KANDAHAR (/ˈkændəˌhɑːr/ ) or QANDAHAR (Pashto : کندهار _Kandahār_; Dari : قندهار _Qandahār_, known in older literature as CANDAHAR) is the third-largest city in Afghanistan , with a population of about 491,500 as of 2012 . Formerly called Alexandria Arachosia , the city is named after Alexander the Great , who founded it in 329 BC around a small ancient Arachosian town. Kandahar is the capital of Kandahar Province , located in the south of the country at an altitude of 1,010 m above sea level. The Arghandab River runs along the west of the city. The city of Kandahar has a population of 557,118. It has 15 districts and a total land area of 27,337 hectares. The total number of dwellings in Kandahar is 61,902.
Kandahar is one of the most culturally significant cities of the Pashtuns and has been their traditional seat of power for more than 200 years. It is a major trading center for sheep, wool , cotton, silk, felt , food grains , fresh and dried fruit , and tobacco. The region produces fine fruits, especially pomegranates and grapes, and the city has plants for canning, drying, and packing fruit, and is a major source of marijuana and hashish en route to Tajikistan .
Kandahar has an international airport and extensive road links with Lashkar Gah and Herat to the west, Ghazni and Kabul to the northeast, Tarinkot to the north, and Quetta in neighboring Balochistan to the south.
The region around Kandahar is one of the oldest known human settlements. Alexander the Great had laid-out the foundation of what is now _ Old Kandahar _ in the 4th century BC and gave it the Ancient Greek name Αλεξάνδρεια Aραχωσίας (Alexandria of Arachosia ). Many empires have long fought over the city due to its strategic location along the trade routes of southern , central and western Asia . In 1709, Mirwais Hotak made the region an independent kingdom and turned Kandahar into the capital of the Hotak dynasty . In 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani , founder of the last Afghan empire , made it the capital of modern Afghanistan.
Since the 1978 Marxist revolution , the city has been a magnet for groups such as Haqqani network , Quetta Shura , Hezbi Islami , al-Qaida and other terrorist groups, From late 1994 to 2001, it served as the capital of the Taliban government until they were toppled by US -led NATO forces during Operation Enduring Freedom in late 2001 and replaced by the government of President Hamid Karzai .
* 1 Name
* 2 History
* 2.1 Prehistory * 2.2 Hellenistic period * 2.3 Islamization and Mongol invasion * 2.4 Modern history * 2.5 21st century
* 3 Land Use * 4 Climate * 5 Transport * 6 Education * 7 Communications * 8 Places of interest
* 9 Development and modernization
* 9.1 Airports * 9.2 Neighborhoods * 9.3 Cultural sites and parks * 9.4 Stadium * 9.5 Mosques and Shrines * 9.6 Mausoleums * 9.7 Shopping * 9.8 Restaurants * 9.9 Hotels and guest houses * 9.10 Hospitals * 9.11 Banks
* 10 Demography and culture * 11 Notable people from Kandahar * 12 See also * 13 Footnotes * 14 References * 15 Further reading * 16 External links
One hypothesis of the name suggests that _"Kandahar"_ has evolved from _"Iskandar"_, the local dialect version of the name Alexander , after Alexander the Great who founded the city in 330 BC and named it Alexandria in Arachosia . A temple to the deified Alexander as well as an inscription in Greek and Aramaic by Emperor Ashoka , who lived a few decades later, have been discovered in Kandahar. The Sri Lankan Pali work the Mahavamsa (Chap. XXIX ) refers to the city as "the Greek city of Alasanda" when relating how its Indo-Greek King Menander I (165 BC – 135 BC), who practiced Greco-Buddhism , sent "a Greek (yona ) Buddhist head monk" named Mahadharmaraksita (literally translated 'Great Teacher, Preserver of the Dharma') with 30,000 Buddhist monks to Sri Lanka for the dedication of the Great Stupa in Anuradhapura .
Ibn Batutta mentions Kandahar in the 14th century by describing it as a large and prosperous town three nights journey from Ghazni . It has been then mentioned extensively by Mughal Emperor Babur and others.
An alternative etymology derives the name of the city from Gandhara , the name of an ancient Buddhist kingdom located along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan; Kandahar is not in the former territory of Gandhara.
A folk etymology offered is that the word "kand" or "qand" in Persian and Pashto (the local languages) means "candy ". The name "Candahar" or "Kandahar" in this form probably translates to candy area. This probably has to do with the location being fertile and historically known for producing fine grapes, pomegranates , apricots , melons and other sweet fruits.
HISTORY OF AFGHANISTAN
Indus Valley Civilisation 2200–1800 BC
Oxus civilization 2100–1800 BC
Aryans 1700–700 BC
Median Empire 728–550 BC
Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BC
Seleucid Empire 330–150 BC
Maurya Empire 305–180 BC
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 256–125 BC
Parthian Empire 247 BC–224 AD
Indo-Greek Kingdom 180–130 BC
Indo-Scythian Kingdom 155–80? BC
Kushan Empire 135 BC – 248 AD
Indo-Parthian Kingdom 20 BC – 50? AD
Sasanian Empire 230–651
Kidarite Kingdom 320–465
Alchon Huns 380–560
Hephthalite Empire 410–557
Nezak Huns 484–711
Kabul Shahi 565–879
Principality of Chaghaniyan 7th–8th centuries
Rashidun Caliphate 652–661
Ghurids before 879–1215
Chagatai Khanate 1225–1370
Hotak dynasty 1709–1738
Durrani Empire 1747–1826
Emirate of Afghanistan 1826–1919
Kingdom of Afghanistan 1919–1973
Republic of Afghanistan 1973–1978
Democratic Republic of Afghanistan 1978–1992
Islamic State of Afghanistan 1992–2001
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan 1996–2004
Interim /Transitional Administration 2001–2004
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since 2004
* v * t * e
Further information: Pre-Islamic period of Afghanistan
Excavations of prehistoric sites by archaeologists such as Louis Dupree and others suggest that the region around Kandahar is one of the oldest human settlements known so far.
