Kangchenjunga (Nepali: कञ्चनजङ्घा; Hindi:
ཁང་ཅེན་ཛོཾག་), also spelled Kanchenjunga, is
the third highest mountain in the world, and lies partly in
partly in Sikkim, India. It rises with an elevation of 8,586 m
(28,169 ft) in a section of the
Himalayas called Kangchenjunga
Himal that is limited in the west by the Tamur River, in the north by
the Lhonak Chu and Jongsang La, and in the east by the Teesta
Kangchenjunga lies about 125 km (78 mi)
east-south-east of Mount Everest. It is the second highest mountain
of the Himalayas. Three of the five peaks – Main, Central and South
– are on the border between North
Sikkim and Nepal. Two peaks are
in Nepal's Taplejung District.
Kangchenjunga Main is the highest mountain in India, and the
easternmost of the mountains higher than 8,000 m
(26,000 ft). It is called Five Treasures of Snow after its five
high peaks, and has always been worshipped by the people of Darjeeling
Kangchenjunga was assumed to be the highest mountain in
the world, but calculations based on various readings and measurements
made by the
Great Trigonometrical Survey
Great Trigonometrical Survey of
India in 1849 came to the
conclusion that Mount Everest, known as Peak XV at the time, was the
highest. Allowing for further verification of all calculations, it was
officially announced in 1856 that
Kangchenjunga is the third highest
mountain in the world.
Kangchenjunga was first climbed on 25 May 1955 by Joe Brown and George
Band, who were part of a British expedition. They stopped short of the
summit in accordance with the promise given to the
Chogyal that the
top of the mountain would remain inviolate. Every climber or climbing
group that has reached the summit has followed this tradition.
Other members of this expedition included
John Angelo Jackson
John Angelo Jackson and Tom
2 Protected areas
4 Climbing routes
5 Climbing history
5.1 Early reconnaissances and attempts
5.2 First ascent
5.3 Other notable ascents
7 In myth
8 In literature
9 Further reading
10 See also
12 External links
Kangchenjunga is the official spelling adopted by Douglas Freshfield,
Alexander Mitchell Kellas, and the
Royal Geographical Society
Royal Geographical Society that
gives the best indication of the Tibetan pronunciation. Freshfield
referred to the spelling used by the Indian Government since the late
19th century. There are a number of alternative spellings including
Kangchendzönga, Khangchendzonga, and Kanchenjunga.
The brothers Hermann, Adolf and
Robert Schlagintweit explained the
local name Kanchinjínga (Tibetan:
གངས་ཆེན་མཛོད་ལྔ་, Wylie: gangs
chen mdzod lnga, Sikkimese IPA: [k̀ʱɐŋt͡ɕʰẽd͡zø̃ŋɐ])
meaning "The five treasures of the high snow" as originating from the
Tibetan word (following IPA given in Sikkimese) gangs /k̀ʱɐŋ/
meaning "snow, ice"; chen /t͡ɕʰẽ/ meaning "great"; mdzod /d͡zø/
meaning "treasure"; lnga /̃ŋɐ/ meaning "five". It means "The Five
repositories or ledges of great snow" and is physically descriptive of
its five peaks. Local Lhopo people believe that the treasures are
hidden but reveal to the devout when the world is in peril; the
treasures comprise salt, gold, turquoise and precious stones, sacred
scriptures, invincible armor or ammunition, grain and medicine.
Kangchenjunga's name in the
Limbu language is Senjelungma or
Seseylungma, and is believed to be an abode of the omnipotent goddess
Kangchenjunga landscape is a complex of three distinct ecoregions:
the eastern Himalayan broad-leaved and coniferous forests, the Eastern
Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows and the Terai-Duar savanna and
Kangchenjunga transboundary landscape is shared by
India and Nepal, and comprises 14 protected areas with
a total of 6,032 km2 (2,329 sq mi):
Nepal: Kanchenjunga Conservation Area.
