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Kandahār (/ˈkændəˌhɑːr/) or Qandahār (Pashto: کندهار‎; Dari: قندهار‎; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.[1] Formerly called Alexandria Arachosia, the city is named after Alexander
Alexander
the Great, who founded it in 329 BC around an ancient Arachosian town.[2][3] Kandahar
Kandahar
is located in the south of the country on the Arghandab River, at an elevation of 1,010 m (3,310 ft). It is the capital of Kandahar
Kandahar
Province, and also the center of the larger cultural region called Loy Kandahar. In 1709, Mirwais Hotak
Mirwais Hotak
made the region an independent kingdom and turned Kandahar
Kandahar
into the capital of the Hotak dynasty. In 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Durrani
Durrani
dynasty, made Kandahar
Kandahar
the capital of the Afghan Empire.[3][4] Kandahar
Kandahar
is one of the most culturally significant cities of the Pashtuns
Pashtuns
and has been their traditional seat of power for more than 300 years. It is a major trading center for sheep, wool, cotton, silk, felt, food grains, fresh and dried fruit, and tobacco. The region produces fine fruits, especially pomegranates and grapes, and the city has plants for canning, drying, and packing fruit, and is a major source of marijuana and hashish en route to Tajikistan. The region around Kandahar
Kandahar
is one of the oldest known human settlements. A major fortified city existed at the site of Kandahar, probably as early as c. 1000-750 BCE,[5] and it became an important outpost of the Achaemenid (Persian) Empire in the 6th century BCE.[6] Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
had laid-out the foundation of what is now Old Kandahar
Kandahar
in the 4th century BC and gave it the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
name Αλεξάνδρεια Aραχωσίας (Alexandria of Arachosia). Many empires have long fought over the city due to its strategic location along the trade routes of southern, central and western Asia. Since the 1978 Marxist revolution, the city has been a magnet for groups such as Haqqani network, Quetta
Quetta
Shura, Hezbi Islami, al-Qaida and other terrorist groups. From late-1996 to 2001, it served as the de facto capital of the Taliban government until the Taliban were overthrown by US-led NATO forces during Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
in late-2001 and replaced by the government of President Hamid Karzai.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Alexandria 2.3 Islamization and Mongol invasion 2.4 Modern history 2.5 21st century

3 Geography

3.1 Land Use 3.2 Climate

4 Transport 5 Education 6 Communications 7 Places of interest 8 Development and modernization

8.1 Airports 8.2 Neighborhoods 8.3 Cultural sites and parks 8.4 Stadium 8.5 Mosques and Shrines 8.6 Mausoleums 8.7 Shopping 8.8 Restaurants 8.9 Hotels and guest houses 8.10 Hospitals 8.11 Banks

9 Demography and culture 10 Notable people from Kandahar 11 See also 12 Footnotes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Name[edit] One hypothesis of the name suggests that "Kandahar" has evolved from "Iskandar", the local dialect version of the name Alexander, after Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
who founded the city in 330 BC and named it Alexandria in Arachosia.[7] A temple to the deified Alexander
Alexander
as well as an inscription in Greek and Aramaic
Aramaic
by Emperor Ashoka, who lived a few decades later, have been discovered in Kandahar. The Sri Lankan Pali
Pali
work the Mahavamsa
Mahavamsa
(Chap. XXIX[8]) refers to the city as "the Greek city of Alasanda" when relating how its Indo-Greek King Menander I (165 BC – 135 BC), who practiced Greco-Buddhism, sent "a Greek (yona) Buddhist head monk" named Mahadharmaraksita
Mahadharmaraksita
(literally translated 'Great Teacher, Preserver of the Dharma') with 30,000 Buddhist monks to Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
for the dedication of the Great Stupa
Stupa
in Anuradhapura. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
mentions Kandahar
Kandahar
in the 14th century by describing it as a large and prosperous town three nights journey from Ghazni.[9] It has been then mentioned extensively by Mughal Emperor Babur
Babur
and others. An alternative etymology derives the name of the city from Gandhara,[10] the name of an ancient Hindu-Buddhist kingdom located along the Kabul
Kabul
and Swat rivers of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan;[11] Kandahar
Kandahar
is not in the former territory of Gandhara.[12] An alternative story describes Khandahar
Khandahar
as Gandhara
Gandhara
in Mahabharata ruled by Suvala and later by Shakuni. The princess of Hastinapur, Gandhari was born in Gandhara. A folk etymology offered is that the word "kand" or "qand" in Persian and Pashto (the local languages) means "candy". The name "Candahar" or "Kandahar" in this form probably translates to candy area. This probably has to do with the location being fertile and historically known for producing fine grapes, pomegranates, apricots, melons and other sweet fruits.[3][not in citation given] Ernst Herzfeld
Ernst Herzfeld
claimed Kandahar
Kandahar
perpetuated the name of the Indo-Parthian
Indo-Parthian
king Gondophares, who re-founded the city under the name Gundopharron.[13] History[edit]

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Indo-Parthian
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Kabul
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Durrani
Empire 1747–1826

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Prehistory[edit] Further information: Pre-Islamic period of Afghanistan Excavations of prehistoric sites by archaeologists such as Louis Dupree and others suggest that the region around Kandahar
Kandahar
is one of the oldest human settlements known so far.

Early peasant farming villages came into existence in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
ca. 5000 B.C., or 7000 years ago. Deh Morasi Ghundai, the first prehistoric site to be excavated in Afghanistan, lies 27 km (17 mi) southwest of Kandahar
Kandahar
(Dupree, 1951). Another Bronze
Bronze
Age village mound site with multiroomed mud-brick buildings dating from the same period sits nearby at Said Qala (J. Shaffer, 1970). Second millennium B.C. Bronze Age
Bronze Age
pottery, copper and bronze horse trappings and stone seals were found in the lowermost levels in the nearby cave called Shamshir Ghar (Dupree, 1950). In the Seistan, southwest of these Kandahar
Kandahar
sites, two teams of American archaeologists discovered sites relating to the 2nd millennium B.C. (G. Dales, University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, 1969, 1971; W, Trousdale, Smithsonian Institution, 1971 – 76). Stylistically the finds from Deh Morasi and Said Qala tie in with those of pre-Indus Valley sites and with those of comparable age on the Iranian Plateau
Iranian Plateau
and in Central Asia, indicating cultural contacts during this very early age.[14] — N. Dupree, 1971

British excavations in the 1970s discovered that Kandahar
Kandahar
existed as a large fortified city during the early 1st millennium BCE; while this earliest period at Kandahar
Kandahar
has not been precisely dated via radiocarbon, ceramic comparisons with the latest period at the major Bronze Age
Bronze Age
city of Mundigak
Mundigak
have suggested an approximate time-frame of 1000 to 750 BCE.[5] This fortified city became an important outpost of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
in the 6th to 4th centuries BCE, and formed part of the province of Arachosia.[6] Alexandria[edit] Further information: Alexandria in Arachosia The now "Old Kandahar" was founded in 330 BC by Alexander
Alexander
the Great, near the site of the ancient city of Mundigak
Mundigak
(established around 3000 BC). Mundigak
Mundigak
served as the provincial capital of Arachosia
Arachosia
and was ruled by the Medes
Medes
followed by the Achaemenids until the arrival of the Greeks from Macedonia. The main inhabitants of Arachosia
Arachosia
were the Pactyans,[15] an ancient Iranian tribe, who may be among the ancestors of today's Pashtuns. Kandahar
Kandahar
was named Alexandria, a name given to cities that Alexander
Alexander
founded during his conquests.[16] Kandahar
Kandahar
has been a frequent target for conquest because of its strategic location in Southern Asia, controlling the main trade route linking the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
with the Middle East and Central Asia.[17] The territory became part of the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
after the death of Alexander. It is mentioned by Strabo
Strabo
that a treaty of friendship was established eventually between the Greeks and the Mauryans (Indians).[18][19] The city eventually became part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
(250 BC-125 BC), and continued that way for two hundred years under the later Indo-Greek Kingdom
Indo-Greek Kingdom
(180 BC – 10 CE). King Menander I
Menander I
(165 BC – 135 BC) of the Indo-Greek Kingdom practiced Greco-Buddhism
Greco-Buddhism
and is recorded by the Mahavamsa
Mahavamsa
(Chap. XXIX[8]) to have sent "a Greek ("Yona") Buddhist head monk" named Mahadharmaraksita
Mahadharmaraksita
(literally translated as 'Great Teacher/Preserver of the Dharma') with 30,000 Buddhist monks from "the Greek city of Alasandra" (possibly Alexandria in Arachosia, as Kandhar
Kandhar
was known under the Greeks) to Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
for the dedication of Great Stupa Buddhist temple in Anuradhapura. (See also Milinda Panha.)

Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription
Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription
(Greek and Aramaic) by Emperor Ashoka, from Chilzina
Chilzina
in Kandahar, 3rd century BC.

While the Diadochi
Diadochi
were warring amongst themselves, the Mauryans were developing in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. The founder of the empire, Chandragupta Maurya, confronted a Macedonian invasion force led by Seleucus I in 305 BC and following a brief conflict, an agreement was reached as Seleucus ceded Gandhara
Gandhara
and Arachosia
Arachosia
and areas south of Bagram
Bagram
to the Mauryans. During the 120 years of the Mauryans in southern Afghanistan, Buddhism was introduced and eventually become a major religion alongside Zoroastrianism and local pagan beliefs. The ancient Grand Trunk Road was built linking what is now Kabul
Kabul
to various cities in the Punjab and the Gangetic Plain. Commerce, art, and architecture (seen especially in the construction of stupas) developed during this period. It reached its high point under the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
whose edicts, roads, and rest stops were found throughout the subcontinent. Although the vast majority of them throughout the subcontinent were written in Prakrit, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is notable for the inclusion of 2 Greek and Aramaic
Aramaic
ones alongside the court language of the Mauryans. Inscriptions made by Emperor Ashoka, a fragment of Edict 13 in Greek, as well as a full Edict, written in both Greek and Aramaic
Aramaic
has been discovered in Kandahar. It is said to be written in excellent Classical Greek, using sophisticated philosophical terms. In this Edict, Ashoka
Ashoka
uses the word Eusebeia ("Piety") as the Greek translation for the ubiquitous "Dharma" of his other Edicts written in Prakrit:

Ten years (of reign) having been completed, King Piodasses (Ashoka) made known (the doctrine of) Piety
Piety
(εὐσέβεια, Eusebeia) to men; and from this moment he has made men more pious, and everything thrives throughout the whole world. And the king abstains from (killing) living beings, and other men and those who (are) huntsmen and fishermen of the king have desisted from hunting. And if some (were) intemperate, they have ceased from their intemperance as was in their power; and obedient to their father and mother and to the elders, in opposition to the past also in the future, by so acting on every occasion, they will live better and more happily. — Trans. by G.P. Carratelli[20]

The last ruler in the region was probably Subhagasena ( Sophagasenus of Polybius), who, in all probability, belonged to the Ashvaka (q.v.) background. Islamization and Mongol invasion[edit] Further information: Islamic conquest of Afghanistan

A miniature from Padshahnama
Padshahnama
depicting the surrender of the Shi'a Safavid garrison at what is now Old Kandahar
Old Kandahar
in 1638 to the Mughal army of Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
commanded by Kilij Khan.

In the 7th century AD, Arab armies conquered the region with the new religion of Islam but were unable to succeed in fully converting the population. In AD 870, Yaqub ibn Layth Saffari, a local ruler of the Saffarid dynasty, conquered Kandahar
Kandahar
and the rest of the nearby regions in the name of Islam.

Arab armies carrying the banner of Islam came out of the west to defeat the Sasanians
Sasanians
in 642 AD and then they marched with confidence to the east. On the western periphery of the Afghan area the princes of Herat
Herat
and Seistan
Seistan
gave way to rule by Arab governors but in the east, in the mountains, cities submitted only to rise in revolt and the hastily converted returned to their old beliefs once the armies passed. The harshness and avariciousness of Arab rule produced such unrest, however, that once the waning power of the Caliphate
Caliphate
became apparent, native rulers once again established themselves independent. Among these the Saffarids
Saffarids
of Seistan
Seistan
shone briefly in the Afghan area. The fanatic founder of this dynasty, the coppersmith's apprentice Yaqub ibn Layth Saffari, came forth from his capital at Zaranj
Zaranj
in 870 AD and marched through Bost, Kandahar, Ghazni, Kabul, Bamiyan, Balkh and Herat, conquering in the name of Islam.[14] — N. Dupree, 1971

It is believed that the Zunbil dynasty, who were related to the Shahi dynasty of Kabul, were probably the rulers of the Kandahar
Kandahar
region from the 7th century until the late 9th century AD.[21] Kandahar
Kandahar
was taken by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni
Ghazni
in the 11th century followed by the Ghurids of Ghor. The region was invaded in the 13th century by Genghis Khan and his Mongol armies, who caused destruction but did not settle. It became part of the lands of the Timurids from the 14th century to the 15th century, a dynasty founded by Timur
Timur
(Tamerlane) that began rebuilding cities and towns. Kandahar
Kandahar
was described by Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
in 1333 as a large and prosperous town three nights journey from Ghazni.[9] Pir Muhammad, a grandson of Tamerlane, held the seat of government in Kandahar
Kandahar
from about 1383 until his death in 1407. Following his death, the city was ruled by other Timurid governors. Kandahar
Kandahar
was entrusted to the Arghuns in the late 15th century, who eventually achieved independence from the Timurids. Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, is believed to have visited the town (c. 1521 AD) during his important journey between Hindustan and Mecca
Mecca
in Arabia. Tamerlane's descendant, Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, annexed Kandahar
Kandahar
in the early 16th century. Babur's son, Humayun, lost it to the Shi'a Safavids
Safavids
of Persia, who made it part of their far easternmost territories. The Mughals regained the city in 1595 by diplomacy and resisted a Persian siege in 1605–1606, only to lose it to the Persian Safavids
Safavids
permanently during the 1649–53 Mughal–Safavid War. Kandahar
Kandahar
was regarded as important to the Mughal Empire because it was one of the gateways to India, and Mughal control over Kandahar
Kandahar
helped to prevent foreign intrusions.[22] The memory of the wars fought over Kandahar
Kandahar
at this time is preserved in the epic poem Qandahār-nāma ("The Campaign Against Qandahār"), a major work of Saib Tabrizi which is a classic of Persian literature. Modern history[edit] Further information: Hotak dynasty
Hotak dynasty
and Durrani
Durrani
Empire

This lithograph is taken from plate 23 of 'Afghaunistan' by Lieutenant James Rattray, 1848. He sketched Kandahar
Kandahar
in December 1841 from the rooftop of the former residence of the province's governor, Sirdar Meer Dil Khaun, who was brother to the Emir. Pictured on the left is the tomb of Ahmed Shah Durrani
Durrani
and on the right the Bala Hissar (fort) and citadel. The houses in the foreground were dilapidated due to frequent earthquakes.