Early peasant farming villages came into existence in Afghanistan ca. 5000 B.C., or 7000 years ago. Deh Morasi Ghundai, the first prehistoric site to be excavated in Afghanistan, lies 27 km (17 mi) southwest of Kandahar (Dupree, 1951). Another Bronze Age village mound site with multiroomed mud-brick buildings dating from the same period sits nearby at Said Qala (J. Shaffer, 1970). Second millennium B.C. Bronze Age pottery , copper and bronze horse trappings and stone seals were found in the lowermost levels in the nearby cave called Shamshir Ghar (Dupree, 1950). In the Seistan , southwest of these Kandahar sites, two teams of American archaeologists discovered sites relating to the 2nd millennium B.C. (G. Dales, University Museum, University of Pennsylvania , 1969, 1971; W, Trousdale, Smithsonian Institution , 1971 – 76). Stylistically the finds from Deh Morasi and Said Qala tie in with those of pre-Indus Valley sites and with those of comparable age on the Iranian Plateau and in Central Asia, indicating cultural contacts during this very early age. — N. Dupree , 1971 Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription (Greek and Aramaic ) by Emperor Ashoka , from Chilzina in Kandahar, 3rd century BC. The Kandahar Greek Inscription (Edicts 12 and 13) by Emperor Ashoka , from Old Kandahar , 3rd century BC.
While the Diadochi were warring amongst themselves, the Mauryan Empire was developing in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent . The founder of the empire, Chandragupta Maurya , confronted a Macedonian invasion force led by Seleucus I in 305 BC and following a brief conflict, an agreement was reached as Seleucus ceded Gandhara and Arachosia (centered around ancient Kandahar) and areas south of Bagram (corresponding to the extreme south-east of modern Afghanistan) to the Mauryans. During the 120 years of the Mauryans in southern Afghanistan, Buddhism was introduced and eventually become a major religion alongside Zoroastrianism and local pagan beliefs. The ancient Grand Trunk Road was built linking what is now Kabul to various cities in the Punjab and the Gangetic Plain. Commerce, art, and architecture (seen especially in the construction of stupas ) developed during this period. It reached its high point under Emperor Ashoka whose edicts, roads, and rest stops were found throughout the subcontinent. Although the vast majority of them throughout the subcontinent were written in Prakrit, Afghanistan is notable for the inclusion of 2 Greek and Aramaic ones alongside the court language of the Mauryans.
Inscriptions made by the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka , a fragment of Edict 13 in Greek, as well as a full Edict, written in both Greek and Aramaic has been discovered in Kandahar. It is said to be written in excellent Classical Greek, using sophisticated philosophical terms. In this Edict, Ashoka uses the word Eusebeia (" Piety ") as the Greek translation for the ubiquitous " Dharma " of his other Edicts written in Prakrit :
Ten years (of reign) having been completed, King Piodasses (Ashoka) made known (the doctrine of) Piety (_εὐσέβεια_, Eusebeia ) to men; and from this moment he has made men more pious, and everything thrives throughout the whole world. And the king abstains from (killing) living beings, and other men and those who (are) huntsmen and fishermen of the king have desisted from hunting. And if some (were) intemperate, they have ceased from their intemperance as was in their power; and obedient to their father and mother and to the elders, in opposition to the past also in the future, by so acting on every occasion, they will live better and more happily. — Trans. by G.P. Carratelli
Further information: Alexandria in Arachosia
Kandahar was founded in 330 BC by Alexander the Great , near the site of the ancient city of Mundigak (established around 3000 BC). Mundigak served as the provincial capital of Arachosia and was ruled by the Medes followed by the Achaemenid Empire until the arrival of the Greeks from Macedonia. The main inhabitants of Arachosia were the _Pactyans _, an ancient Iranian tribe, who may be among the ancestors of today's Pashtuns . Kandahar was named _Alexandria _, a popular name given to many cities that Alexander founded during his conquests.
The city has been a frequent target for conquest because of its strategic location in Southern Asia, controlling the main trade route linking the Indian subcontinent with the Middle East, Central Asia and the Persian Gulf . The territory became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire after the death of Alexander resulted in his empire being divided amongst his generals. It was invaded by Chandragupta Maurya , and the Maurya emperor Ashoka erected a pillar in the city with a bilingual inscription in Greek and Aramaic . It is mentioned by Strabo that a treaty of friendship was established eventually between these two empires. The Greeks, now forming the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (250 BC-125 BC), eventually reconquered Kandahar, which continued also to be an important Greek city for two hundred years under the later Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BC – 10 CE). King Menander I (165 BC – 135 BC) of the Indo-Greek Kingdom practiced Greco-Buddhism and is recorded by the Mahavamsa (Chap. XXIX ) to have sent "a Greek (" Yona ") Buddhist head monk" named Mahadharmaraksita (literally translated as 'Great Teacher/Preserver of the Dharma') with 30,000 Buddhist monks from "the Greek city of Alasandra" (possibly Alexandria in Arachosia , as Kandhar was known under the Greeks) to Sri Lanka for the dedication of Great Stupa Buddhist temple in Anuradhapura . (See also Milinda Panha .)
ISLAMIZATION AND MONGOL INVASION
Further information: Islamic conquest of Afghanistan A miniature from Padshahnama depicting the surrender of the Shi\'a Safavid garrison at what is now Old Kandahar in 1638 to the Mughal army of Shah Jahan commanded by Kilij Khan.
In the 7th century AD , Arab armies conquered the region with the new religion of Islam but were unable to succeed in fully converting the population. In AD 870, Yaqub ibn Layth Saffari , a local ruler of the Saffarid dynasty , conquered Kandahar and the rest of the nearby regions in the name of Islam.