Sikkim, India: Khangchendzonga National Park, Barsey Rhododendron
Sanctuary, Fambong Lho Wildlife Sanctuary, Kyongnosla Alpine
Sanctuary, Maenam Wildlife Sanctuary, Shingba
Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary
Darjeeling, India: Jore Pokhri Wildlife Sanctuary, Singalila National
Park, Senchal Wildlife Sanctuary, Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary, Neora
Valley National Park.
Bhutan: Torsa Strict Nature Reserve
These protected areas are habitats for many globally significant plant
species such as rhododendrons and orchids and many endangered flagship
species such as snow leopard, Asian black bear, red panda,
white-bellied musk deer, blood pheasant and chestnut-breasted
Panorama of the
Kangchenjunga massif from Tiger Hill, Darjeeling
Kangchenjunga Himal section of the
Himalayas lies both in Nepal
and India, and encompasses 16 peaks over 7,000 m
(23,000 ft). In the north, it is limited by the Lhonak Chu, Goma
Chu and Jongsang La, and in the east by the Teesta River. The western
limit runs from the Jongsang La down the Gingsang and Kangchenjunga
glaciers and the rivers of Ghunsa and Tamur. Kanchenjunga rises
about 20 km (12 mi) south of the general alignment of the
Great Himalayan range about 125 km (78 mi) east-south-east
Mount Everest as the crow flies. South of the southern face of
Kanchenjunga runs the 3,000–3,500 m (9,800–11,500 ft)
Singalila Ridge that separates
Nepal and northern
Kangchenjunga and its satellite peaks form a huge mountain massif.
The massif's five highest peaks are listed in the following table.
Name of peak
Nearest Higher Neighbor
27°42′11″N 88°08′52″E / 27.70306°N 88.14778°E /
Mount Everest – South Summit
North Sikkim, Sikkim,
India / Taplejung, Province No. 1, Nepal
Kangchenjunga West (Yalung Kang)
27°42′18″N 88°08′12″E / 27.70500°N 88.13667°E /
Taplejung, Province No. 1, Nepal
27°41′46″N 88°09′04″E / 27.69611°N 88.15111°E /
North Sikkim, Sikkim,
India / Taplejung, Province No. 1, Nepal
27°41′30″N 88°09′15″E / 27.69167°N 88.15417°E /
North Sikkim, Sikkim,
India / Taplejung, Province No. 1, Nepal
27°42′42″N 88°06′30″E / 27.71167°N 88.10833°E /
Taplejung, Province No. 1, Nepal
Kangchenjunga map by Garwood, 1903
South-west (Yalung) face of
Kangchenjunga seen from Nepal
The main ridge of the massif runs from north-north-east to
south-south-west and forms a watershed to several rivers. Together
with ridges running roughly from east to west they form a giant
cross. These ridges contain a host of peaks between 6,000 and
8,586 m (19,685 and 28,169 ft). The northern section
includes Yalung Kang,
Kangchenjunga Central and South, Kangbachen,
Kirat Chuli and Gimmigela Chuli, and runs up to the Jongsang La. The
eastern ridge in
Sikkim includes Siniolchu. The southern section runs
along the Nepal-
Sikkim border and includes
Kabru I to III. This
ridge extends southwards to the Singalila Ridge. The western ridge
culminates in the Kumbhakarna, also known as Jannu.
Four main glaciers radiate from the peak, pointing roughly to the
north-east, south-east, north-west and south-west. The Zemu glacier in
the north-east and the Talung glacier in the south-east drain to the
Teesta River; the Yalung glacier in the south-west and the Kangchen
glacier in the north-west drain to the Arun and Kosi rivers. The
glaciers spread over the area above approximately 5,000 m
(16,000 ft), and the glacialized area covers about 314 km2
(121 sq mi) in total. There are 120 glaciers in the
Kanchenjunga Himal, of which 17 are debris-covered. Between 1958 and
1992, more than half of 57 examined glaciers had retreated, possibly
due to rising of air temperature.
Kangchenjunga Main is the highest elevation of the Brahmaputra River
basin, which forms part of the southeast Asian monsoon regime and is
among the globally largest river basins.