Mirwais Hotak, chief of the Ghilji
Ghilji
tribe, revolted in 1709 by killing Gurgin Khan, an ethnic Georgian subject and governor of the Shia Safavid Persians. After establishing the Hotak dynasty
Hotak dynasty
in Kandahar, Mirwais and his army successfully defeated subsequent expeditions by Kay Khusraw and Rustam Khán. Mirwais resisted attempts by the Persian government who were seeking to convert the Afghans from Sunni to the Shia sect of Islam. He died of a natural death in November 1715 and was succeeded by his brother Abdul Aziz, but after being suspected of giving Kandahar's sovereignty back to the Persians he was killed by his nephew Mahmud Hotak.[23][24]

Painting by Abdul Ghafoor Breshna
Abdul Ghafoor Breshna
depicting the 1747 coronation of Ahmad Shah Durrani, who is regarded as the founding father of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(Father of the Nation).

British and allied forces at Kandahar
Kandahar
after the 1880 Battle of Kandahar, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The large defensive wall around the city was finally removed in the early 1930s by the order of King Nader Khan, the father of King Zahir Shah.

In 1722, Mahmud led an army of Afghans to the Safavid capital Isfahan and proclaimed himself King of Persia. The Hotak dynasty
Hotak dynasty
was eventually removed from power by a new Persian ruler, Nader Shah Afshar of Mashad
Mashad
in Khorasan. In 1738, Nader Shah
Nader Shah
invaded Afghanistan and destroyed the now Old Kandahar, which was held by Hussain Hotak and his Ghilji
Ghilji
tribes.[25] In the meantime, Nader Shah
Nader Shah
freed Ahmad Khan (later Ahmad Shah Durrani) and his brother Zulfikar who were held prisoners by the Hotak ruler. Before leaving southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
for Delhi in India, Nader Shah
Nader Shah
laid out the foundation for a new town to be built next to the destroyed ancient city, naming it "Naderabad". His rule ended in June 1747 after being murdered by his Persian guards.[26] Ahmad Shah Durrani, chief of the Durrani
Durrani
tribe, gained control of Kandahar
Kandahar
and made it the capital of his new Afghan Empire in October 1747. Previously, Ahmad Shah served as a military commander of Nader Shah Afshar. His empire included present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, the Khorasan and Kohistan provinces of Iran, along with Punjab in India. In October 1772, Ahmad Shah retired and died from a natural cause.[27] A new city was laid out by Ahmad Shah and is dominated by his mausoleum, which is adjacent to the Mosque of the Cloak
Cloak
in the center of the city. By 1776, his eldest son Timur
Timur
Shah had transferred Afghanistan's main capital from Kandahar
Kandahar
to Kabul, where the Durrani legacy continued.[14] In September 1826, Syed Ahmad Shaheed's followers arrived to Kandahar in search of volunteers to help them wage jihad against the Sikh invaders to what is now Pakistan. Led by Ranjit Singh, the Sikhs
Sikhs
had captured several of Afghanistan's territories in the east, including what is now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
and Kashmir. More than 400 local Kandahar
Kandahar
warriors assembled themselves for the jihad. Sayed Din Mohammad Kandharai was appointed as their leader. British-led Indian forces from neighboring British India
British India
invaded the city in 1839, during the First Anglo-Afghan War, but withdrew in 1842. The British and Indian forces returned in 1878 during the Second Anglo-Afghan War. They emerged from the city in July 1880 to confront the forces of Ayub Khan, but were defeated at the Battle of Maiwand. They were again forced to withdraw a few years later, despite winning the Battle of Kandahar. Kandahar
Kandahar
remained peaceful for the next 100 years, except during 1929 when loyalists of Habibullah Kalakani
Habibullah Kalakani
(Bache Saqqaw) placed the fortified city on lock-down and began torturing its population. Nobody was allowed to enter or leave from within the city's tall defensive walls, and as a result of this many people suffered after running out of food supplies. This lasted until October 1929 when Nadir Khan and his Afghan army came to eliminate Kalakani, known as the Tajik bandit from the village of Kalakan
Kalakan
in northern Kabul
Kabul
Province.

Mausoleum
Mausoleum
of Mirwais Hotak

During Zahir Shah's rule, the city slowly began expanding by adding modern style streets and housing schemes. In the 1960s, during the rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union, Kandahar International Airport was built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers next to the city. The U.S. also completed several other major projects in Kandahar
Kandahar
and in other parts of southern Afghanistan. In the meantime, Soviet engineers were busy building major infrastructures in other parts of the country, such as Bagram
Bagram
Airfield and Kabul International Airport. During the 1980s Soviet–Afghan War, Kandahar
Kandahar
witnessed heavy fighting as it became a center of resistance as the mujahideen forces waged a strong guerrilla warfare against the Soviet-backed government, who tightly held on control of the city. Government and Soviet troops surrounded the city and subjected it to heavy air bombardment in which many civilians lost lives.[28] In January 1982 indiscriminate shelling and bombing by the Soviets killed hundreds.[29][30] 300 civilians were killed during Soviet bombings in July 1984.[31] Kandahar
Kandahar
International Airport was used by the Soviet Army
Soviet Army
during their ten-year troop placement in the country. The city also became a battle ground for the US and Pakistani-backed against the pro-Communist government of Afghanistan. After the Soviet withdrawal and the collapse of Najibullah's government in 1992, Kandahar
Kandahar
fell to local mujahideen commander, Gul Agha Sherzai. In August 1994 the Taliban movement captured Kandahar
Kandahar
and turned the city to its capital. The Taliban introduced a strict form of sharia law, banning formal education for boys and girls, including watching TV, films, music, and playing sports. In December 1999, a hijacked Indian Airlines Flight 814
Indian Airlines Flight 814
plane by Pakistani militants loyal to Harkat-ul- Mujahideen
Mujahideen
landed at Kandahar International Airport
Kandahar International Airport
and kept the passengers hostage as part of a demand to release 3 Pakistani militants from prison in India. 21st century[edit] Further information: International Security Assistance Force
International Security Assistance Force
and Presidency of Hamid Karzai

U.S. Army troops in 2009 passing by the starting point of the Army Ten-Miler run at their base next to Kandahar
Kandahar
International Airport.

In October 2001, as part of Operation Enduring Freedom, the United States Navy began hitting targets inside the city by precision-guided cruise missiles that were fired from the Persian Gulf. These targets were the airport and buildings that were occupied by the Taliban, including Arab families who had arrived several years earlier and were residing in the area.[32] About a month later, the Taliban began surrendering in mass numbers to a private militia that had been formed by Gul Agha Sherzai
Gul Agha Sherzai
and Hamid Karzai.[33] Kandahar
Kandahar
once again fell into the hands of Sherzai, who had control over the area before the rise of the Taliban. He was transferred in 2003 and replaced by Yousef Pashtun until Asadullah Khalid
Asadullah Khalid
took the post in 2005. The current Governor of the province is Toryalai Wesa. He was appointed by President Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
in December 2008 after Rahmatullah Raufi's four-month rule.

A local Afghan girl that received school supplies from Afghan national policemen and coalition service members at an elementary school, 2010.

Afghan National Security Forces and members of ISAF providing security in 2012.