Arab armies carrying the banner of Islam came out of the west to defeat the Sasanians in 642 AD and then they marched with confidence to the east. On the western periphery of the Afghan area the princes of Herat and Seistan gave way to rule by Arab governors but in the east, in the mountains, cities submitted only to rise in revolt and the hastily converted returned to their old beliefs once the armies passed. The harshness and avariciousness of Arab rule produced such unrest, however, that once the waning power of the Caliphate became apparent, native rulers once again established themselves independent. Among these the Saffarids of Seistan shone briefly in the Afghan area. The fanatic founder of this dynasty, the coppersmith's apprentice Yaqub ibn Layth Saffari, came forth from his capital at Zaranj in 870 AD and marched through Bost , Kandahar, Ghazni, Kabul, Bamiyan , Balkh and Herat, conquering in the name of Islam. — N. Dupree, 1971
It is believed that the Zunbil dynasty , who were related to the Shahi dynasty of Kabul, were probably the rulers of the Kandahar region from the 7th century until the late 9th century AD. Kandahar was taken by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in the 11th century followed by the Ghurids of Ghor . The region was invaded in the 13th century by Genghis Khan and his Mongol armies , who caused destruction but did not settle. It became part of the lands of the Timurids from the 14th century to the 15th century, a dynasty founded by Timur (Tamerlane) that began rebuilding cities and towns. Kandahar was described by Ibn Batutta in 1333 as a large and prosperous town three nights journey from Ghazni . Pir Muhammad , a grandson of Tamerlane, held the seat of government in Kandahar from about 1383 until his death in 1407. Following his death, the city was ruled by other Timurid governors. Kandahar was entrusted to the Arghuns in the late 15th century, who eventually achieved independence from the Timurids. Guru Nanak , the founder of Sikhism , is believed to have visited the town (c. 1521 AD) during his important journey between Hindustan and Mecca in Arabia.
Tamerlane's descendant, Babur , the founder of the Mughal Empire , annexed Kandahar in the early 16th century. Babur's son, Humayun , lost it to the Shi\'a Safavids of Persia, who made it part of their far easternmost territories. The Mughals regained the city in 1595 by diplomacy and resisted a Persian siege in 1605–1606 , only to lose it to the Persian Safavids permanently during the 1649–53 Mughal–Safavid War . Kandahar was regarded as important to the Mughal Empire because it was one of the gateways to India, and Mughal control over Kandahar helped to prevent foreign intrusions.
The memory of the wars fought over Kandahar at this time is preserved in the epic poem _Qandahār-nāma_ ("The Campaign Against Qandahār"), a major work of Saib Tabrizi which is a classic of Persian literature.
Mirwais Hotak , chief of the Ghilji tribe, revolted in 1709 by killing Gurgin Khan , an ethnic Georgian subject and governor of the Shia Safavid Persians. After establishing the Hotak dynasty in Kandahar, Mirwais and his army successfully defeated subsequent expeditions by Kay Khusraw and Rustam Khán. Mirwais resisted attempts by the Persian government who were seeking to convert the Afghans from Sunni to the Shia sect of Islam. He died of a natural death in November 1715 and was succeeded by his brother Abdul Aziz , but after being suspected of giving Kandahar's sovereignty back to the Persians he was killed by his nephew Mahmud Hotak . Painting by Abdul Ghafoor Breshna depicting the 1747 coronation of Ahmad Shah Durrani , who is regarded as the founding father of Afghanistan (Father of the Nation ). British and allied forces at Kandahar after the 1880 Battle of Kandahar , during the Second Anglo-Afghan War . The large defensive wall around the city was finally removed in the early 1930s by the order of King Nader Khan , the father of King Zahir Shah .
In 1722, Mahmud led an army of Afghans to the Safavid capital Isfahan and proclaimed himself King of Persia. The Hotak dynasty was eventually removed from power by a new Persian ruler, Nader Shah Afshar of Mashad in Khorasan . In 1738, Nader Shah invaded Afghanistan and destroyed the now _ Old Kandahar _, which was held by Hussain Hotak and his Ghilji tribes. In the meantime, Nader Shah freed Ahmad Khan (later Ahmad Shah Durrani ) and his brother Zulfikar who were held prisoners by the Hotak ruler. Before leaving southern Afghanistan for Delhi in India, Nader Shah laid out the foundation for a new town to be built next to the destroyed ancient city, naming it "Naderabad ". His rule ended in June 1747 after being murdered by his Persian guards.
Ahmad Shah Durrani, chief of the Durrani tribe, gained control of Kandahar and made it the capital of his new Afghan Empire in October 1747. Previously, Ahmad Shah served as a military commander of Nader Shah Afshar. His empire included present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan , the Khorasan and Kohistan provinces of Iran, along with Punjab in India. In October 1772, Ahmad Shah retired and died from a natural cause. A new city was laid out by Ahmad Shah and is dominated by his mausoleum, which is adjacent to the Mosque of the Cloak in the center of the city. By 1776, his eldest son Timur Shah had transferred Afghanistan's main capital from Kandahar to Kabul, where the Durrani legacy continued.
In September 1826, Syed Ahmad Shaheed 's followers arrived to Kandahar in search of volunteers to help them wage jihad against the Sikh invaders to what is now Pakistan. Led by Ranjit Singh , the Sikhs had captured several of Afghanistan's territories in the east, including what is now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Kashmir . More than 400 local Kandahar warriors assembled themselves for the jihad. Sayed Din Mohammad Kandharai was appointed as their leader.
British-led Indian forces from neighboring British India invaded the city in 1839, during the First Anglo-Afghan War , but withdrew in 1842. The British and Indian forces returned in 1878 during the Second Anglo-Afghan War . They emerged from the city in July 1880 to confront the forces of Ayub Khan , but were defeated at the Battle of Maiwand . They were again forced to withdraw a few years later, despite winning the Battle of Kandahar .
Kandahar remained peaceful for the next 100 years, except during 1929 when loyalists of Habibullah Kalakani (Bache Saqqaw) placed the fortified city on lock-down and began torturing its population. Nobody was allowed to enter or leave from within the city's tall defensive walls, and as a result of this many people suffered after running out of food supplies. This lasted until October 1929 when Nadir Khan and his Afghan army came to eliminate Kalakani, known as the Tajik bandit from the village of Kalakan in northern Kabul Province.
