Kang Pan-sŏk (21 April 1892 – 31 July 1932) was the mother of
North Korean leader Kim Il-sung, grandmother of the late leader of
North Korea, Kim Jong-il, and great-grandmother of the current leader
of North Korea, Kim Jong-un. She was a Korean independence activist
and communist politician. April 21 is a day of memorial for her in
North Korea, when a wreath-laying ceremony is held at Chilgol
Revolutionary Site, in what was Chilgol-ri, a town once in Pyongan
Province and today part of Pyongyang.
In North Korea, Kang Pan-sŏk is referred to as the "Mother of Korea"
or "Great Mother of Korea". Both titles are shared with Kim Jong-il's
mother Kim Jong-suk. However, it was Kang Pan-sŏk who was
the first family member of
Kim Il-sung to have a cult of personality
of her own to supplement that of his son, from the late 1960s onwards.
Rodong Sinmun praised her as the "mother of all". The same
year, the Democratic Women's League initiated a campaign called
"Learning from Madame Kang Pan-sŏk". There is a song by the name of
"Mother of Korea" in her honor, as well as a hagiographic
biography, also called The Mother of
Chilgol Church in
Pyongyang is dedicated to the memory
of Kang Pan-sok, who was a Presbyterian. Her name meant "rock", having
been named for Saint Peter.
Select[α] family tree of North Korea's ruling[β] Kim
^ To keep the tree of manageable size, it omits some members, e. g.,
brothers and sisters of Kim Jong-il.
^ Names of Supreme Leaders of the DPRK (and the name of the article
being viewed, if any) are in bold font.
^ Korean names often have a variety of transliterations into English,
which can be confusing. For example, "Kim Jong-chul" may also be
written "Gim Jeong-cheol" or "Kim Jŏng-ch'ŏl" among many other
Korean romanization for more information.
^ Huss, Kan; Frost, Clay. "North Korea's First Family: Mapping the
personal and political drama of the Kim clan". msnbc.com. Retrieved 20
January 2013. (Confirms many, but not all, of the birth and
death years. See individual articles for more references.)
^ Yan, Holly (16 February 2017). "The world's most mysterious family
tree: Kim Jong Un's secretive dynasty is full of drama, death". Design
by Alberto Mier. CNN. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
^ a b c Official biographies of
Kim Jong-suk and
Kim Jong-il give
birth years of 1917 and 1942, respectively.
Kim Ju-ae may have been
born in late 2012 or early 2013.
^ "NORTH KOREA THIS WEEK NO. 468 (October 4, 2007)".
Agency. October 4, 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
^ Armstrong, Charles K. (December 2005). "Familism, Socialism and
Political Religion in North Korea". Totalitarian Movements and
Political Religions. 6 (3): 390. doi:10.1080/14690760500317743.
^ David-West, Alzo (2011). "Archetypal Themes in North Korean
Literature". Jung Journal: Culture & Psyche. 5 (1): 73.
^ Ken E. Gause (31 August 2011).
North Korea Under Kim Chong-il:
Power, Politics, and Prospects for Change. ABC-CLIO. p. 63.
^ Jae-Cheon Lim (24 March 2015). Leader Symbols and Personality Cult
in North Korea: The Leader State. Routledge. pp. 24–25.
^ Kim, Suk-Yong (2011). "Dressed to Kill: Women's Fashion and Body
Politics in North Korean Visual Media (1960s – 1970s)".
Positions. 19 (1): 173. doi:10.1215/10679847-2010-028.
^ Evans, Stephen (3 August 2015). "
North Korea and Christianity -
uneasy bedfellows". BBC. London. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
The Mother of Korea. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House.
1978. OCLC 6695920.
Mrs. Kang Ban Sok, mother of the great leader of Korea. Pyongyang:
Central Committee of the Korean Democratic Women's Union. 1968.
Chilgol Revolutionary Site picture album at Naenara
Chilgol Revolutionary Site (video) at Naenara
Kim dynasty of North Korea
Kim Il-sung (1912–1994)
Kim Jong-il (1941–2011)
Kim Jong-un (1984–)
Kim Hyong-jik (Kim Il-sung's father)
Kang Pan-sok (Kim Il-sung's mother)
Kim Jong-suk (Kim Il-sung's first wife, Jong-il's mother)
Kim Yong-ju (Kim Il-sung's brother)
Kim Song-ae (Kim Il-sung's second wife)
Hong Il-chon (Kim Jong-il's first wife, divorced)
Song Hye-rim (Kim Jong-il's first mistress)
Kim Man-il (Kim Jong-il's brother)
Jang Song-thaek (Kim Jong-il's brother-in-law)
Kim Kyong-hui (Kim Jong-il's sister)
Kim Young-sook (Kim Jong-il's wife)
Ko Yong-hui (Kim Jong-il's second mistress, Jong-un's mother)
Kim Pyong-il (Kim Jong-il's half-brother)
Kim Ok (Kim Jong-il's third mistress)
Kim Yo-jong (Kim Jong-un's sister)
Kim Jong-chul (Kim Jong-un's brother)
Kim Sul-song (Kim Jong-un's half-sister)
Kim Jong-nam (Kim Jong-un's half-brother)
Ri Sol-ju (Kim Jong-un's wife)
Kim Ju-ae (Kim Jong-un's daughter)
Kim Han-sol (Kim Jong-nam's son)
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