As of 2002, Kandahar International Airport
Kandahar International Airport
is used by members of the United States armed forces
United States armed forces
and NATO's International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). NATO began training the newly formed Afghan National Police and are now given the security responsibility of the city. The military of Afghanistan, backed by NATO forces, has gradually expanded its authority and presence throughout most of the country. The 205th Corps of the Afghan National Army
Afghan National Army
is based at Kandahar
Kandahar
and provides military assistance to the south of the country. The Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces
maintain their military command headquarters at Kandahar, heading the Regional Command South of the NATO led International Security Assistance Force
International Security Assistance Force
in Kandahar
Kandahar
Province. The Taliban also have supporters inside the city reporting on events.[34] NATO forces expanded the Afghan police force for the prevention of a Taliban comeback in Kandahar, the militants' "spiritual birthplace" and a strategic key to ward off the Taliban insurgency, as a part of a larger effort that also aimed to deliver services such as electricity and clean drinking water that the Taliban could not provide – encouraging support for the government in a city that was once the Taliban's headquarters. The most significant battle between NATO troops and the Taliban lasted throughout the summer of 2006, culminating in Operation Medusa. The Taliban failed to defeat the Western troops in open warfare, which marked a turn in their tactics towards IED emplacement.[35] In June 2008, it was reported that over 1,000 inmates had escaped from Sarposa prison. In Spring 2010, the province and the city of Kandahar
Kandahar
became a target of American operations following Operation Moshtarak
Operation Moshtarak
in the neighboring Helmand Province.[36] In March 2010, U.S. and NATO commanders released details of plans for the biggest offensive of the war against the Taliban insurgency.[37]

U.S. Ambassador Ryan Crocker
Ryan Crocker
and Toryalai Wesa, the Governor of Kandahar
Kandahar
Province.

In May 2010 Kandahar International Airport
Kandahar International Airport
became subject of a combined rocket and ground attack by insurgents, following similar attacks on Kabul
Kabul
and Bagram
Bagram
in the preceding weeks. Although this attack did not lead to many casualties on the side of NATO forces, it did show that the militants are still capable of launching multiple, coordinated operations in Afghanistan. In June 2010, a shura was held by Afghan President Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
with tribal and religious leaders of the Kandahar
Kandahar
region. The meeting highlighted the need for support of NATO-led forces in order to stabilize parts of the province. By 2011, Kandahar
Kandahar
became known as the assassination city of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
after witnessing many target killings. In July Ahmed Wali Karzai, brother of President Hamid Karzai, was shot by his longtime head of security. Soon after the Quetta Shura
Quetta Shura
of the Taliban claimed responsibility. The next day an Islamic cleric (mulla) of the famous Red Mosque
Red Mosque
in the Shahr-e Naw area of the city and a number of other people were killed by a Taliban suicide bomber who had hidden explosives inside his turban. On 27 July 2011, the mayor of the city, Ghulam Haider Hamidi, was assassinated by another Taliban militant who had hidden explosives in his turban. Two deputy mayors had been killed in 2010,[38] while many tribal elders and Islamic clerics have also been assassinated in the last several years. Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence
Inter-Services Intelligence
(ISI) spy network is often blamed as the masterminds behind the Taliban-led insurgency.[39][40] The Afghan government alleges that the ISI is using the insurgents in the name of Islamic jihad to counter the growing influence of its rival India in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Afghan claim regarding the disputed Durand Line
Durand Line
border.[41] The overwhelming majority of the victims in the attacks are ordinary Afghan civilians.[42] On 6 June 2012, at least 21 civilians were killed and 50 others injured when two Taliban suicide bombers on motorcycles blew themselves up in a market area near Kandahar
Kandahar
International Airport. Referring to them as the "agents of Punjab", ANA provincial police chief, Brig. Gen. Abdul Razaq stated that the Taliban "have once again spilled the blood of innocent civilians."[43] Geography[edit] The Arghandab River
Arghandab River
runs along the west of Kandahar. The city has 15 districts and a total land area of 27,337 hectares.[44] The total number of dwellings in Kandahar
Kandahar
is 61,902.[44] Land Use[edit]

Kabul

Herat

Jalalabad

Kandahar

Mazar-e-Sharif

Farkhor Indian Airbase

Uzbekistan

Zaranj

Quetta

Indian and Pakistani embassy and consulates in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in red

Kandahar
Kandahar
is the Regional Hub in southern Afghanistan, close to the border with Pakistan.[44] Non-built up land use accounts for 59% of the total land area.[44] Within the built-up area, vacant plots occupy a slightly higher percentage of land (36%) than residential land (34%).[44] There is a significant commercial cluster along the road to Pakistan in District 5.[44] India, Iran and Pakistan operate their consulate here for trade, military and political links. Climate[edit] Kandahar
Kandahar
has a semi-arid climate (Köppen BWh),[45] characterised by little precipitation and high variation between summer and winter temperatures. Summers start in mid-May, last until late-September, and are extremely dry. Temperatures peak in July with a 24-hour daily average of around 31.9 °C (89.4 °F). They are followed by dry autumns from early October to late November, with days still averaging in the 20s °C (above 68 °F) into November, though nights are sharply cooler. Winter begins in December and sees most of its precipitation in the form of rain. Temperatures average 5.1 °C (41.2 °F) in January, although lows can drop well below freezing. They end in early-March and are followed by a pleasant spring till late-April with temperatures generally in the upper 10s °C to lower 30s °C (65–88 °F) range. Sunny weather dominates year-round, especially in summer, when rainfall is extremely rare. The annual mean temperature is 18.6 °C (65.5 °F).

Climate data for Kandahar
Kandahar
(1964–1983)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 25.0 (77) 26.0 (78.8) 36.5 (97.7) 37.1 (98.8) 43.0 (109.4) 45.0 (113) 46.5 (115.7) 44.5 (112.1) 41.0 (105.8) 37.5 (99.5) 31.5 (88.7) 26.0 (78.8) 46.5 (115.7)

Average high °C (°F) 12.2 (54) 14.8 (58.6) 21.6 (70.9) 28.1 (82.6) 34.1 (93.4) 39.1 (102.4) 40.2 (104.4) 38.2 (100.8) 34.0 (93.2) 27.5 (81.5) 21.0 (69.8) 15.4 (59.7) 27.2 (81)

Daily mean °C (°F) 5.1 (41.2) 7.8 (46) 13.9 (57) 20.2 (68.4) 25.4 (77.7) 30.0 (86) 31.9 (89.4) 29.4 (84.9) 23.5 (74.3) 17.5 (63.5) 11.0 (51.8) 7.3 (45.1) 18.58 (65.44)

Average low °C (°F) 0.0 (32) 2.4 (36.3) 7.1 (44.8) 12.3 (54.1) 15.8 (60.4) 19.5 (67.1) 22.5 (72.5) 20.0 (68) 13.5 (56.3) 8.5 (47.3) 3.3 (37.9) 1.0 (33.8) 10.5 (50.9)

Record low °C (°F) −12.1 (10.2) −10.0 (14) −4.8 (23.4) 2.0 (35.6) 2.4 (36.3) 8.5 (47.3) 13.5 (56.3) 9.0 (48.2) 5.2 (41.4) −2.2 (28) −9.3 (15.3) −11.4 (11.5) −12.1 (10.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 54.0 (2.126) 42.0 (1.654) 41.1 (1.618) 18.7 (0.736) 2.2 (0.087) 0 (0) 2.3 (0.091) 1.0 (0.039) 0 (0) 2.3 (0.091) 7.0 (0.276) 20.0 (0.787) 190.6 (7.505)

Average precipitation days 6 6 6 4 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 29

Average relative humidity (%) 58 59 50 41 30 23 25 25 24 29 40 52 38

Mean monthly sunshine hours 198.4 183.6 235.6 255.0 347.2 369.0 341.0 337.9 324.0 306.9 264.0 217.0 3,379.6

Source: NOAA (1964–1983)[46]

Transport[edit] Further information: Transport in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Highway 1 (Afghanistan)

View of the airport in 2005

A Kam Air
Kam Air
passenger plane at Kandahar International Airport
Kandahar International Airport
in 2012