During Zahir Shah 's rule, the city slowly began expanding by adding modern style streets and housing schemes. In the 1960s, during the rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union , Kandahar International Airport was built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers next to the city. The U.S. also completed several other major projects in Kandahar and in other parts of southern Afghanistan. In the meantime, Soviet engineers were busy building major infrastructures in other parts of the country, such as Bagram Airfield and Kabul International Airport .
During the 1980s Soviet war in Afghanistan , Kandahar was tightly under pro-Communist government control and witnessed heavy fighting. Soviet-backed government troops surrounded the city and subjected it to heavy bombardment in which many civilians lost lives. Kandahar International Airport was used by the Soviet Army during their ten-year troop placement in the country. The city also became a battle ground for the US and Pakistani-backed mujahideen forces who waged a strong guerrilla warfare against the pro-Communist government of Afghanistan. After the Soviet withdrawal and the collapse of Najibullah 's government in 1992, Kandahar fell to local mujahideen commander, Gul Agha Sherzai .
In August 1994 the Taliban movement captured Kandahar and turned the city to its capital. The Taliban introduced a strict form of sharia law , banning formal education for boys and girls, including watching TV, films, music, and playing sports. In December 1999, a hijacked Indian Airlines Flight 814 plane by Pakistani militants loyal to Harkat-ul- Mujahideen landed at Kandahar International Airport and kept the passengers hostage as part of a demand to release 3 Pakistani militants from prison in India.
Further information: International Security Assistance Force and Presidency of Hamid Karzai U.S. Army troops in 2009 passing by the starting point of the Army Ten-Miler run at their base next to Kandahar International Airport .
In October 2001, as part of Operation Enduring Freedom , the United States Navy began hitting targets inside the city by precision-guided cruise missiles that were fired from the Persian Gulf . These targets were the airport and buildings that were occupied by the Taliban, including Arab families who had arrived several years earlier and were residing in the area. About a month later, the Taliban began surrendering in mass numbers to a private militia that had been formed by Gul Agha Sherzai and Hamid Karzai . Kandahar once again fell into the hands of Sherzai, who had control over the area before the rise of the Taliban. He was transferred in 2003 and replaced by Yousef Pashtun until Asadullah Khalid took the post in 2005. The current Governor of the province is Toryalai Wesa . He was appointed by President Hamid Karzai in December 2008 after Rahmatullah Raufi 's four-month rule.
As of 2002, Kandahar International Airport is used by members of the United States armed forces and NATO's International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). NATO began training the newly formed Afghan National Police and are now given the security responsibility of the city. The military of Afghanistan , backed by NATO forces, has gradually expanded its authority and presence throughout most of the country. The 205th Corps of the Afghan National Army is based at Kandahar and provides military assistance to the south of the country. The Canadian Forces maintain their military command headquarters at Kandahar, heading the Regional Command South of the NATO led International Security Assistance Force in Kandahar Province . The Taliban also have supporters inside the city reporting on events.
NATO forces expanded the Afghan police force for the prevention of a Taliban comeback in Kandahar, the militants' _"spiritual birthplace"_ and a strategic key to ward off the Taliban insurgency , as a part of a larger effort that also aimed to deliver services such as electricity and clean drinking water that the Taliban could not provide – encouraging support for the government in a city that was once the Taliban's headquarters. The most significant battle between NATO troops and the Taliban lasted throughout the summer of 2006, culminating in Operation Medusa . The Taliban failed to defeat the Western troops in open warfare, which marked a turn in their tactics towards IED emplacement. In June 2008, it was reported that over 1,000 inmates had escaped from Sarposa prison . In Spring 2010, the province and the city of Kandahar became a target of American operations following _ Operation Moshtarak _ in the neighboring Helmand province . In March 2010, U.S. and NATO commanders released details of plans for the biggest offensive of the war against the Taliban insurgency. U.S. Ambassador Ryan Crocker and Toryalai Wesa , the Governor of Kandahar Province .
In May 2010 Kandahar International Airport became subject of a combined rocket and ground attack by insurgents, following similar attacks on Kabul and Bagram in the preceding weeks. Although this attack did not lead to many casualties on the side of NATO forces, it did show that the militants are still capable of launching multiple, coordinated operations in Afghanistan. In June 2010, a shura was held by Afghan President Hamid Karzai with tribal and religious leaders of the Kandahar region. The meeting highlighted the need for support of NATO-led forces in order to stabilize parts of the province. Afghan National Security Forces and members of ISAF providing security in 2012.
By 2011, Kandahar became known as the assassination city of Afghanistan after witnessing many target killings. In July Ahmed Wali Karzai , brother of President Hamid Karzai, was shot by his longtime head of security. Soon after the Quetta Shura of the Taliban claimed responsibility. The next day an Islamic cleric (mulla) of the famous Red Mosque in the Shahr-e Naw area of the city and a number of other people were killed by a Taliban suicide bomber who had hidden explosives inside his turban . On 27 July 2011, the mayor of the city, Ghulam Haider Hamidi , was assassinated by another Taliban militant who had hidden explosives in his turban. Two deputy mayors had been killed in 2010, while many tribal elders and Islamic clerics have also been assassinated in the last several years.
Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) spy network is often blamed as the masterminds behind the Taliban-led insurgency. The Afghan government alleges that the ISI is using the insurgents in the name of Islamic jihad to counter the growing influence of its rival India in Afghanistan and the Afghan claim regarding the disputed Durand Line border. The overwhelming majority of the victims in the attacks are ordinary Afghan civilians. On 6 June 2012, at least 21 civilians were killed and 50 others injured when two Taliban suicide bombers on motorcycles blew themselves up in a market area near Kandahar International Airport. Referring to them as the "agents of Punjab", ANA provincial police chief, Brig. Gen. Abdul Razaq stated that the Taliban "have once again spilled the blood of innocent civilians."
Kandahar is the Regional Hub in southern Afghanistan, close to the border with Pakistan. Non-built up land use accounts for 59% of the total land area. Within the built-up area, vacant plots occupy a slightly higher percentage of land (36%) than residential land (34%). There is a significant commercial cluster along the road to Pakistan in District 5. India , Iran and Pakistan operate their consulate here for trade, military and political links.