Kangchenjunga is one of
six peaks above 8,000 m (26,000 ft) located in the basin of
the Koshi river, which is among the largest tributaries of the
Kangchenjunga massif forms also part of the Ganges
Although it is the third highest peak in the world,
only ranked 29th by topographic prominence, a measure of a mountain's
independent stature. The key col for
Kangchenjunga lies at a height of
4,664 metres (15,302 ft), along the watershed boundary between
Arun and Brahmaputra rivers in Tibet. It is however, the 4th most
prominent peak in the Himalaya, after Everest, and the western and
eastern anchors of the Himalaya,
Nanga Parbat and Namcha Barwa,
Kanchenjunga-north from base camp in Nepal
There are four climbing routes to reach the summit of Kangchenjunga,
three of which are in
Nepal from the southwest, northwest and
northeast, and one from northeastern
Sikkim in India. To date, the
northeastern route from
Sikkim has been successfully used only three
times. The Indian government has banned expeditions to Kanchenjunga,
and therefore this route has been closed since 2000.
Painting of Kanchinjínga as seen from the
Singalila Ridge by Hermann
Sunset on Kangchenjunga, 1905
South face of
Kangchenjunga seen from Goecha La,
4,940 m (16,210 ft)
Kangchenjunga seen from
Darjeeling War Memorial
The sunrise over the Mount
Kangchenjunga at Pelling, Sikkim, India
Early reconnaissances and attempts
Between April 1848 and February 1849,
Joseph Dalton Hooker
Joseph Dalton Hooker explored
parts of northern
Sikkim and eastern Nepal, mainly to collect plants
and study the distribution of Himalayan flora. He was based in
Darjeeling, and made repeated excursions in the river valleys and into
the foothills of
Kangchenjunga up to an altitude of 15,620 ft
In spring 1855, the German explorer
Hermann Schlagintweit travelled to
Darjeeling but was not allowed to proceed further north due to the
Nepalese-Tibetan War. In May, he explored the
Singalila Ridge up to
the peak of Tonglo for a meteorological survey.
Sarat Chandra Das and Lama Ugyen-gyatso crossed into Tibet
west of "Kanchanjinga" via eastern
Nepal and the Tashilhunpo Monastery
en route to Lhasa. They returned along the same route in 1881.
In 1883, a party of
William Woodman Graham
William Woodman Graham together with two Swiss
mountaineers climbed in the area of Kangchenjunga. They were the first
Kabru within 30–40 ft (9.1–12.2 m) below
the summit. They crossed the Kang La pass, and climbed a peak of
nearly 19,000 ft (5,800 m) from which they examined Jannu.
They concluded it was too late in the year for an attempt and returned
once again to Darjeeling.
Between October 1885 and January 1886, Rinzin Namgyal surveyed the
unexplored north and west sides of Kangchenjunga. He was the first
native surveyor to map the circuit of
Kangchenjunga and provided
sketches of each side of the peak and the adjoining valleys. He also
defined the frontiers of Nepal, Tibet and
Sikkim in this area.
In 1899, British mountaineer
Douglas Freshfield set out with his party
comprising the Italian photographer Vittorio Sella. They were the
first mountaineers to examine the lower and upper ramparts, and the
great western face of Kangchenjunga, rising from the Kangchenjunga
In 1905, a party headed by
Aleister Crowley was the first attempt at
climbing the mountain.
Aleister Crowley had been part of the team
attempting the 1902 ascent of K2. The team reached an estimated
altitude of 6,500 m (21,300 ft) on the southwest side of the
mountain before turning back. The exact height reached is somewhat
unclear; Crowley stated that on 31 August, "We were certainly over
21,000 ft (6,400 m) and possibly over 22,000 ft
(6,700 m)", when the team was forced to retreat to Camp 5 by the
risk of avalanche. On 1 September, they evidently went further; some
members of the team, Reymond, Pache and Salama, "got over the bad
patch" that had forced them to return to Camp 5 the day before, and
progressed "out of sight and hearing" before returning to Crowley and
the men with packs, who could not cross the dangerous section
unassisted with their burdens. It is not clear how far Reymond, Pache
and Salama had ascended – but in summarizing, Crowley ventured
"We had reached a height of approximately 25,000 ft
(7,600 m)." Attempting a "mutinous" late-in-the-day descent from
Camp 5 to Camp 4, climber Alexis Pache (who earlier that day had been
one of three to ascend possibly higher than any before), and three
local porters, were killed in an avalanche. Despite the insistence of
one of the men that "The demon of
Kangchenjunga was propitiated with
the sacrifice", Crowley decided enough was enough and that it was
inappropriate to continue.