Kandahar International Airport
Kandahar International Airport
serves as southern Afghanistan's main airport for domestic and international flights. It is also used as a major military base as well as shipping and receiving of supplies for the NATO armies. The entire area in and around the airport is heavily guarded but a section is designated for civilian passengers. Most international flights are with Dubai, Germany, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan. Pakistan plans to build a railroad track from the Pakistani town of Chaman
Chaman
to Kandahar[47] which will connect Afghan Railways with Pakistan Railways. The feasibility study was completed in 2006[48] but as of 2012[update] no construction work had begun.[49] Kandahar
Kandahar
is connected to Kabul
Kabul
by the Kabul-Kandahar Highway
Kabul-Kandahar Highway
and to Herat
Herat
by the Kandahar- Herat
Herat
Highway. There is a bus station located at the start of the Kabul- Kandahar
Kandahar
Highway, where a number of privately owned older-model Mercedes-Benz coach buses are available to take passengers to most major cities of the country. Kandahar
Kandahar
is also connected by road to Quetta
Quetta
in neighboring Pakistan. Due to the ongoing war the route to Kabul
Kabul
has become increasingly dangerous as insurgent attacks on convoys and destruction of bridges make it an unreliable link between the two cities.[50][51] Commuters of the city use the public bus system (Milli Bus), and taxicabs and rickshaws are common. Private vehicle use is increasing, partially due to road and highway improvements. Large dealerships are importing cars from Dubai, UAE.[52] Education[edit] Further information: Education in Afghanistan

Children from the Zarghona Ana High School watch members of Afghan National Security Force and Kandahar
Kandahar
Provincial Reconstruction Team prepare for the Kandahar
Kandahar
Nursing and Midwifery Institute grand opening ceremony in 2012.

Before the 1978 coup in Kabul, majority of the city's population were enrolled in schools.[citation needed] Nearly all of the elite class of the city fled to neighboring Pakistan during the early 1980s, and from there they began immigrating to North America, the European Union, Australia and other parts of the world.[citation needed] The two oldest known schools are Ahmad Shah Baba High School and Zarghona Ana High School. There are a number of new schools that opened in the last decade, with more being built in the future as the city's population grows with the large returning Afghans from neighboring countries. Afghan Turk High Schools is one of the top private schools in the city. The main university is Kandahar University. A number of training centers have also opened in the last decade.[citation needed] Communications[edit] Further information: Communications in Afghanistan Telecommunication services in the city are provided by Afghan Wireless, Roshan, Etisalat, MTN Group
MTN Group
and Afghan Telecom. In November 2006, the Afghan Ministry of Communications signed a $64.5 million agreement with ZTE
ZTE
for the establishment of a countrywide fiber optical cable network. This was intended to improve telephone, internet, television and radio broadcast services not just in Kandahar but throughout the country. Besides foreign channels, Afghanistan's local television channels include:

Ariana TV Ariana Afghanistan
Afghanistan
TV Lamar TV Shamshad TV Tolo TV Hewad TV

Places of interest[edit]

An 1881 photo showing the ruined Old Kandahar
Old Kandahar
citadel of Shah Hussain Hotak that was destroyed by the Afsharid forces of Nader Shah
Nader Shah
in 1738. This destroyed fortress is still standing today.

The tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
is located in the city center, which also houses Durrani's brass helmet and other personal items. In front of Durrani's mausoleum is the Shrine of the Cloak, containing one of the most valued relics in the Islamic world, which was given by the Emir of Bokhara
Bokhara
(Murad Beg) to Ahmad Shah Durrani. The Sacred Cloak
Cloak
is kept locked away, taken out only at times of great crisis. Mullah Omar took it out in November 1996 and displayed it to a crowd of ulema of religious scholars to have himself declared Amir al-Mu'minin (Commander of the Faithful). Prior to that it was taken out when the city was struck by a cholera epidemic in the 1930s.[53] The village of Sher Surkh is located southeast of the city, in the suburbs of the old city of Nadirabad. Kandahar
Kandahar
Museum is located at the western end of the third block of buildings lining the main road east of Eidgah Durwaza (gate). It has many paintings by the now famous Ghiyassuddin, painted while he was a young teacher in Kandahar. He is acknowledged among Afghanistan's leading artists. Just to the north of the city, off its northeast corner at the end of buria (matting) bazaar, there is a shrine dedicated to a saint who lived in Kandahar
Kandahar
more than 300 years ago. The grave of Hazratji Baba, 7.0 metres (23 ft) long to signify his greatness, but otherwise covered solely by rock chips, is undecorated save for tall pennants at its head. A monument to Islamic martyrs stands in the center of Kandahar's main square, called Da Shahidanu Chawk, which was built in the 1940s.

Ancient city of Old Kandahar
Old Kandahar
(red) and Chilzina
Chilzina
mountainous outcrop (blue) on the western side of Kandahar.

The Chilzina
Chilzina
is a rock-cut chamber above the plain at the end of the rugged chain of mountains forming the western defence of Kandahar's Old City. This is here that Ashoka's Kandahar
Kandahar
Bilingual Rock Inscription
Inscription
was found. Forty steps, about, lead to the chamber, which is guarded by two chained lions, defaced, and inscribed with an account of Moghul
Moghul
conquest. The rugged cliffs from which the Chilzina was hewn form the natural western bastion of the Old City of Kandahar, which was destroyed in 1738 by Nadir Shah Afshar
Nadir Shah Afshar
of Persia. A short distance from Chilzina, going west on the main highway, a bright blue dome appears on the right. This is the mausoleum of Mirwais Hotak, the Ghiljai chieftain who declared Kandahar's independence from the Persians in 1709. The shrine of Baba Wali Kandhari[54] (Baba Sahib), its terraces shaded by pomegranate groves beside the Arghandab River, is also very popular for picnics and afternoon outings.[14] He was Muslim pir who had a strange encounter with Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
at Hasan Abdal
Hasan Abdal
in what is now Attock District
Attock District
of Pakistan. The shrine of Baba Wali is important to Muslims and Sikhs. Close to Baba Wali's shrine is a military base established by the United States armed forces
United States armed forces
in about 2007. Development and modernization[edit]

The original model plan of the Aino Mina neighborhood, which began in 2003 by Mahmud Karzai and associates.[55]

Decades of war left Kandahar
Kandahar
and the rest of the country destroyed and depopulated, but in recent years billions of dollars began pouring in for construction purposes and millions of expats have returned to Afghanistan. New neighborhoods have been established around the city, and a number of modern-style buildings have been constructed. Some residents of the city have access to clean drinking water and electricity, and the government is working to extend these services to every home.[56] The city relies on electricity from the Kajaki hydroelectricity plant in neighboring Helmand, which is being upgraded or expanded. About 30 km (20 mi) north of the city is the Dahla Dam, the second largest dam in Afghanistan. The Aino Mina is a new housing project for up to two million people on the northern edge of the city.[57] Originally called the Kandahar Valley and started by Mahmud Karzai,[55] it was announced that the project would build up to 20,000 single-family homes and associated infrastructure such as roads, water and sewer systems, and community buildings, including schools.[58] It recently won 2 awards, the Residential Project and Sustainable Project of the Year at the Middle East Architect Awards.[59] Many of the high-ranking government employees and civil servants as well as wealthy businessmen live in this area, which is a more secured community in Kandahar. Work on the next $100 million scheme was initiated in 2011. Also, construction of Hamidi Township in the Morchi Kotal area of the city began in August 2011. It is named after Ghulam Haider Hamidi, the mayor of Kandahar
Kandahar
who was assassinated by militants in late July 2011.[60] Situated along the Kandahar-Uruzgan Highway in the northeast of the city, the new township will have 2,000 residential and commercial plots. Including new roads, schools, commercial markets, clinics, canals and other facilities.[61] About 10 km (6 mi) east of Kandahar, a huge industrial park is under construction with modern facilities. The park will have professional management for the daily maintenance of public roads, internal streets, common areas, parking areas, 24 hours perimeter security, access control for vehicles and persons.[62]

The mausoleum of Baba Wali Kandhari[54] next to the Arghandab Valley, in the northern outskirts of the city.

