas of influence[edit] Besides being the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka, Kannada language
Kannada language
is present in other areas:

Kannadigas
Kannadigas
form Tamil Nadu's 3rd biggest linguistic group and add up to about 1.23 million which is 2.2% of Tamil Nadu's total population.[112][113] Kannadigas
Kannadigas
account for 3% of Mumbai's population of 12 million as of 1991, which is 360,000.[114] As of 2001, there were 1.26 million Kannada
Kannada
speakers in Maharashtra, 1.3% of its population. Kannada
Kannada
is the third-most spoken language in Hyderabad and is spoken by 677,245 people in Andhra Pradesh, some 0.8% of its total population. Kannada
Kannada
speakers in Kerala
Kerala
numbered 325,571 which is 1.2% of its population as of 2001. Goa
Goa
has 7% Kannada
Kannada
speakers which accounts for 94,360 Kannadigas. There are 43 Kannadigas
Kannadigas
on the Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
islands. Amindivi islands were formerly a part of undivided Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
district. The Malayalam
Malayalam
spoken by people of Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
has many Kannada words.[115][116] New Delhi has approximately 11,027 Kannada
Kannada
speakers[116][117] or less than 100,000 according to a different source.[118] As on 2001, Gujarat had 15,202 Kannada
Kannada
speakers; Madhya Pradesh had 6,039; Rajasthan had 5,651; Punjab had 4,872; Jammu & Kashmir had 4,058; Assam had 2,666; Haryana had 2,115; Chhattisgarh had 2,084; Pondicherry had 1,177; Uttarakhand had 849; Dadra & Nagar Haveli had 728; Tripura had 640; Himachal Pradesh had 608; Arunachal Pradesh had 549; Chandigarh had 451; Nagaland had 398; Daman & Diu had 396; Andaman & Nicobar Islands had 321; Manipur had 239; Meghalaya had 232; Mizoram had 178 and Sikkim had 162. The states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Odisha had not properly enumerated Kannada
Kannada
speakers in the census.[116] There are about 150,000 Kannadigas
Kannadigas
in North America (USA and Canada).[119] Gulf countries of Middle-East, UK and Australia have minority numbers of Kannada
Kannada
speakers.

Dialects[edit] Main article: Kannada
Kannada
dialects There is also a considerable difference between the spoken and written forms of the language. Spoken Kannada
Kannada
tends to vary from region to region. The written form is more or less consistent throughout Karnataka. The Ethnologue
Ethnologue
reports "about 20 dialects" of Kannada. Among them are Kundagannada (spoken exclusively in Kundapura), Nadavar- Kannada
Kannada
(spoken by Nadavaru), Havigannada (spoken mainly by Havyaka Brahmins), Are Bhashe (spoken by Gowda community mainly in Madikeri
Madikeri
and Sullia
Sullia
region of Dakshina Kannada), Malenadu Kannada (Sakaleshpur, Coorg, Shimoga, Chikmagalur), Sholaga, Gulbarga Kannada, Dharawad Kannada
Kannada
etc. All of these dialects are influenced by their regional and cultural background. The one million Komarpants in and around Goa
Goa
speak their own dialect of Kannada, known as Halegannada. They are settled in each and every village spread across Goa
Goa
state, throughout Uttara Kannada district
Uttara Kannada district
and Khanapur taluk of Belagavi district, Karnataka.[120][121][122] The Halakki Vokkaligas of Uttara Kannada, Shimoga and Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
districts of Karnataka
Karnataka
speak in their own dialect of Kannada
Kannada
called Halakki Kannada
Kannada
or Achchagannada. Their population estimate is about 75,000.[123][124][125] Ethnologue
Ethnologue
also classifies a group of four languages related to Kannada, which are, besides Kannada
Kannada
proper, Badaga, Holiya, Kurumba and Urali.[126] Nasik district of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
has a distinct tribe called 'Hatkar Kaanadi' people who speak a Kannada
Kannada
(Kaanadi) dialect with lot of old Kannada
Kannada
words. Per Chidananda Murthy, they are the native people of Nasik from ancient times which shows that North Maharashtra's Nasik area had Kannada
Kannada
population 1000 years ago.[127] [128] Kannada speakers formed 0.12% of Nasik district's population as per 1961 census.[129] R. Narasimhacharya considers Tulu, Kodava, Toda, Kota, Badaga and Irula as Kannada dialects due to their closeness to Kannada.[85] Status[edit] The Director of the Central Institute of Indian Languages, Udaya Narayana Singh, submitted a report in 2006 to the Indian government arguing for Kannada
Kannada
to be made a classical language of India.[130] In 2008 the Indian government announced that Kannada
Kannada
was to be designated as one of the classical languages of India.[15][16] Writing system[edit] Main articles: Kannada alphabet
Kannada alphabet
and Kannada
Kannada
braille The language uses forty-nine phonemic letters, divided into three groups: swaragalu (vowels – thirteen letters); vyanjanagalu (consonants – thirty-four letters); and yogavaahakagalu (neither vowel nor consonant – two letters: anusvara ಂ and visarga ಃ). The character set is almost identical to that of other Indian languages. The Kannada script
Kannada script
is almost perfectly phonetic, but for the sound of a "half n" (which becomes a half m). The number of written symbols, however, is far more than the forty-nine characters in the alphabet, because different characters can be combined to form compound characters (ottakshara). Each written symbol in the Kannada script corresponds with one syllable, as opposed to one phoneme in languages like English. The Kannada script
Kannada script
is syllabic. Obsolete Kannada
Kannada
letters[edit]