Kandahar has a semi-arid climate (Köppen _BWh_), characterised by little precipitation and high variation between summer and winter temperatures. Summers start in mid-May, last until late-September, and are extremely dry. Temperatures peak in July with a 24-hour daily average of around 31.9 °C (89.4 °F). They are followed by dry autumns from early-October to late-November, with days still averaging in the 20s °C (above 68 °F) into November, though nights are sharply cooler. Winter begins in December and sees most of its precipitation in the form of rain. Temperatures average 5.1 °C (41.2 °F) in January, although lows can drop well below freezing. They end in early-March and are followed by a pleasant spring till late-April with temperatures generally in the upper 10s °C to lower 30s °C (65–88 °F) range. Sunny weather dominates year-round, especially in summer, when rainfall is extremely rare. The annual mean temperature is 18.6 °C (65.5 °F).
CLIMATE DATA FOR KANDAHAR (1964–1983)
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 25.0 (77) 26.0 (78.8) 36.5 (97.7) 37.1 (98.8) 43.0 (109.4) 45.0 (113) 46.5 (115.7) 44.5 (112.1) 41.0 (105.8) 37.5 (99.5) 31.5 (88.7) 26.0 (78.8) 46.5 (115.7)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 12.2 (54) 14.8 (58.6) 21.6 (70.9) 28.1 (82.6) 34.1 (93.4) 39.1 (102.4) 40.2 (104.4) 38.2 (100.8) 34.0 (93.2) 27.5 (81.5) 21.0 (69.8) 15.4 (59.7) 27.2 (81)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 5.1 (41.2) 7.8 (46) 13.9 (57) 20.2 (68.4) 25.4 (77.7) 30.0 (86) 31.9 (89.4) 29.4 (84.9) 23.5 (74.3) 17.5 (63.5) 11.0 (51.8) 7.3 (45.1) 18.58 (65.44)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 0.0 (32) 2.4 (36.3) 7.1 (44.8) 12.3 (54.1) 15.8 (60.4) 19.5 (67.1) 22.5 (72.5) 20.0 (68) 13.5 (56.3) 8.5 (47.3) 3.3 (37.9) 1.0 (33.8) 10.5 (50.9)
RECORD LOW °C (°F) −12.1 (10.2) −10.0 (14) −4.8 (23.4) 2.0 (35.6) 2.4 (36.3) 8.5 (47.3) 13.5 (56.3) 9.0 (48.2) 5.2 (41.4) −2.2 (28) −9.3 (15.3) −11.4 (11.5) −12.1 (10.2)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 54.0 (2.126) 42.0 (1.654) 41.1 (1.618) 18.7 (0.736) 2.2 (0.087) 0 (0) 2.3 (0.091) 1.0 (0.039) 0 (0) 2.3 (0.091) 7.0 (0.276) 20.0 (0.787) 190.6 (7.505)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 6 6 6 4 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 29
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 58 59 50 41 30 23 25 25 24 29 40 52 38
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 198.4 183.6 235.6 255.0 347.2 369.0 341.0 337.9 324.0 306.9 264.0 217.0 3,379.6
Source: NOAA (1964–1983)
Kandahar International Airport serves as southern Afghanistan's main airport for domestic and international flights. It is also used as a major military base as well as shipping and receiving of supplies for the NATO armies. The entire area in and around the airport is heavily guarded but a section is designated for civilian passengers. Most international flights are with Dubai, Germany, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan.
Pakistan plans to build a railroad track from the Pakistani town of Chaman to Kandahar which will connect Afghan Railways with Pakistan Railways . The feasibility study was completed in 2006 but as of 2012 no construction work had begun.
Kandahar is connected to Kabul by the Kabul-Kandahar Highway and to Herat by the Kandahar- Herat Highway . There is a bus station located at the start of the Kabul- Kandahar Highway, where a number of privately owned older-model Mercedes-Benz coach buses are available to take passengers to most major cities of the country. Kandahar is also connected by road to Quetta in neighboring Pakistan. Due to the ongoing war the route to Kabul has become increasingly dangerous as insurgent attacks on convoys and destruction of bridges make it an unreliable link between the two cities.
Commuters of the city use the public bus system ( Milli Bus ), and taxicabs and rickshaws are common. Private vehicle use is increasing, partially due to road and highway improvements. Large dealerships are importing cars from Dubai , UAE .
Further information: Education in Afghanistan Children from the Zarghona Ana High School watch members of Afghan National Security Force and Kandahar Provincial Reconstruction Team prepare for the Kandahar Nursing and Midwifery Institute grand opening ceremony in 2012.
Before the 1978 coup in Kabul, majority of the city's population were enrolled in schools. Nearly all of the elite class of the city fled to neighboring Pakistan during the early 1980s, and from there they began immigrating to North America , the European Union , Australia and other parts of the world.
The two oldest known schools are Ahmad Shah Baba High School and Zarghona Ana High School. There are a number of new schools that opened in the last decade, with more being built in the future as the city's population grows with the large returning Afghans from neighboring countries. Afghan Turk High Schools is one of the top private schools in the city. The main university is Kandahar University . A number of training centers have also opened in the last decade.
Further information: Communications in Afghanistan
Telecommunication services in the city are provided by Afghan Wireless , Roshan , Etisalat , MTN Group and Afghan Telecom . In November 2006, the Afghan Ministry of Communications signed a $64.5 million agreement with ZTE for the establishment of a countrywide fiber optical cable network. This was intended to improve telephone, internet, television and radio broadcast services not just in Kandahar but throughout the country.
Besides foreign channels, Afghanistan\'s local television channels include:
PLACES OF INTEREST
The tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani is located in the city center, which also houses Durrani's brass helmet and other personal items. In front of Durrani's mausoleum is the Shrine of the Cloak , containing one of the most valued relics in the Islamic world, which was given by the Emir of Bokhara ( Murad Beg ) to Ahmad Shah Durrani. The Sacred Cloak is kept locked away, taken out only at times of great crisis. Mullah Omar took it out in November 1996 and displayed it to a crowd of _ulema_ of religious scholars to have himself declared Amir al-Mu\'minin (Commander of the Faithful). Prior to that it was taken out when the city was struck by a cholera epidemic in the 1930s.