In 1907, two Norwegians set about climbing Jongri via the Kabru
glacier to the south, an approach apparently rejected by Graham's
party. Progress was very slow, partly because of problems with
supplies and porters, and presumably also lack of fitness and
acclimatisation. However, from a high camp at about 22,600 ft
(6,900 m) they were eventually able to reach a point 50 or
60 ft (15 or 18 m) below the summit before they were turned
back by strong winds.
In 1929, the German Paul Bauer led an expedition team that reached
7,400 m (24,300 ft) on the northeast spur before being
turned back by a five-day storm.
In May 1929, the American E. F. Farmer left
Darjeeling with native
porters, crossed the Kang La into
Nepal and climbed up towards the
Talung Saddle. When his porters refused to go any further, he climbed
alone further upwards through drifting mists but did not return.
Günter Dyhrenfurth led an international expedition
comprising the German Uli Wieland, Austrian Erwin Schneider and
Frank Smythe who attempted to climb Kangchenjunga. They
failed due to poor weather and snow conditions.
In 1931, Paul Bauer led a second German expedition team who attempted
the northeast spur before being turned back by bad weather, illnesses,
and deaths. The team retreated after climbing only a little higher
than the 1929 attempt.
In 1954, John Kempe led a party comprising J. W. Tucker, S. R.
Jackson, G. C. Lewis, T. H. Braham and medical officer Dr. D. S.
Mathews. They explored the upper Yalung glacier with the intention to
discover a practicable route to the great ice-shelf that runs across
the south-west face of Kangchenjunga. This reconnaissance led to
the route used by the successful 1955 expedition.
A sign board on the last traversable road to Kangchenjunga
First ascent reunion of 1990- front (left to right): Neil Mather, John
Angelo Jackson, Charles Evans and Joe Brown and rear (left to right):
Tony Streather, Norman Hardie,
George Band and Professor John Clegg.
In 1955, Joe Brown and
George Band made the first ascent on 25 May,
Norman Hardie and
Tony Streather on 26 May. The full team
also included John Clegg (team doctor), Charles Evans (team leader),
John Angelo Jackson, Neil Mather, and Tom Mackinnon.
The ascent proved that Aleister Crowley's 1905 route (also
investigated by the 1954 reconnaissance) was viable. The route starts
on the Yalung
Glacier to the southwest of the peak, and climbs the
Yalung Face, which is 3,000 metres (10,000 ft) high. The main
feature of this face is the "Great Shelf", a large sloping plateau at
around 7,500 metres (24,600 ft), covered by a hanging glacier.
The route is almost entirely on snow, glacier, and one icefall; the
summit ridge itself can involve a small amount of travel on rock. The
first ascent expedition made six camps above their base camp, two
below the Shelf, two on it, and two above it. They started on 18
April, and everyone was back to base camp by 28 May.
Other notable ascents
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1973 Yutaka Ageta and Takeo Matsuda of the Japanese expedition
Kangchenjunga West (Yalung Kang) by climbing the SW Ridge.
1977 The second ascent of Kangchenjunga, by an Indian Army team led by
Colonel Narendra Kumar. They completed the northeast spur, the
difficult ridge that defeated German expeditions in 1929 and 1931.
1978 Polish teams made the first successful ascents of the summits
Kangchenjunga South (Wojciech Wróż and Eugeniusz Chrobak, 19 May)
Kangchenjunga Central (Wojciech Brański, Zygmunt Andrzej
Heinrich, Kazimierz Olech, 22 May).
1979 The third ascent, on 16 May, and the first without oxygen, by
Peter Boardman and
Joe Tasker establishing a new route on
the North Ridge
1982 The 6th of May sees Ang Dorje, Friedel Mutschlechner, and
Reinhold Messner (suffering from amoebic liver abscess) reach the top
by a variation on the North Face route without supplemental oxygen.