Historical form of representing ನ್ in Kannada
Kannada
script.

Kannada
Kannada
literary works employed the letters ಱ (transliterated 'ṟ' or 'rh') and ೞ (transliterated 'ḻ', 'lh' or 'zh'), whose manner of articulation most plausibly could be akin to those in present-day Malayalam
Malayalam
and Tamil. The letters dropped out of use in the 12th and 18th centuries, respectively. Later Kannada
Kannada
works replaced 'rh' and 'lh' with ರ (ra) and ಳ (la) respectively.[93] Another letter (or unclassified vyanjana (consonant)) that has become extinct is 'nh' or 'inn'. Likewise, this has its equivalent in Telugu, where it is called Nakaara pollu. The usage of this consonant was observed until the 1980s in Kannada
Kannada
works from the mostly coastal areas of Karnataka
Karnataka
(especially the Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
district). Now, hardly any mainstream works use this consonant. This letter has been replaced by ನ್ (consonant n).[citation needed] Kannada script
Kannada script
evolution[edit] The image below shows the evolution of Kannada
Kannada
script[131] from prehistoric times to the modern period. The Kannada script
Kannada script
evolved in stages: Proto- Kannada
Kannada
→ Pre– Old Kannada
Old Kannada
Old Kannada
Old Kannada
→ Modern Kannada. The Proto- Kannada script
Kannada script
has its root in ancient Brahmi
Brahmi
and appeared around the 3rd century BC. The Pre-Old- Kannada script
Kannada script
appeared around the 4th century AD. Old- Kannada script
Kannada script
can be traced to around the 10th century AD, whereas Modern- Kannada script
Kannada script
appeared around the 17th century AD. Dictionary[edit] Kannada– Kannada
Kannada
dictionary has existed in Kannada
Kannada
along with ancient works of Kannada
Kannada
grammar. The oldest available Kannada
Kannada
dictionary was composed by the poet 'Ranna' called 'Ranna Kanda' in 996 ACE. Other dictionaries are 'Abhidhana Vastukosha' by Nagavarma (1045 ACE), 'Amarakoshada Teeku' by Vittala (1300), 'Abhinavaabhidaana' by Abhinava Mangaraja (1398 ACE) and many more.[132] A Kannada–English dictionary consisting of more than 70,000 words was composed by Ferdinand Kittel.[133] G. Venkatasubbaiah
G. Venkatasubbaiah
edited the first modern Kannada–Kannada dictionary, a 9,000-page, 8-volume series published by the Kannada Sahitya Parishat. He also wrote a Kannada–English dictionary and a kliṣtapadakōśa, a dictionary of difficult words.[134][135] Kannada script
Kannada script
in computing[edit] Transliteration[edit] Several transliteration schemes/tools are used to type Kannada characters using a standard keyboard. These include Baraha[136] (based on ITRANS), Pada Software[137] and several internet tools like Google transliteration, Quillpad[138] (predictive transliterator). Nudi, the Government of Karnataka's standard for Kannada
Kannada
Input, is a phonetic layout loosely based on transliteration. Unicode[edit] Main article: Kannada
Kannada
(Unicode block)