The village of _Sher Surkh_ is located southeast of the city, in the suburbs of the old city of Nadirabad. Kandahar Museum is located at the western end of the third block of buildings lining the main road east of _Eidgah Durwaza_ (gate). It has many paintings by the now famous Ghiyassuddin, painted while he was a young teacher in Kandahar. He is acknowledged among Afghanistan's leading artists.
Just to the north of the city, off its northeast corner at the end of _buria_ (matting) bazaar, there is a shrine dedicated to a saint who lived in Kandahar more than 300 years ago. The grave of _Hazratji Baba _, 7.0 metres (23 ft) long to signify his greatness, but otherwise covered solely by rock chips, is undecorated save for tall pennants at its head. A monument to Islamic martyrs stands in the center of Kandahar's main square, called _Da Shahidanu Chawk_, which was built in the 1940s. Ancient city of Old Kandahar (red) and Chilzina mountainous outcrop (blue) on the western side of Kandahar.
The _ Chilzina _ is a rock-cut chamber above the plain at the end of the rugged chain of mountains forming the western defence of Kandahar's _Old City_. This is here that Ashoka 's Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription was found. Forty steps, about, lead to the chamber, which is guarded by two chained lions, defaced, and inscribed with an account of Moghul conquest. The rugged cliffs from which the _Chilzina_ was hewn form the natural western bastion of the _Old City_ of Kandahar, which was destroyed in 1738 by Nadir Shah Afshar of Persia.
A short distance from _Chilzina_, going west on the main highway, a bright blue dome appears on the right. This is the mausoleum of Mirwais Hotak , the Ghiljai chieftain who declared Kandahar's independence from the Persians in 1709. The shrine of Baba Wali Kandhari (Baba Sahib), its terraces shaded by pomegranate groves beside the Arghandab River , is also very popular for picnics and afternoon outings. He was Muslim pir who had a strange encounter with Guru Nanak at Hasan Abdal in what is now Attock District of Pakistan. The shrine of Baba Wali is important to Muslims and Sikhs . Close to Baba Wali's shrine is a military base established by the United States armed forces in about 2007.
DEVELOPMENT AND MODERNIZATION
_ The original model plan of the Aino Mina_ neighborhood, which began in 2003 by Mahmud Karzai and associates.
Decades of war left Kandahar and the rest of the country destroyed and depopulated, but in recent years billions of dollars began pouring in for construction purposes and millions of expats have returned to Afghanistan. New neighborhoods have been established around the city, and a number of modern-style buildings have been constructed.
Some residents of the city have access to clean drinking water and electricity, and the government is working to extend these services to every home. The city relies on electricity from the Kajaki hydroelectricity plant in neighboring Helmand , which is being upgraded or expanded. About 30 km (20 mi) north of the city is the Dahla Dam , the second largest dam in Afghanistan .
The _Aino Mina_ is a new housing project for up to two million people on the northern edge of the city. Originally called the _Kandahar Valley_ and started by Mahmud Karzai , it was announced that the project would build up to 20,000 single-family homes and associated infrastructure such as roads, water and sewer systems, and community buildings , including schools.
It recently won 2 awards, the _Residential Project_ and _Sustainable Project_ of the Year at the Middle East Architect Awards. Many of the high-ranking government employees and civil servants as well as wealthy businessmen live in this area, which is a more secured community in Kandahar. Work on the next $100 million scheme was initiated in 2011.
Also, construction of Hamidi Township in the Morchi Kotal area of the city began in August 2011. It is named after Ghulam Haider Hamidi , the mayor of Kandahar who was assassinated by militants in late July 2011. Situated along the Kandahar-Uruzgan Highway in the northeast of the city, the new township will have 2,000 residential and commercial plots. Including new roads, schools, commercial markets, clinics, canals and other facilities.
About 10 km (6 mi) east of Kandahar, a huge industrial park is under construction with modern facilities. The park will have professional management for the daily maintenance of public roads, internal streets, common areas, parking areas, 24 hours perimeter security, access control for vehicles and persons. The mausoleum of Baba Wali Kandhari next to the Arghandab Valley, in the northern outskirts of the city. The mausoleum of Ahmad Shah Durrani in the center of the city, which also serves as the Congregational Mosque and contains a sacred cloak that used to be worn by Islam's Prophet Muhammad . Al-Jadeed indoor shopping center in the Shahre Naw section of the city. Local children watching a football match at the playground of Ahmad Shah Baba High School.
* Aino Meyna (under development since 2003) * Hamidi Meyna (under development since 2011) * Share Naw (meaning _New City_) * Dand * Karz * Mirwais Meyna * Daman * Sarpuza * Malajat * Old Kandahar (Zorr Shar) * Arghandab Valley
CULTURAL SITES AND PARKS
MOSQUES AND SHRINES
* Lamar Restaurant * Mumtaz Restaurant * Kandahar Coffee Shop
HOTELS AND GUEST HOUSES
* Continental Guest House * Armani Pashtun Kasi Hotel Pick off and drop services from the airport 0093 705601977 * Maulvi nasar hotel kabul darwaza.
DEMOGRAPHY AND CULTURE
Further information: Demographics of Afghanistan A gathering of tribal and religious leaders following a shura held by Afghan President Hamid Karzai in June 2010 to start a dialogue for peace with the Taliban.
The population of Kandahar numbers approximately 491,500 as of 2012 . The Pashtuns make up the overwhelming majority population of the city and province but exact figures are not available. In a 2003 estimate by the National Geographic , Pashtuns were put at ca. 70%, Tajiks 20%, Hazaras 6%, Baloch 2%, and Uzbeks 2%.
Pashto serves as the main language in the city and the region. Persian is also understood by a fair number of the city dwellers, especially those serving in the government and the educated Afghans. Both are the official languages of Afghanistan . A 2006 compendium of provincial data prepared by the Afghan Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development and United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) states:
"The major ethnic group living in Khandahar province is Pashtoons. This includes major tribes such as Tokhi , Barakzai , Babai , Popalzai , Alokozai , Noorzai and Alezai . Pashtu is spoken by more than 98% of population and in more than 98% of villages. Persian is spoken in six villages by 4000 people and Balochi is spoken by 8000 people in two villages. 19000 people in nine villages speak some other unspecified language."