1983 Pierre Beghin made the first solo ascent. It was accomplished
without the use of supplemental oxygen.
1986 On 11 January,
Krzysztof Wielicki and Jerzy Kukuczka, Polish
climbers, made the first winter ascent. Otto Guilherme Gerstenberger
Junior (Brazilian) and Johann Krigeer (South African) reach the peak
without using supplemental oxygen.
1988 First successful American Expedition; led by Carlos Buhler, from
the North Face. Summiting were Buhler,
Peter Habeler (Austrian) and
Martin Zabaleta (Spanish)
1989 A Soviet expedition successfully traversed all four summits of
Kangchenjunga that are higher than 8,000m. Two separate teams
traversed the summits in opposite directions.
1989 American Expedition led by Lou Whittaker, with six people
summiting on the Northwall: George Dunn, Craig van Hoy, Ed Viesturs,
Phil Ershler, Larry Nielson, Greg Wilson.
1991 Slovenian Marija Frantar and Joze Rozman attempted the first
ascent by a woman. Their bodies were later found below the summit
1991 Slovenian Andrej Štremfelj and
Marko Prezelj completed an
alpine-style climb up the south ridge of
Kangchenjunga to the south
summit (8,494 m).
Carlos Carsolio made the only summit that year. It was in a solo
climb without supplementary oxygen.
1992 Wanda Rutkiewicz, the first woman in the world to ascend and
descend K2 and a world-renowned Polish climber, died after she
insisted on waiting for an incoming storm to pass, which she did not
1995 Benoît Chamoux, Pierre Royer and their Sherpa guide disappeared
on 6 October near the summit.
Ginette Harrison was the first woman who climbed Kangchenjunga
2005 Alan Hinkes, a British climber, was the only person to summit in
the 50th anniversary of the first ascent year.
2006 Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner, an Austrian mountaineer, was the second
woman to reach the summit.
2009 Jon Gangdal and Mattias Karlsson reached the summit, becoming,
respectively, the first Norwegian and the first Swedish mountaineer to
summit this mountain.
2009 Edurne Pasaban, a Spanish mountaineer, reached the summit
becoming the first woman to summit twelve eight-thousanders.
In May 2009,
Kinga Baranowska was the first Polish woman to reach the
summit of Kangchenjunga.
2011 Tunc Findik became the first Turkish man to reach the peak of
Kangchenjunga, his seventh eight thousander, with Swiss partner Guntis
Brandts via the British 1955 SW Face route.
2011 Indian mountaineers Basanta Singha Roy and Debasish Biswas of
Mountaineers' Association of Krishnanagar (MAK), West Bengal, India,
Kangchenjunga Main on 20 May 2011.
In May 2013, five climbers including Hungarian
Zsolt Erőss and Péter
Kiss reached the summit, but disappeared during the descent.
In May 2014, Bulgarian
Boyan Petrov reached the peak without the use
of supplemental oxygen. Petrov is a diabetic.
Despite improved climbing gear the fatality rate of climbers
attempting to summit Kanchenjunga is high. Since the 1990s, more than
20% of people died while climbing Kanchenjunga's main peak.
See also: Tourism in North East India
Kangchenjunga Mountain Range as seen from Tiger Hill, Darjeeling
Kanchenjunga as seen from Gangtok, Sikkim
Some of the most famous views of
Kangchenjunga are from the hill
Darjeeling and Antu Dada of Ilam, Nepal. The
Memorial is among the most visited places from which
observed. On a clear day it presents an image not so much of a
mountain but of a white wall hanging from the sky. The people of
Kangchenjunga as a sacred mountain. Permission to climb
the mountain from the Indian side is rarely given.
Due to its remote location in
Nepal and the difficulty involved in
accessing it from India, the
Kangchenjunga region is not much explored
by trekkers. It has, therefore, retained much of its pristine beauty.