Kannada[1][2] Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+0C8x ಀ ಁ ಂ ಃ

ಅ ಆ ಇ ಈ ಉ ಊ ಋ ಌ

ಎ ಏ

U+0C9x ಐ

ಒ ಓ ಔ ಕ ಖ ಗ ಘ ಙ ಚ ಛ ಜ ಝ ಞ ಟ

U+0CAx ಠ ಡ ಢ ಣ ತ ಥ ದ ಧ ನ

ಪ ಫ ಬ ಭ ಮ ಯ

U+0CBx ರ ಱ ಲ ಳ

ವ ಶ ಷ ಸ ಹ

಼ ಽ ಾ ಿ

U+0CCx ೀ ು ೂ ೃ ೄ

ೆ ೇ ೈ

ೊ ೋ ೌ ್

U+0CDx

ೕ ೖ

U+0CEx ೠ ೡ ೢ ೣ

೦ ೧ ೨ ೩ ೪ ೫ ೬ ೭ ೮ ೯

U+0CFx

 ೱ   ೲ 

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Grammar[edit] Main article: Kannada
Kannada
grammar

Spoken Kannada

The canonical word order of Kannada
Kannada
is SOV (subject–object–verb) as is the case with Dravidian languages. Kannada
Kannada
is a highly inflected language with three genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter or common) and two numbers (singular and plural). It is inflected for gender, number and tense, among other things. The most authoritative known book on old Kannada grammar is Shabdhamanidarpana by Keshiraja. The first available Kannada
Kannada
book, a treatise on poetics, rhetoric and basic grammar is the Kavirajamarga
Kavirajamarga
from 850 C.E. The most influential account of Kannada grammar is Keshiraja's Shabdamanidarpana (c. AD 1260).[139][140] The earlier grammatical works include portions of Kavirajamarga
Kavirajamarga
(a treatise on alańkāra) of the 9th century, and Kavyavalokana and Karnatakabhashabhushana (both authored by Nagavarma II in the first half of the 12th century).[140] Compound bases[edit] Compound bases, called samāsa in Kannada, are a set of two or more words compounded together.[141] There are several types of compound bases, based on the rules followed for compounding.[clarification needed] Examples: taṅgāḷi, hemmara, kannusanne. Pronouns[edit] In many ways the third-person pronouns are more like demonstratives than like the other pronouns. They are pluralized like nouns and whereas the first- and second-person pronouns have different ways to distinguish number.[142] See also[edit]

Karnataka
Karnataka
portal Languages portal

Kannada
Kannada
in computing Kannada
Kannada
dialects Kannada
Kannada
flag Bangalore Kannada Cinema of Karnataka Kannada
Kannada
radio channels Gokak agitation Karnataka
Karnataka
History Timeline Karnataka
Karnataka
literature List of Indian languages by total speakers Hermann Mögling Siribhoovalaya Yakshagana Kuvempu

Notes[edit]