The mausoleum of Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
in the center of the city, which also serves as the Congregational Mosque
Congregational Mosque
and contains a sacred cloak that used to be worn by Islam's Prophet Muhammad.

Al-Jadeed indoor shopping center in the Shahre Naw section of the city.

Local children watching a football match at the playground of Ahmad Shah Baba High School.

Arghandab Valley

Mausoleum
Mausoleum
of Ahmad Shah Durrani

Governor's Mansion

Airports[edit]

Kandahar
Kandahar
International Airport

Neighborhoods[edit]

Aino Meyna (under development since 2003) Hamidi Meyna (under development since 2011) Share Naw
Share Naw
(meaning New City) Dand Karz Mirwais Meyna Daman Sarpuza Malajat Old Kandahar
Old Kandahar
(Zorr Shar) Arghandab Valley

Cultural sites and parks[edit]

Kandahar
Kandahar
Park [2] Baba Saab Kokaran Park Baghi Pul Park [3] Chilzina
Chilzina
View ( Moghul
Moghul
Emperor Babur's inscription site) Kandahar
Kandahar
Museum

Stadium[edit]

Kandahar International Cricket Stadium (under construction [4]) Kandahar Stadium [5]

Mosques and Shrines[edit]

Friday Mosque of Kandahar Shrine of the Cloak Mosque of the Hair of the Prophet Mosque at Kandahar University
Kandahar University
(Eidgah Jaami Jumat) Red Mosque

Mausoleums[edit]

Mausoleum
Mausoleum
of Ahmad Shah Durrani Mausoleum
Mausoleum
of Mirwais Hotak Mausoleum
Mausoleum
of Baba Wali

Shopping[edit]

Al-Jadeed indoor shopping center [6] Herat
Herat
Bazaar Kabul
Kabul
Bazaar Shah Bazaar Shkar Pur Bazaar Piaroz Super store Kandahr Super Store Samimi Super Store

Restaurants[edit]

Lamar Restaurant Mumtaz Restaurant Kandahar
Kandahar
Coffee Shop

Hotels and guest houses[edit]

Continental Guest House Armani Pashtun Kasi Hotel Pick off and drop services from the airport 0093 705601977 Maulvi nasar hotel kabul darwaza.

Hospitals[edit]

Afghan National Army
Afghan National Army
Regional Hospital Mirwais Hospital Sial Curative Hospital Bilal Hohpital Momand Hospital Sydal Hospital

Banks[edit]

AIB Bank Kabul
Kabul
Bank Azizi Bank

Demography and culture[edit] Further information: Demographics of Afghanistan

A gathering of tribal and religious leaders following a shura held by Afghan President Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
in June 2010 to start a dialogue for peace with the Taliban.

The population of Kandahar
Kandahar
numbers approximately 491,500 as of 2012[update].[63] The Pashtuns
Pashtuns
make up the overwhelming majority population of the city and province but exact figures are not available. In a 2003 estimate by the National Geographic, Pashtuns were put at ca. 70%, Tajiks 20%, Baloch 2%, and Uzbeks 2%.[64] Pashto serves as the main language in the city and the region. Persian is also understood by a fair number of the city dwellers, especially those serving in the government and the educated Afghans. Both are the official languages of Afghanistan. A 2006 compendium of provincial data prepared by the Afghan Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development and United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) states:

"The major ethnic group living in Khandahar
Khandahar
province is Pashtoons. This includes major tribes such as Barakzai, Popalzai, Alkozai, Niazi and Alezai. Pashtu is spoken by more than 98% of population and in more than 98% of villages. Dari is spoken in six villages by 4000 people and Balochi is spoken by 8000 people in two villages. 19000 people in nine villages speak some other unspecified language."[65]

The Pashtun culture
Pashtun culture
is dominant in this region. Notable people from Kandahar[edit]

Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
– Empress of the Mughal Empire Mirwais Hotak
Mirwais Hotak
– founder of the Hotak dynasty Abdul Aziz Hotak
Abdul Aziz Hotak
– ruler of the Hotak dynasty Mahmud Hotak
Mahmud Hotak
– ruler of the Hotak dynasty
Hotak dynasty
and Shah of Persia Ashraf Hotak – Shah of Persia Hussain Hotak
Hussain Hotak
– ruler of the Hotak dynasty Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
– founding father of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
who is buried in the city Payandah Khan, earliest tribal chief of the Barakzai
Barakzai
dynasty Dost Mohammad Khan
Dost Mohammad Khan
– Emir of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and son of Payandah Khan Sher Ali Khan
Sher Ali Khan
– Emir of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and son of Dost Mohammad Khan Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan
– Emir of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and son of Dost Mohammad Khan Ghulam Muhammad
Muhammad
Tarzi – leader of Tarzi family who played an important part in Afghan history during the late 19th century onward Abdul Rehman Khan, father of Bollywood
Bollywood
actor Kader Khan Mohammed Zahir Shah
Mohammed Zahir Shah
– the last king of Afghanistan Mohammed Daoud Khan
Mohammed Daoud Khan
founder of the republic of Afghanistan Ubaidullah Jan
Ubaidullah Jan
– Pashto music king of southern Afghanistan Naghma
Naghma
– Afghan singer Nashenas – Afghan musician Abdul Hai Habibi
Abdul Hai Habibi
– scholar, former professor at Kabul
Kabul
University and author of many books The Karzais – the family of Afghan President Hamid Karzai Gul Agha Sherzai
Gul Agha Sherzai
– served as the governor of Kandahar
Kandahar
Province followed by as governors of Nangarhar Province Said Tayeb Jawad
Said Tayeb Jawad
– former Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Ambassador to the United States Yousef Pashtun
Yousef Pashtun
– Afghan politician Mula Naqib Akhund – Alokozai tribe leader Khan Mohammad Mujahid – Alokozai tribe leader

See also[edit]

Kandahar
Kandahar
portal

Kandahar
Kandahar
Province Old Kandahar Arachosia Alexandria Arachosia Yazidis
Yazidis
of Kandahar Operation Dreamseed

Footnotes[edit]

^ a b "The State of Afghan Cities report2015". Archived from the original on 31 October 2015.  ^ Holt, Frank. Into the Land of Bones: Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in Afghanistan. Berkeley: University of California. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-520-24993-6.  ^ a b c "Kandahar". Columbia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 9 January 2011.  ^ "The City of Kandahar". Columbia Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2011.  ^ a b F.R. Allchin (ed.), The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States (Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp.127-130 ^ a b Gérard Fussman, "KANDAHAR ii. Pre-Islamic Monuments and Remains", in Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition, 2012 ^ <name=Iskandriya/>John E. Hill, Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han dynasty, 1st to 2nd centuries CE. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina, 2009. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1, pp. 517–518. This derivation, as that from Gondophares, was characterised as "philologiquement impossible" by P. Bernard, "Un probleme de toponymie antique dans l'Asie Centrale: les noms anciens de Qandahar", Studia Iranica, tome 3, 1974 and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Quarterly, vol.33, no.1, June 1980/Spring 1359, pp.49–62, p59, n.10. ^ a b Full text of the Mahavamsa
Mahavamsa
Click chapter XXIX ^ a b Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
(2004). Travels in Asia and Africa, 1325–1354 (reprint, illustrated ed.). Routledge. p. 179. ISBN 0-415-34473-5. Retrieved 2012-08-04.  ^ Hobson Jobson Dictionary; The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Vaman Shivram Apte, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, India, 1975, ISBN 81-208-0567-4; P. Bernard, "Une probleme de toponymie antique dans l'Asie centrale: les noms anciens de Qandahar", Studia Iranica, tome 3 (fasc. 2) 1974, 171–185. . ^ Lendering, Jona. "Gandara". LIVIUS – Articles on Ancient History. Retrieved 9 January 2011.  ^ "Achaemenid Satrapies". Retrieved 18 May 2015.  ^ Ernst Herzfeld, Archaeological History of Iran, London, Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 1935, p.63; Ernst Herzfeld, The Persian Empire: Studies in Geography and Ethnography of the Ancient Near East, Wiesbaden, Steiner, 1968, p.335. ^ a b c d Dupree, Nancy Hatch (1970). An Historical Guide to Afghanistan. First Edition. Kabul: Afghan Air Authority, Afghan Tourist Organization. p. 492. Retrieved 2012-06-17.  ^ Map of the Median Empire
Median Empire
from the University of Texas in Austin, showing Pactyans in what is now Kandahar, Afghanistan ... Link ^ Lendering, Jona. "Alexandria in Arachosia". LIVIUS – Articles on Ancient History. Retrieved 9 January 2011.  ^ Mentioned in Bopearachchi, "Monnaies Greco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques", p52. Original text in paragraph 19 of Parthian stations ^ Nancy Hatch Dupree
Nancy Hatch Dupree
/ Aḥmad ʻAlī Kuhzād (1972). "An Historical Guide to Kabul – The Story of Kabul". American International School of Kabul. Archived from the original on 2010-08-30. Retrieved 2010-09-18.  ^ Lendering, Jona. "Maurya dynasty". LIVIUS – Articles on Ancient History. Retrieved 9 January 2011.  ^ History of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Archived 1 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Excavations at Kandahar
Kandahar
1974 & 1975 (Society for South Asian Studies Monograph) by Anthony McNicoll.