Sikkim too, trekking into the
Kangchenjunga region has just
recently been permitted. The
Goecha La trek is gaining popularity
amongst tourists. It goes to the
Goecha La Pass, located right in
front of the huge southeast face of Kangchenjunga. Another trek to
Green Lake Basin has recently been opened for trekking. This trek goes
to the Northeast side of
Kangchenjunga along the famous Zemu Glacier.
Singalila in the Himalaya
Singalila in the Himalaya is journey around Kangchenjunga.
Five Treasures of Snow
The area around
Kangchenjunga is said to be home to a mountain deity,
called Dzö-nga or "
Kangchenjunga Demon", a type of yeti or
rakshasa. A British geological expedition in 1925 spotted a bipedal
creature which they asked the locals about, who referred to it as the
For generations, there have been legends recounted by the inhabitants
of the areas surrounding Mount Kanchenjunga, both in
Sikkim and in
Nepal, that there is a valley of immortality hidden on its slopes.
These stories are well known to both the original inhabitants of the
area, the Lepcha people, and those of the Tibetan Buddhist cultural
tradition. In Tibetan, this valley is known as
Beyul Demoshong. In
1962 a Tibetan Lama by the name of Tulshuk Lingpa led over 300
followers into the high snow slopes of Kanchenjunga to ‘open the
Beyul Demoshong. The story of this expedition is recounted
in the 2011 book A Step Away from Paradise.
East face of Kangchenjunga, from near the Zemu glacier, Sikkim
Swallows and Amazons series
Swallows and Amazons series of books by Arthur Ransome, a high
mountain (unnamed in the books, but clearly based on the Old Man of
Coniston in the English Lake District) is given the name
"Kanchenjunga" by the children when they climb it in 1931.
In The Epic of Mount Everest, first published in 1926, Sir Francis
Younghusband: " For natural beauty Darjiling (Darjeeling) is surely
unsurpassed in the world. From all countries travellers come there to
see the famous view of Kangchenjunga, 28,150 feet (8,580 m) in
height, and only 40 miles (64 km) distant. Darjiling (Darjeeling)
itself is 7,000 feet (2,100 m) above sea-level and is set in a
forest of oaks, magnolia, rhododendrons, laurels and sycamores. And
through these forests the observer looks down the steep mountain-sides
Rangeet River only 1,000 feet (300 m) above sea-level, and
then up and up through tier after tier of forest-clad ranges, each
bathed in a haze of deeper and deeper purple, till the line of snow is
reached; and then still up to the summit of Kangchenjunga, now so pure
and ethereal we can scarcely believe it is part of the solid earth on
which we stand; and so high it seems part of the very sky itself."
In 1999, official
James Bond author
Raymond Benson published High Time
to Kill. In this story, a microdot containing a secret formula for
aviation technology is stolen by a society called the Union. During
their escape, their plane crashes on the slopes of
James Bond becomes part of a climbing expedition in order to retrieve
The Inheritance of Loss
The Inheritance of Loss by Kiran Desai, which won the 2006 Man Booker
Prize, is set partly in Kalimpong, a hill station situated near
Legend of the Galactic Heroes
Legend of the Galactic Heroes by Yoshiki Tanaka, which won the
Seiun Award for "Best Novel of the Year" in 1988 and was adapted into
an anime series by Kitty Films, the capital and holiest temple of the
Terraist Cult is on Earth beneath the rubble of Kangchenjunga.
Michelle Paver's 2016 ghost story Thin Air concerns a fictional
expedition to climb
Kangchenjunga in 1935, and an earlier (also
fictional) expedition in 1906.
The book Round
Kangchenjunga – A Narrative of Mountain Travel and
Douglas Freshfield gives a complete account of his
travel around Kangchenjunga.
Kangchenjunga as seen from Darjeeling
Joseph Dalton Hooker
Joseph Dalton Hooker 1855. Himalayan Journals. Assistant-director of
the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Laurence Waddell 1899. Among The Himalayas. Travels in Sikkim.
Book includes the exploration of the south of Kangchenjunga.
Aleister Crowley 1905. The Confessions of Aleister Crowley, Chapters
51, 52 & 53, Tells of the
Kangchenjunga Expedition by he and Dr.