Garg, Ganga Ram (1992) [1992]. " Kannada
Kannada
literature". Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World: A-Aj, Volume 1. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 81-7022-374-1.  Kuiper, Kathleen, ed. (2011). "Dravidian Studies: Kannada". Understanding India-The Culture of India. New York: Britannica educational Printing. ISBN 978-1-61530-203-1.  Steever, S. B. (1998). "Kannada". In Steever, S. B. (ed.). The Dravidian Languages (Routledge Language Family Descriptions). London: Routledge. Pp. 436. pp. 129–157. ISBN 0-415-10023-2. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Kloss and McConnell, Heinz and Grant D. (1978). The Written languages of the world: a survey of the degree and modes of use-vol 2 part1. Université Laval. ISBN 2-7637-7186-6.  Narasimhacharya, R (1988) [1988]. History of Kannada
Kannada
Literature. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0303-6.  Narasimhacharya, R. (1934) History of Kannada
Kannada
Language. University of Mysore. Rice, E.P. (1982) [1921]. Kannada
Kannada
Literature. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0063-0.  Rice, B.L. (2001) [1897]. Mysore
Mysore
Gazetteer Compiled for Government-vol 1. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0977-8.  Kamath, Suryanath U. (2002) [2001]. A concise history of Karnata.k.a. from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 80905179. OCLC 7796041.  Various (1988) [1988]. Encyclopaedia of Indian literature-vol 2. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-1194-7.  Sastri, Nilakanta K.A. (2002) [1955]. A history of South India
India
from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-560686-8.  Ramesh, K.V. (1984) [1984]. Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Vatapi. New Delhi: Agam Kala Prakashan.  Kittel, F (1993) [1993]. A Grammar of the Kannada
Kannada
Language Comprising the Three Dialects of the Language (Ancient, Medieval and Modern). New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0056-8.  Bhat, Thirumaleshwara (1993) [1993]. Govinda Pai. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-7201-540-2.  Zvelebil, Kamil (1973) [1973]. Smile of Murugan: On Tamil Literature of South India. Leiden, Netherlands: BRILL. ISBN 90-04-03591-5.  Shapiro and Schiffman, Michael C., Harold F. (1981) [1981]. Language And Society In South Asia. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-2607-8. 

References[edit]