The Pashtun culture is dominant in this region.
NOTABLE PEOPLE FROM KANDAHAR
* Nur Jahan – Empress of the Mughal Empire * Mirwais Hotak – founder of the Hotak dynasty * Abdul Aziz Hotak – ruler of the Hotak dynasty * Mahmud Hotak – ruler of the Hotak dynasty and Shah of Persia * Ashraf Hotak – Shah of Persia * Hussain Hotak – ruler of the Hotak dynasty * Ahmad Shah Durrani – founding father of Afghanistan who is buried in the city * Payandah Khan , earliest tribal chief of the Barakzai dynasty * Dost Mohammad Khan – Emir of Afghanistan and son of Payandah Khan * Sher Ali Khan – Emir of Afghanistan and son of Dost Mohammad Khan * Abdur Rahman Khan – Emir of Afghanistan and son of Dost Mohammad Khan * Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi – leader of Tarzi family who played an important part in Afghan history during the late 19th century onward * Abdul Rehman Khan, father of Bollywood actor Kader Khan * Mohammed Zahir Shah – the last king of Afghanistan * Mohammed Daoud Khan founder of the republic of Afghanistan * Ubaidullah Jan – Pashto music king of southern Afghanistan * Naghma – Afghan singer * Nashenas – Afghan musician * Abdul Hai Habibi – scholar, former professor at Kabul University and author of many books * The Karzais – the family of Afghan President Hamid Karzai * Gul Agha Sherzai – served as the governor of Kandahar province followed by as governors of Nangarhar province * Said Tayeb Jawad – former Afghanistan Ambassador to the United States * Yousef Pashtun – Afghan politician
* Kandahar portal
* ^ _A_ _B_ "The State of Afghan Cities report2015". Archived from the original on 31 October 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Settled Population of Kandahar province by Civil Division, Urban, Rural and Sex-2012-13" (PDF). Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Central Statistics Organization. Retrieved 2013-06-24. * ^ Holt, Frank . _Into the Land of Bones: Alexander the Great in Afghanistan_. Berkeley: University of California. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-520-24993-6 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Kandahar". Columbia Encyclopedia . Retrieved 9 January 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ "The State of Afghan Cities report 2015". * ^ "The City of Kandahar". Columbia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 9 January 2011. * ^ John E. Hill, _Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd centuries CE_. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina, 2009. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1 , pp. 517–518. This derivation, as that from Gondophares, was characterised as "philologiquement impossible" by P. Bernard, "Un probleme de toponymie antique dans l'Asie Centrale: les noms anciens de Qandahar", _Studia Iranica,_ tome 3, 1974 and _Afghanistan Quarterly,_ vol.33, no.1, June 1980/Spring 1359, pp.49–62, p59, n.10. * ^ _A_ _B_ Full text of the Mahavamsa Click chapter XXIX * ^ _A_ _B_ Ibn Battuta (2004). _Travels in Asia and Africa, 1325–1354_ (reprint, illustrated ed.). Routledge. p. 179. ISBN 0-415-34473-5 . Retrieved 2012-08-04. * ^ Hobson Jobson Dictionary; _The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary_, Vaman Shivram Apte, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, India, 1975, ISBN 81-208-0567-4 ; P. Bernard, "Une probleme de toponymie antique dans l'Asie centrale: les noms anciens de Qandahar", _Studia Iranica,_ tome 3 (fasc. 2) 1974, 171–185. . * ^ Lendering, Jona. "Gandara". LIVIUS – Articles on Ancient History. Retrieved 9 January 2011. * ^ "Achaemenid Satrapies". Retrieved 18 May 2015. * ^ Ernst Herzfeld, _Archaeological History of Iran,_ London, Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 1935, p.63; Ernst Herzfeld, _The Persian Empire: Studies in Geography and Ethnography of the Ancient Near East,_ Wiesbaden, Steiner, 1968, p.335. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Dupree, Nancy Hatch (1970). _An Historical Guide to Afghanistan_. First Edition. Kabul: Afghan Air Authority, Afghan Tourist Organization. p. 492. Retrieved 2012-06-17. * ^ History of Afghanistan Archived 1 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Map of the Median Empire from the University of Texas in Austin, showing _Pactyans_ in what is now Kandahar, Afghanistan ... Link * ^ Lendering, Jona. "Alexandria in Arachosia". LIVIUS – Articles on Ancient History. Retrieved 9 January 2011. * ^ Mentioned in Bopearachchi, "Monnaies Greco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques", p52. Original text in paragraph 19 of Parthian stations * ^ Lendering, Jona. "Maurya dynasty". LIVIUS – Articles on Ancient History. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
* ^ Excavations at Kandahar 1974 & 1975 (Society for South Asian Studies Monograph) by Anthony McNicoll.
The Zunbils ruled in the Kandahar area for nearly 250 years until the late 9th century AD. * ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). _A Textbook of Medieval Indian History_. Primus Books. pp. 151, 162, 169–170. ISBN 978-93-80607-34-4 . * ^ "AN OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF PERSIA DURING THE LAST TWO CENTURIES (A.D. 1722–1922)". _Edward Granville Browne_. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 29. Retrieved 24 September 2010. * ^ Malleson, George Bruce (1878). _History of Afghanistan, from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878_. London: Elibron.com. p. 227. ISBN 1-4021-7278-8 . Retrieved 27 September 2010.