Douglas Freshfield 1903. Round Kangchenjunga – A Narrative of
Mountain Travel and Exploration. Edward Arnold, London
Paul Bauer 1937. Himalayan Campaign. Blackwell is the story of Bauer's
two attempts in 1929 and 1931, republished as
(William Kimber, 1955).
Paul Bauer The German Attack on Kangchenjunga, The Himalayan Journal,
1930 Vol. II.
Lieut. Col. H.W. Tobin
Exploration and Climbing in The
The Himalayan Journal, April 1930 Vol. II. Provides the early
exploration and climbing attempts on Kangchenjunga.
F.S. Smythe The
Kangchenjunga Adventure, 1930 to 1931. Victor
Gollancz, Ltd. Smythe was the team member responsible for writing and
sending the dispatches to
The Statesman in Calcutta, (Mr. Alfred
Watson Editor), who transmitted the dispatches to
The Times (editors
Deakin & Bogaerde), during the expedition of 1930 *
example[permanent dead link].
Prof. G. O. Dyhrenfurth The International Himalayan Expedition, 1930,
The Himalayan Journal, April 1931, Vol. III. Details their attempt on
H.W. Tilman The ascent of Nanda Devi, 7 June 1937, Cambridge
University Press. Relates the story of their intention to climb
Irving, R. L. G. 1940. Ten Great Mountains. London, J. M. Dent &
John Angelo Jackson
John Angelo Jackson 1955. More than Mountains Book containing data on
Kangchenjunga reconnaissance. Jackson was also a team member
of the first ascent of
Kangchenjunga in 1955, also relates the Daily
Mail "Abominable Snowman" or
Yeti Expedition, when the first trek from
Kangchenjunga was accomplished * . Relevant pages 97
onwards with two detailed maps.
Kangchenjunga The Untrodden Peak, Hodder &
Stoughton, Leader of the 1955 expedition. Principal of the University
College of North Wales, Bangor. Foreword by His Royal Highness the
Duke of Edinburgh, K.G.
Joe Brown, The Hard Years, tells his version of the first ascent of
Kangchenjunga in 1955.
Colonel Narinder Kumar 1978. Kangchenjunga:
First ascent from the
north-east spur. Vision books. Includes the second ever ascent of
Kangchenjunga and the first from the North-East Spur on the Indian
side of the mountain. See also Himalayan Journal Vol. 36 and 50th
Peter Boardman 1982. Sacred Summits: A Climber's Year. Includes the
1979 ascent of
Joe Tasker and Doug Scott. Also in
The Himalayan Journal Vol 36.
John Angelo Jackson
John Angelo Jackson 2005. Adventure Travels in the Himalaya. Indus
Publishing. Recounts in more detail the first ascent of Kangchenjunga.
Simon Pierse 2005. Kangchenjunga: Imaging a Himalayan Mountain.
University of Wales, School of Art Press, ISBN 978-1-899095-22-3.
An anthology of word and image published to coincide with the 50th
anniversary of the first ascents of Kangchenjunga. Well illustrated
with reproductions of paintings, prints and photographs describing the
climbing history and cultural significance of the mountain. Preface by
The above Himalayan Journal References were all also reproduced in the
"50th Anniversary of the First Ascent of Kangchenjunga" The Himalayan
Club, Kolkata Section 2005.
Pema Wangchuk and Mita Zulca Khangchendzonga: Sacred Summit. The book
details the stories and legends celebrated by the communities living
in the Kangchenjunga's shadow, goes over the exploits of the early
explorers and mountaineers. Chapters cover what Khangchendzonga means
to Buddhism, mapping, early explorers, Alexander Kellas, early
expeditions, the first ascent in 1955, the Indian Army ascent (1977),
the second British ascent (1979), women climbers, the Tiger climbers,
the yeti, and more. Profusely illustrated with many period photos.