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Gazette (Extraordinary) Part IV-2A. Government of Karnataka. 1963. p. 33.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Nuclear Kannada". Glottolog
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Kannada
word, indicating that Kannada
Kannada
was a spoken language in the 3rd century BCE (D.L. Narasimhachar in Kamath 2001, p5) ^ R, Narasimhacharya (1942). The Buddha-Dhamma, Or, the Life and Teachings of the Buddha, History of Kannada
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and Karnataka. Glimpses of Kannada History and Greatness". 8 April 2009.  ^ A. Smith, Vincent; Williams Jackson, A. V. (1 January 2008). History of India, in Nine Volumes: Vol. II – From the Sixth Century B.C. to the Mohammedan Conquest, Including the Invasion of Alexander the Great. Cosimo, Inc., 2008. pp. 193–196. ISBN 9781605204925.  ^ Suryanatha Kamath – Karnataka
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on the Period From 650 To 320 B.C. (1919), University of Calcutta. ^ Ramesh (1984), p10 ^ Encyclopaedia of Indian literature vol. 2, Sahitya Akademi
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(1988), p1717, p 1474 ^ A report on Halmidi
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inscription, Muralidhara Khajane (3 November 2003). " Halmidi
Halmidi
village finally on the road to recognition". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 25 November 2006.  ^ Kamath (2001), p10 ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p6 ^ Rice (1921), p13 ^ Govinda Pai
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in Bhat (1993), p102 ^ " Mysore
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Goa
Kadambas
Kadambas
was Kannada
Kannada
– Moraes (1931), p384 ^ Two coins of the Hangal
Hangal
Kadambas
Kadambas
are preserved at the Royal Asiatic Society, Mumbai, one with the Kannada
Kannada
inscription Saarvadhari and other with Nakara. Moraes (1931), p385 ^ Kamath (2001), p67 ^ a b Sastri (1955), p355 ^ Kamath (2001), p90 ^ Jyotsna Kamat. "History of the Kannada
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language (Sastri (1955), p355) ^ Jyotsna Kamat. "History of the Kannada
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Sanskrit
poet Dandin praised Srivaradhadeva's writing as "having produced Saraswati
Saraswati
from the tip of his tongue, just as Shiva produced the Ganges
Ganges
from the tip of his top knot (Rice E.P., 1921, p27) ^ Kamath (2001), p50, p67 ^ The author and his work were praised by the latter-day poet Durgasimha of AD 1025 (Narasimhacharya 1988, p18.) ^ K. Appadurai. "The place of Kannada
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and Tamil in India's national culture". Copyright INTAMM. 1997. Archived from the original on 15 April 2007. Retrieved 25 November 2006.  ^ a b Narasimhacharya, R. "History of Kannada
Kannada
Language". Asian Educational Services, 1942.  ^ Sastri (1955), pp 361–2 ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p20 ^ Sastri (1955), p361 ^ Nagendra, Dr. "Indian Literature". Prabhat Prakashan, 1988.  ^ Narasimhacharya, Ramanujapuram. "History of Kannada
Kannada
Literature: Readership Lectures". Asian Educational Services, 1988. ISBN 9788120603035.  ^ Datta, Amaresh. "Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: A-Devo". Sahitya Akademi, 1987. ISBN 9788126018031.  ^ Hari Saravanan, V. "Gods, Heroes and their Story Tellers: Intangible cultural heritage of South India". Notion Press, 2014. ISBN 9789384391492.  ^ a b Rice, Edward. P (1921), "A History of Kannada
Kannada
Literature", Oxford University Press, 1921: 14–15 ^ Rice, Edward P. (1982). A History of Kannada
Kannada
Literature. Asian Educational Services. pp. 15, 44. ISBN 9788120600638.  ^ Sastri (1955), p364 ^ "Literature in all Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
owes a great deal to Sanskrit, the magic wand whose touch raised each of the languages from a level of patois to that of a literary idiom". (Sastri 1955, p309) ^ Takahashi, Takanobu. 1995. Tamil love poetry and poetics. Brill's Indological library, v. 9. Leiden: E.J. Brill, p16,18 ^ "The author endeavours to demonstrate that the entire Sangam poetic corpus follows the "Kavya" form of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
poetry"-Tieken, Herman Joseph Hugo. 2001. Kāvya in South India: old Tamil Caṅkam poetry. Groningen: Egbert Forsten ^ J. Bucher; Ferdinand Kittel
Ferdinand Kittel
(1899). A Kannaḍa-English school-dictionary: chiefly based on the labours of the Rev. Dr. F. Kittel. Basel Mission Book & Tract Depository.  ^ Sastri (1955), pp 364–365 ^ The writing exalts the grain Ragi above all other grains that form the staple foods of much of modern Karnataka
Karnataka
(Sastri 1955, p365) ^ Moorthy, Vijaya (2001). Romance of the Raga. Abinav publications. p. 67. ISBN 81-7017-382-5.  ^ Iyer (2006), p93 ^ Sastri (1955), p365 ^ Report on the administration of Mysore
Mysore
– Page 90 Mysore
Mysore
– 1864 "There is no authentic record of the casting of the first Early Canarese printing. Canarese type, but a Canarese Grammar by Carey printed at Serampore
Serampore
in 1817 is extant. About the same time a translation of the Scriptures was printed ^ Missions in south India
India
– Page 56 Joseph Mullens – 1854 "Among those of the former are tracts on Caste, on the Hindu gods; Canarese Proverbs; Henry and his Bearer; the Pilgrim's Progress; Barth's Bible Stories; a Canarese hymn book" ^ Special
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Correspondent (20 September 2011). "The Hindu – Jnanpith for Kambar". Thehindu.com. Retrieved 12 February 2013.  ^ "Welcome to: Bhartiya Jnanpith". jnanpith.net. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 7 November 2008.  ^ "Kadamba Reference".  ^ Sastri (1955), p 355 ^ http://www.thehindu.com/features/friday-review/history-and-culture/tamil-kannada-inscriptions-found-in-vellore-village/article2636819.ece ^ Nagarajan, Rema (16 April 2008). " Kannadigas
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History of Maharashtra".  ^ "Region between Godavari, Cauvery was once Karnataka". Deccan Herald. 5 November 2014.  ^ "The People – Population". Nasik District Gazetteers. Government of Maharashtra.  ^ K.N. Venkatasubba Rao (4 October 2006). " Kannada
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Evolution". Official website of the Central Institute of Indian Languages, India. Classicalkannada.org. Retrieved 12 May 2008.  ^ N Ucida and B B Rajpurohit, http://www.aa.tufs.ac.jp/~tjun/data/kandic/kannada-english_dictionary.pdf, Kannada-English Etymological Dictionary ^ Manjulakshi & Bhat. " Kannada
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Language. F. Kittel (1993), p. 3. ^ Ferdinand Kittel, pp. 30 ^ Bhat, D.N.S. 2004. Pronouns. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 13–14

Further reading[edit]

Masica, Colin P. (1991) [1991]. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29944-6.  Thapar, Romila (2003) [2003]. The Penguin History of Early India. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-302989-4.  George M. Moraes (1931), The Kadamba Kula, A History of Ancient and Medieval Karnataka, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras, 1990 ISBN 81-206-0595-0 Varadpande, Manohar Laxman (1987) [1987]. History of Indian Theatre. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-221-7. 