* ^ "Last Afghan empire". _Louis Dupree, Nancy H. Dupree and others_. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
* ^ The Afghans (2002) By Willem Vogelsang . Page 228. * ^ "Aḥmad Shah Durrānī". Encyclopædia Britannica Online Version. Retrieved 9 January 2011. * ^ "The Limits of Soviet Airpower: The Failure of Military Coercion in Afghanistan, 1979–89". _Edward B. Westermann_. University of New Brunswick . Retrieved 9 January 2011. * ^ BBC News , Kandahar\'s cemetery of \'miracles\' * ^ "Home Free". _Time_. Archived from the original on 24 July 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2011. _ Hamid Karzai dreamed for years of his eventual homecoming. But for both him and his newly reborn nation, the journey has only begun_ * ^ BBC News, Kandahar dreamers test Taliban edicts * ^ "Removed: news agency feed article". _the Guardian_. Retrieved 6 May 2016. * ^ "Kandahar, a Battlefield Even Before U.S. Offensive". _The New York Times_. 27 March 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2016. * ^ Reuters Editorial (31 March 2010). "Q+A – NATO sees Kandahar battle as Afghan turning point". _Reuters India_. Retrieved 6 May 2016. * ^ " Kandahar mayor killed in suicide attack; Taliban claim responsibility". Retrieved 6 May 2016. * ^ "U.S. blames Pakistan agency in Kabul attack". Reuters. 22 September 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011. * ^ "ISI still engaged with the Taliban: US expert". Pajhwok Afghan News. 6 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-09. * ^ Pakistan a twin brother, talks to go on: Karzai. Pajhwok Afghan News . Sujoy Dhar. 5 October 2011. * ^ Challenges remain despite reduced rebel attacks: ISAF. Pajhwok Afghan News. 10 October 2011. * ^ Siddiqullah, ed. (7 June 2012). "21 killed, 50 injured in twin suicide blasts (Video)". Pajhwok Afghan News. Retrieved 8 June 2012. * ^ (in Russian) * ^ " Kandahar Climate Normals 1964–1983" . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved December 26, 2012. * ^ Sial, Amer (2016-08-18). "Pak Railways poised to get massive funding from CPEC and CAREC". Pakistan Today. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
* ^ Kakar, Javed Hamim (7 July 2010). "Pakistan, Afghanistan ink MoU on rail links". Pajhwok Afghan News . Archived from the original on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2008. * ^ Kandahar- Quetta bus service soon By Bashir Ahmad Naadim Jul 20, 2012 – 17:17, http://www.pajhwok.com/en/2012/07/20/kandahar-quetta-bus-service-soon * ^ Cogan, James (16 August 2008). "Hundreds dead in fighting along Afghanistan- Pakistan border". _ World Socialist Web Site _. Retrieved 25 August 2008. * ^ Salih, Salih Muhammad; Siddique, Abubakar (23 October 2008). "Death stalks the highway to hell". _ Asia Times Online _. Retrieved 23 October 2008. * ^ Wheeler, Tony (6 June 2006). " Afghanistan Practicalities". Lonely Planet . Retrieved 9 January 2011. * ^ Lamb, Christina (2002). _The Sewing Circles of Herat: A Personal Voyage Through Afghanistan_. Harper Collins. First Perennial edition (2004), p. 38 and n. ISBN 0-06-050527-3 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Punja Sahib: The Miracle at Hassan Abdal". _Wonders of Pakistan_. Retrieved 6 May 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Cusack, Jake (July 19, 2011). "Spending Time With the Karzais in (Parts of) Kandahar". _Jack Cusak_. The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-10-20. * ^ South Asian News Agency, _30 Power Generators to Be Installed in Kandahar_ * ^ "Aino Mina Development". Retrieved 6 May 2016. * ^ U.S. Department of State , _U.S. Government Agency Grants $3 Million to Build Afghan Homes_ * ^ "Case study: Aino Mina". _Design Middle East_. Retrieved 6 May 2016. * ^ Kandahar mayor killed by suicide bomber with explosives in turban * ^ Naadem, Bashir Ahmed (16 August 2011). "Construction of Hameedi township starts in Kandahar". Retrieved 16 August 2011. * ^ Afghanistan Investment Support Agency, _ Afghanistan Industrial Parks Development Authority_ * ^ "2003 National Geographic Population Map" (PDF). _Thomas Gouttierre, Center For Afghanistan Studies, University of Nebraska at Omaha; Matthew S. Baker, Stratfor_. National Geographic Society . 2003. Retrieved 11 April 2011. * ^ "B. Demography and Population" (PDF). _United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan and Afghanistan Statistical Yearbook 2006, Central Statistics Office_. Afghanistan's Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development . Retrieved 12 January 2011.
* Dupree, Nancy Hatch (1977) . _An Historical Guide to Afghanistan_ (2nd Edition, Revised and Enlarged ed.). Afghan Tourist Organization. * Hill, John E. 2004. _The Peoples of the West from the Weilue_ 魏略 _by Yu Huan_ 魚豢_: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE._ Draft annotated English translation. * Hill, John E. (2009) _Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd centuries CE_. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1 . * Thapar, Romila (1963): _Aśoka and the Decline of the Mauryas_. Oxford University Press. 3rd impression, New Delhi, 1980. * Frye, Richard N. (1963). _The Heritage of Persia_. World Publishing company, Cleveland, Ohio. Mentor Book edition, 1966. * Toynbee, Arnold J. (1961). _Between Oxus and Jumna_. London. Oxford University Press. * Willem Vogelsang (1985). "Early historical Arachosia in South-east Afghanistan; Meeting-place between East and West." _Iranica antiqua_, 20 (1985), pp. 55–99. * Wood, Michael (1997). _In the Footsteps of Alexander the Great: A Journey from Greece to Asia_. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23192-9
Published in the 19th century
* Edward Balfour (1885), "Kandahar", _Cyclopaedia of India_ (3rd ed.), London: B. Quaritch * Boulger, Demetrius Charles. _Ought We to Hold Candahar?_. London: William H. Allen and Company (1879).
Published in the 20th century
* "Kandahar", _The Encyclopædia Britannica_ (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424
Published in the 21st century
* C. Edmund Bosworth, ed. (2007). "Kandahar". _Historic Cities of the Islamic World_. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill .
_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to KANDAHAR _.
* _ Kandahar travel guide from Wikivoyage * Photos of Kandahar on Panoramio * Map of Kandahar, from Afghanistan Information Management Services * The Taliban\'s Campaign for Kandahar * JBO\'C\'s Historical Reference,