The Geographer at High Altitudes, "Climbing on the Himalaya and other
Mountain Ranges", By J. Norman Collie, F.R.S. Edinburgh: David
The Glaciers of
Douglas Freshfield The Geographical
Journal, Vol. 19, No. 4 Apr., 1902, pp. 453–472
Round Kangchenjunga. A Narrative of Mountain Travel and Exploration,
Douglas W. Freshfield Bulletin of the American Geographical Society,
Vol. 36, No. 2 1904
C. K. Howard-Bury. 1922. The
Mount Everest Expedition. The
Geographical Journal 59 (2): 81–99.
"General Bruce's Illness a Serious handicap" "The Times", (British)
World Copyright, Lt. R.F.Norton, 19 April 1924. Expedition in the
Account of a Photographic Expedition to the Southern Glaciers of
Kangchenjunga in the
Sikkim Himalaya, N. A. Tombazi, The Geographical
Journal, Vol. 67, No. 1 Jan., 1926, pp. 74–76
An Adventure to Kangchenjunga, Hugh Boustead, The Geographical
Journal, Vol. 69, No. 4 (Apr., 1927), pp. 344–350
The Times Literary Supplement, Thursday, 11 December 1930. "The
Kangchenjunga Adventure", F.S. Smythe.
Im Kampf um den Himalaja, Paul Bauer. The
Kangchenjunga Adventure, F.
S. Smythe, Himalaya: Unsere Expedition, G. O. Dyhrenfurth. 1930
The Times Literary Supplement, Thursday, 9 April 1931.
"Kangchenjunga", Paul Bauer.
The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Vol. XXVI, The Geographical Journal,
Vol. 79, No. 1 Jan., 1932, pp. 53–56
Recent Heroes of Modern Adventure, T. C. Bridges; H. Hessell Tiltman,
The Geographical Journal, Vol. 81, No. 6 Jun., 1933, p. 568
Paul Bauer 1931. Um Den Kantsch: der zweite deutsche Angriff auf den
Kangchendzönga, The Geographical Journal, Vol. 81, No. 4 Apr., 1933,
Paul Bauer; Sumner Austin 1938. Himalayan Campaign: The German Attack
on Kangchenjunga, The Geographical Journal, Vol. 91, No. 5: 478
George Band 1956.
Kangchenjunga Climbed. The
Geographical Journal 122 (1): 1–12.
Charles Evans 1956. "Kangchenjunga: The Untrodden Peak". The Times
Lou Whittaker, Memoirs of a Mountain guide, 1994
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kangchenjunga.
Kangchenjunga page on Himalaya-Info.org (German)
Kangchenjunga page on Summitpost.org
Aleister Crowley's detailed account of the 1905 attempt on
Kangchenjunga History for a more detailed up to date account of the
mountain's history and ascents.
"Kāngchenjunga, India/Nepal" on Peakbagger
Kangchenjunga on Peakware – photos
Glacier Research Image Project presents photos tracking 24 years of
changes in glaciers at Kangchenjunga.
Mtxplore Mountain Statistics Statistics of Kangchenjunga.
Annapurna I East
Annapurna I Middle Peak
List of ski descents
List of climbers
List of deaths
Seven Third Summits
Kangchenjunga (8,586 m or 28,169 ft)
Monte Pissis (6,795 m or 22,293 ft)
Pico de Orizaba
Pico de Orizaba (5,636 m or 18,491 ft)
Shkhara (5,193 m or 17,037 ft)
or Dom (4,545 m or 14,911 ft)
Mawenzi (5,149 m or 16,893 ft)
Puncak Trikora (4,750 m or 15,584 ft)
Mount Shinn (4,661 m or 15,292 ft)
Mount Twynam (2,196 m or 7,205 ft)
State of Sikkim
Kaziranga National Park
Namdapha National Park
Orang National Park
Manas National Park
Dibru-Saikhowa National Park
Nameri National Park
Balphakram National Park
Nokrek National Park
Mouling National Park
Keibul Lamjao National Park
Sirohi National Park
Murlen National Park
Ntangki National Park
Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary
Sipahijola Wildlife Sanctuary
Gorumara National Park
Singalila National Park
Neora Valley National Park
Jaldapara National Park
Zang Dhok Palri Phodang
Seven Sister States
Tourism in North East India
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Highest points of Asia
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