External links[edit]

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Kannada
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" Halmidi
Halmidi
village finally on the road to recognition, Muralidhara Khajane". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 3 November 2003. Retrieved 25 November 2006.  "Declare Kannada
Kannada
a classical language, Staff reporter". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 27 May 2005. Retrieved 25 November 2006.  "The place of Kannada
Kannada
and Tamil in Indias National Culture". Archived from the original on 15 April 2007. Retrieved 25 November 2006.  "History of the Kannada
Kannada
Literature (by Jyotsna Kamat)". Retrieved 25 November 2006.  "Records and revelations, Indira Parathasarathy". Retrieved 25 November 2006.  "Ancient inscriptions unearthed, N. Havalaiah". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 24 January 2004. Retrieved 25 November 2006.  "Indian inscriptions-South Indian inscriptions, Vol 20, 18, 17, 15, 11 and 9, Archaeological survey of India, What Is India
India
Publishers (P) Ltd".  "English to Kannada
Kannada
Dictionary". 

v t e

Dravidian languages

Southern

Tamil–Kannada

Kannada-Badaga

Badaga Holiya Kannada Urali

Kodagu

Kodava Kurumba

Malayalam
Malayalam
languages

Aranadan Beary Jeseri Kadar Malapandaram Malaryan Malavedan Malayalam Mullu Kurumba Paliyan Paniya Ravula

Tamil languages

Betta Kurumba Eravallan Irula Kaikadi Kanikkaran Muthuvan Tamil Yerukala

Toda-Kota

Kota Toda

Sholaga

Macro-Tulu

Bellari Koraga Tulu

unclassified

Kalanadi Kumbaran Kunduvadi Kurichiya Kurumba, Attapady Mala Malasar Malasar Muduga Pathiya Thachanadan Ullatan Wayanad Chetti

South-Central

Gondi (Madiya Nagarchal) Kui Kuvi Konda Koya Manda Pengo Telugu

Central

Kolami Naiki Duruwa Ollari Kondekor

North

Brahui Kurukh Sauria Paharia Kumarbhag Paharia

Unclassified

Allar Bazigar Bharia Malankuravan Vishavan

Italics indicate extinct languages (no surviving native speakers and no spoken descendant)

v t e

Languages of India

Official languages

Union-level

Hindi English

8th schedule to the Constitution of India

Assamese Bengali Bodo Dogri Gujarati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Maithili Malayalam Meitei (Manipuri) Marathi Nepali Odia Punjabi Sanskrit Sindhi Santali Tamil Telugu Urdu

State-level only

Garo Gurung Khasi Kokborok Lepcha Limbu Mangar Mizo Newari Rai Sherpa Sikkimese Sunwar Tamang

Major unofficial languages

Over 1 million speakers

Angika Awadhi Bagheli Bagri Bajjika Bhili Bhojpuri Bundeli Chhattisgarhi Dhundhari Garhwali Gondi Harauti Haryanvi Ho Kangri Khandeshi Khortha Kumaoni Kurukh Lambadi Magahi Malvi Marwari Mewari Mundari Nimadi Rajasthani Sadri Surjapuri Tulu Wagdi Varhadi

100,000 – 1 million speakers

Adi Angami Ao Dimasa Halbi Karbi Kharia Kodava Kolami Konyak Korku Koya Kui Kuvi Ladakhi Lotha Malto Mishing Nishi Phom Rabha Sema Sora Tangkhul Thadou

v t e

Languages spoken in Kerala

Non-tribal languages

Malayalam Tamil Tulu Kannada Konkani

Tribal languages

Allar Aranadan Mannan Kadar Malapandaram Malaryan Malavedan Paliyan Paniya Ravula Eravallan Irula Kanikkaran Betta Kurumba Muthuvan Yerukula Mannan Kodava Jennu Kurumba Mullu Kurumba Urali Wayanad Chetti Korra Koraga Mudu Koraga Bellari Kudiya Mala Malasar Malasar Thachanadan Ullatan Kalanadi Kumbaran Kunduvadi Attapady Kurumba Muduga Pathiya Toda Kota

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