The Zunbils
Zunbils
ruled in the Kandahar
Kandahar
area for nearly 250 years until the late 9th century AD.

^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 151, 162, 169–170. ISBN 978-93-80607-34-4.  ^ "AN OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF PERSIA DURING THE LAST TWO CENTURIES (A.D. 1722–1922)". Edward Granville Browne. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 29. Retrieved 24 September 2010.  ^ Malleson, George Bruce (1878). History of Afghanistan, from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878. London: Elibron.com. p. 227. ISBN 1-4021-7278-8. Retrieved 27 September 2010.  ^ "Last Afghan empire". Louis Dupree, Nancy H. Dupree and others. Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Retrieved 24 September 2010.  ^ The Afghans (2002) by Willem Vogelsang. Page 228. ^ "Aḥmad Shah Durrānī". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online Version. Retrieved 9 January 2011.  ^ "The Limits of Soviet Airpower: The Failure of Military Coercion in Afghanistan, 1979–89". Edward B. Westermann. University of New Brunswick. Retrieved 9 January 2011.  ^ http://www.heritage.org/node/22652/print-display ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1982/03/08/world/soviet-reprisals-on-afghans-called-fierce.html ^ https://www.upi.com/Archives/1984/07/24/Soviet-forces-bombed-the-city-of-Kandahar-in-southern/5417459489600/ ^ BBC News, Kandahar's cemetery of 'miracles' ^ "Home Free". Time. Archived from the original on 24 July 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2011. Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
dreamed for years of his eventual homecoming. But for both him and his newly reborn nation, the journey has only begun  ^ BBC News, Kandahar
Kandahar
dreamers test Taliban edicts ^ "Removed: news agency feed article". the Guardian. Retrieved 6 May 2016.  ^ "Kandahar, a Battlefield Even Before U.S. Offensive". The New York Times. 27 March 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2016.  ^ "Q+A – NATO sees Kandahar
Kandahar
battle as Afghan turning point". Reuters Editorial. Reuters India. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2016.  ^ " Kandahar
Kandahar
mayor killed in suicide attack; Taliban claim responsibility". Retrieved 6 May 2016.  ^ "U.S. blames Pakistan agency in Kabul
Kabul
attack". Reuters. 22 September 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.  ^ "ISI still engaged with the Taliban: US expert". Pajhwok Afghan News. 6 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-09.  ^ Pakistan a twin brother, talks to go on: Karzai. Pajhwok Afghan News. Sujoy Dhar. 5 October 2011. ^ Challenges remain despite reduced rebel attacks: ISAF. Pajhwok Afghan News. 10 October 2011. ^ Siddiqullah, ed. (7 June 2012). "21 killed, 50 injured in twin suicide blasts (Video)". Pajhwok Afghan News. Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ a b c d e f "The State of Afghan Cities report 2015".  ^ [1] (in Russian) ^ " Kandahar
Kandahar
Climate Normals 1964–1983". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 26, 2012.  ^ Sial, Amer (2016-08-18). "Pak Railways poised to get massive funding from CPEC and CAREC". Pakistan Today. Retrieved 23 March 2017.  ^ Kakar, Javed Hamim (7 July 2010). "Pakistan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
ink MoU on rail links". Pajhwok Afghan News. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2008.  ^ Kandahar- Quetta
Quetta
bus service soon By Bashir Ahmad Naadim Jul 20, 2012 – 17:17, http://www.pajhwok.com/en/2012/07/20/kandahar-quetta-bus-service-soon ^ Cogan, James (16 August 2008). "Hundreds dead in fighting along Afghanistan-Pakistan border". World Socialist Web Site. Retrieved 25 August 2008.  ^ Salih, Salih Muhammad; Siddique, Abubakar (23 October 2008). "Death stalks the highway to hell". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 23 October 2008.  ^ Wheeler, Tony (6 June 2006). " Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Practicalities". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 9 January 2011.  ^ Lamb, Christina (2002). The Sewing Circles of Herat: A Personal Voyage Through Afghanistan. Harper Collins. First Perennial edition (2004), p. 38 and n. ISBN 0-06-050527-3. ^ a b "Punja Sahib: The Miracle at Hassan Abdal". Wonders of Pakistan. Retrieved 6 May 2016.  ^ a b Cusack, Jake (July 19, 2011). "Spending Time With the Karzais in (Parts of) Kandahar". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-10-20.  ^ South Asian News Agency, 30 Power Generators to Be Installed in Kandahar ^ "Aino Mina Development". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2016.  ^ U.S. Department of State, U.S. Government Agency Grants $3 Million to Build Afghan Homes Archived 4 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Case study: Aino Mina". Design Middle East. Retrieved 6 May 2016.  ^ Kandahar
Kandahar
mayor killed by suicide bomber with explosives in turban[permanent dead link] ^ Naadem, Bashir Ahmed (16 August 2011). "Construction of Hameedi township starts in Kandahar". Retrieved 16 August 2011.  ^ Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Investment Support Agency, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Industrial Parks Development Authority Archived 21 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Settled Population of Kandahar
Kandahar
province by Civil Division, Urban, Rural and Sex-2012-13" (PDF). Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Central Statistics Organization. Retrieved 2013-06-24.  ^ "2003 National Geographic Population Map" (PDF). Thomas Gouttierre, Center For Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Studies, University of Nebraska
University of Nebraska
at Omaha; Matthew S. Baker, Stratfor. National Geographic Society. 2003. Retrieved 11 April 2011.  ^ "B. Demography and Population" (PDF). United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Statistical Yearbook 2006, Central Statistics Office. Afghanistan's Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 March 2012. 

References[edit]

Dupree, Nancy Hatch (1977) [1st Edition: 1970]. An Historical Guide to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2nd Edition, Revised and Enlarged ed.). Afghan Tourist Organization.  Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han dynasty, 1st to 2nd centuries CE. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1. Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd centuries CE. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1. Frye, Richard N. (1963). The Heritage of Persia. World Publishing company, Cleveland, Ohio. Mentor Book
Book
edition, 1966. Toynbee, Arnold J. (1961). Between Oxus and Jumna. London. Oxford University Press. Willem Vogelsang (1985). "Early historical Arachosia
Arachosia
in South-east Afghanistan; Meeting-place between East and West." Iranica antiqua, 20 (1985), pp. 55–99. Wood, Michael (1997). In the Footsteps of Alexander
Alexander
the Great: A Journey from Greece to Asia. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23192-9

Further reading[edit]

Published in the 19th century

Edward Balfour
Edward Balfour
(1885), "Kandahar", Cyclopaedia of India (3rd ed.), London: B. Quaritch  Boulger, Demetrius Charles. Ought We to Hold Candahar?. London: William H. Allen and Company (1879).

Published in the 20th century

"Kandahar", The Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.), New York: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424 

Published in the 21st century

C. Edmund Bosworth, ed. (2007). "Kandahar". Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kandahar.

Kandahar
Kandahar
travel guide from Wikivoyage Photos of Kandahar
Kandahar
on Panoramio Map of Kandahar[permanent dead link], from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Information Management Services The Taliban's Campaign for Kandahar JBO'C's Historical Reference, Kandahar
Kandahar
Circa 1885 "Kandahar". Islamic Cultural Heritage Database. Istanbul: Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. 

v t e

Fourteen largest cities in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by population

Kabul Kandahar Herat Mazari Sharif Jalalabad Kunduz Lashkargah Taloqan Puli Khumri Khost Ghazni Sheberghan Sari Pol Farah

v t e

Districts of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by province

Badakhshan

Arghanj Khwa Argo Baharak Darayim Maimay Nusay Fayzabad Ishkashim Jurm Khash Khwahan Kishim Kohistan Kuf Ab Kuran Wa Munjan Raghistan Shahri Buzurg Shighnan Shekay Shuhada Tagab Tishkan Wakhan Wurduj Yaftali Sufla Yamgan Yawan Zebak

Badghis

Ab Kamari Jawand Muqur Murghab Qadis Qala i Naw

Baghlan

Andarab Baghlan Baghlani Jadid Burka Dahana i Ghuri Dih Salah Dushi Farang Wa Gharu Guzargahi Nur Khinjan Khost
Khost
Wa Fereng Khwaja Hijran Nahrin Puli Hisar Puli Khumri Tala Wa Barfak

Balkh

Balkh Charbolak Charkint Chimtal Dawlatabad Dihdadi Kaldar Kholm Kishindih Marmul Mazar-e Sharif Nahri Shahi Sholgara Shortepa Zari

Bamyan

Bamyan Kahmard Panjab Sayghan Shibar Waras Yakawlang

Daykundi

Ishtarlay Kajran Khadir Kiti Miramor Nili Sangtakht Shahristan

Farah

Anar Dara Bakwa Bala Buluk Farah Gulistan Khaki Safed Lash Wa Juwayn Pur Chaman Pusht Rod Qala i Kah Shib Koh

Faryab

Almar Andkhoy Bilchiragh Dawlat Abad Ghormach Gurziwan Khani Chahar Bagh Khwaja Sabz Posh Kohistan Maymana Pashtun Kot Qaramqol Qaysar Qurghan Shirin Tagab

Ghazni

Ab Band Ajristan Andar Dih Yak Gelan Ghazni Giro Jaghori Jaghatu (Bahrami Shahid) Khogyani Khwaja Umari Malistan Muqur Nawa Nawur Qarabagh Rashidan Waghaz Zana Khan

Ghor

Chaghcharan Charsada Dawlat Yar Du Layna Lal Wa Sarjangal Pasaband Saghar Shahrak Taywara Tulak

Helmand

Baghran Dishu Garmsir Kajaki Khanashin Lashkargah Musa Qala Nad Ali Nahri Saraj Nawa-I-Barakzayi Nawzad Sangin Washir

Herat

Adraskan Chishti Sharif Farsi Ghoryan Gulran Guzara Herat Injil Karukh Kohsan Kushk Kushki Kuhna Obe Pashtun Zarghun Shindand Zinda Jan

Jowzjan

Aqcha Darzab Fayzabad Khamyab Khaniqa Khwaja Du Koh Mardyan Mingajik Qarqin Qush Tepa Shibirghan

Kabul

Bagrami Chahar Asyab Deh Sabz Farza Guldara Istalif Kabul Kalakan Khaki Jabbar Mir Bacha Kot Mussahi Paghman Qarabagh Shakardara Surobi

Kandahar

Arghandab Arghistan Daman Ghorak Kandahar Khakrez Maruf Maywand Miyanishin Nesh Panjwayi Reg Shah Wali Kot Shorabak Spin Boldak Zhari

Kapisa

Alasay Hesa Awal Kohistan Hesa Duwum Kohistan Koh Band Mahmud Raqi Nijrab Tagab

Khost

Bak Gurbuz Zazi Maidan Khost
Khost
(Matun) Mandozayi Musakhel Nadir Shah Kot Qalandar Sabari Shamal Spera Tani Tirazayi

Kunar

Asadabad Bar Kunar Chapa Dara Chawkay Dangam Dara-I-Pech Ghaziabad Khas Kunar Marawara Narang Aw Badil Nari Nurgal Shaigal Aw Shiltan Sirkanay Wata Pur

Kunduz

Ali Abad Archi Chardara Imam Sahib Khan Abad Kunduz Qalay-I-Zal

Laghman

Alingar Alishing Dawlat Shah Mihtarlam Qarghayi

Logar

Azra Baraki Barak Charkh Kharwar Khoshi Mohammad Agha Puli Alam

Nangarhar

Achin Bati Kot Bihsud Chaparhar Darai Nur Dih Bala Dur Baba Goshta Hisarak Jalalabad Kama Khogyani Kot Kuz Kunar Lal Pur Momand Dara Nazyan Pachir Aw Agam Rodat Sherzad Shinwar Surkh Rod

Nimruz

Chahar Burjak Chakhansur Delaram Kang Khash Rod Zaranj

Nuristan

Bargi Matal Du Ab Kamdesh Mandol Nurgaram Paroon Wama Waygal

Paktia

Ahmadabad Tsamkani Dand Aw Patan Gardez Zazi Janikhel Lazha Ahmadkhel Sayid Karam Shwak Wuza Zadran Zurmat

Paktika

Barmal Dila Gayan Gomal Janikhel Mata Khan Nika Omna Sar Hawza Surobi Sharana Terwa Urgun Wazakhwa Wor Mamay Yahyakhel Yusufkhel Zarghun Shar Ziruk

Panjshir

Anaba Bazarak Darah Khenj Paryan Rokha Shotul

Parwan

Bagram Chaharikar Ghorband Jabul Saraj Kohi Safi Salang Sayed Khel Shekh Ali Shinwari Surkhi Parsa

Samangan

Aybak Darah Sof Feroz Nakhchir Hazarati Sultan Khuram Wa Sarbagh Ruyi Du Ab

Sar-e Pol

Balkhab Gosfandi Kohistanat Sancharak Sari Pul Sayyad Sozma Qala

Takhar

Baharak Bangi Chah Ab Chal Darqad Dashti Qala Farkhar Hazar Sumuch Ishkamish Kalafgan Khwaja Baha Wuddin Khwaja Ghar Namak Ab Rustaq Taluqan Warsaj Yangi Qala

Urozgan

Chora Deh Rawud Gizab Khas Urozgan Shahidi Hassas Tarinkot

Wardak

Chaki Wardak Day Mirdad Hisa-I-Awali Bihsud Jaghatu Jalrez Markazi Bihsud Maidan Shar Nirkh Saydabad

Zabul

Argahandab Atghar Dey Chopan Kakar Mizan Naw Bahar Qalat Shahjoy Shamulzayi Shinkay Tarnak Aw Jaldak

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 134903120 LCCN: n83042981 GND: 4109990-4 BNF:

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